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Über dieses Buch


This book discusses the needs of future energy systems with a focus on the electricity and transportation sectors. The general idea behind electricity based fuel is explained, the current status and future potential developments of this technology are presented. A main challenge in the production of electricity based fuels is the fluctuating energy input from renewable electricity generation. The arising design and optimization targets for integrated power-to-fuel plants are discussed, also presenting plant design and operation strategies. The book gives an outlook on future expected production costs of electricity based fuels and compares it with fossil fuels and alternatives.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The transport sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Since (battery-) electric vehicles cannot fully replace liquid fuels for aviation, long distance and heavy weight transport and marine, the defossilization of liquid fuels is an urgent need, but also a clear challenge. The conversion of renewable electricity into liquid fuels in Power-to-Fuel plants is a new link between the electricity and the transport sectors. It enables the transport of renewable energy over wide distances, the further utilization of the existing liquid fuel infrastructure and a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Alexander Tremel

Chapter 2. Electrolysis—Fundamental Technologies, Requirements and Current Status

Abstract
The first and most important conversion step for the production of electricity-based fuels is the electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen. Alkaline electrolyzers have dominated the market and account for almost all installed electrolysis capacity worldwide. However, Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) and solid oxide electrolyzers have a much higher potential for future cost reduction and efficiency improvements. PEM electrolyzers are particularly interesting as they enable the highest operational range to directly follow renewable power generation profiles.
Alexander Tremel

Chapter 3. Chemical and Biological Synthesis—Basis for Gaseous and Liquid Fuels

Abstract
Hydrogen production via electrolysis is followed by chemical or biological synthesis to produce a gaseous or liquid fuel that can be easily transported and applied in the existing fuel infrastructure. Today, chemical synthesis plants are operated on very large scale and under steady-state conditions. The utilization of renewable electricity sources in Power-to-Fuel plants requires smaller and more flexible synthesis concepts. Considering the technical and economical feasibility, the potential fit of the target molecule to today’s fuel infrastructure and the expected societal acceptance, methanol production seems to be the preferred process route.
Alexander Tremel

Chapter 4. Power-to-Fuel Plants—Conceptual Design and Applications

Abstract
The plant design and operation strategy of a Power-to-Fuel plant depends on the electricity source and further local boundary conditions. It is possible to operate the plant within an integrated regional energy system, i.e. to benefit from low electricity prices at times with a high feed-in from renewable sources and to provide ancillary services to the electricity grid. It is also possible to utilize sunny and windy locations worldwide for the dedicated generation of electricity and the direct downstream production of electricity-based fuels. A Power-to-Fuel plant model and technology and cost outlooks for key components are used to optimize plant layout and operation regarding capital and operational expenditures. This is used to predict production costs of electricity-based fuels at different locations worldwide.
Alexander Tremel

Chapter 5. Evaluation and Discussion

Abstract
The lowest production costs are enabled by directly connecting the Power-to-Fuel plant to onshore wind, solar photovoltaics and hydropower generation. Generally, the differences between onshore wind in Morocco, hydropower in Scandinavia, solar photovoltaics in Dubai, and a mix of onshore wind and photovoltaics in South Australia are small for optimized Power-to-Fuel plants. These plants enable fuel production costs between 104 and 128 EUR/MWh. The capacity factors of main components significantly vary for different Power-to-Fuel plants and are not directly correlated to fuel production costs. Operational flexibility (e.g. ramp rate, part load operation) is identified as important techno-economic parameter. After adding transportation costs and margins electricity-based fuels will likely compete with biofuels on a price basis in the next decade, but could result in lower greenhouse gas avoidance costs. Electricity-based fuels could be the most cost-efficient pathway for the defossilization of liquid transportation fuels.
Alexander Tremel

Chapter 6. Outlook: Risks and Opportunities

Abstract
The defossilization of the transportation sector requires political support since total cost calculations clearly show that alternative technologies have high cost during the market introduction phase. Market penetration has to be stimulated by suitable regulations and funding programs. Front running countries are required that financially support these new technologies—not only via pure research and development programs, but also via subsidies and blending quotas that influence market conditions. After their successful implementation electricity-based fuels can not only be a link between the electricity sector and the transportation sector, but also a link between industrialized and developing countries. Very good solar and wind conditions are a clear advantage that is not found in most of the developed world. Electricity-based fuels can be an energy carrier which enables local added value in developing countries, the export of renewable energy and finally an innovative form of international development assistance.
Alexander Tremel

Backmatter

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