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2022 | Buch

Electrified Mobility 2019

including Grid Integration of Electric Mobility

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Über dieses Buch

​Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Tagungsbands zu den ATZlive-Veranstaltungen Grid Integration of Electric Mobility und Electrified Mobility 2019 sind u.a. folgende Fragen: Wann können Stromnetze volatile Wind- und Solarenergie speichern? Wie sind die Stromübertragungsnetze ausgelegt? Können Spitzenlastsituationen abgedeckt werden? Die Tagung ist eine unverzichtbare Plattform für den Wissens- und Gedankenaustausch von Forschern und Entwicklern aller Unternehmen und Institutionen, die Antworten auf diese Fragen suchen.
Der Inhalt​Mobilität: Kundenfreundliche, vernetzte und intermodale Systeme.- Fahrzeuge und Antriebe: Klima- und emissionsneutrale Technik.- Energiespeicher: Batterien und Wasserstoff im neuen Antriebsportfolio.

Die ZielgruppenFührungskräfte und Ingenieure bei Automobilherstellern, Zulieferern, Entwicklungsdienstleister - Forschungseinrichtungen und Hochschulen - Mitarbeiter bei Telekommunikationsdiensten, IT-Unternehmen, Energieversorgern und Netzbetreibern - Alle Einrichtungen, die sich mit Elektromobilität beschäftigen
Der Veranstalter
ATZlive steht für Spitzenqualität, hohes Niveau in Sachen Fachinformation und ist Bestandteil der Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature. Hier wird unter einem Dach das Know-how der renommiertesten Wirtschafts-, Wissenschafts- und Technikverlage Deutschlands vereint.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Comprehensive Assessment of Critical Raw Materials for BEVs and FCEVs: Challenges and Possible Solutions
Abstract
This publication determines critical raw materials for battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The criticality assessment is based on expert interviews and the VDI 4800. Criticality is defined with the two dimensions of supply risk and severity of the supply risk, i.e. technical and economic consequences of a potential supply shortage. The six materials cobalt, lithium and platinum, nickel, copper and rare earth elements are analyzed regarding a variety of aspects. These include the monopolistic character of the supply market, the development of production and reserves, the development of market prices, as well as greenhouse gas emissions and social issues related to the material supply. Considering the quantities required for BEV and FCEV and the volume of the global vehicle market, the risk of physical material depletion seems rather unlikely. Nevertheless, the necessary increase in current annual production volumes underlines the need to overcome the challenges that are related to raw materials supply. This requires the action of all stakeholders along the supply chain: the processing industry, raw material suppliers, recycling companies, politics and finally general public. Only then we can achieve sustainable change in the mobility sector.
Benjamin Reuter, Aline Hendrich, Jasmin Hengstler, Stefan Kupferschmid, Markus Schwenk
Second life: Benefiting From the Untapped Potential of EV Batteries
Abstract
By 2025, roughly 11 million electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be sold worldwide, corresponding to 11% of predicted annual global light-duty vehicle sales. The emergence of EVs, however, is not only shaking up the automotive industry. Through the increased electrification of the transport sector, a growing link to the power market is emerging, leading to new opportunities for the market players involved.
Florian Mayr
What Economic and Technical Benefits do Integrated Charging Solutions Bring for High Power Charging (HPC) Parks?
Abstract
The comprehensive expansion of the charging infrastructure as well as increasing charging power of electric vehicles present a technical and an economical challenge to charging park operators. The use of battery storage systems and decentralized generation plants can reduce the overall costs of a charging park by partially covering the load. Moreover, additional revenues can be generated through alternative marketing strategies for the components of the charging park. For this purpose, the technical and economic potential of current integrated charging solutions for high-power charging (HPC) parks is analyzed.
Roman Scholdan, Sören Schrader
E-Fahrzeuge Laden ohne Kabel von E-Fahrzeugen – Vom Prototyp zur Serienfertigung
Zusammenfassung
Das Prinzip der magnetischen Induktion ist nicht neu. Bereits im Jahre 1888 nutzte Heinrich Hertz eine Induktionsspule in seinem Telegrafiegerät. Der Erfinder Nikola Tesla jedoch kommt auf die meisten Nennungen zum Thema magnetische Induktion zum Übertragen elektrischer Leistungen über einen Luftspalt. Den Anfang hierzu machte er im Jahr 1891, als der Öffentlichkeit eindrucksvoll die Funktions- und Wirkungsweise demonstrierte.
Thomas Nindl
Ladesäulencheck 2019: aus Sicht der Kunden ein undurchsichtiger Dschungel und zu hohe Kosten
Zusammenfassung
Der Erfolg der Elektromobilität wird von der Akzeptanz der Verbraucher abhängen. Nicht nur attraktive Fahrzeuge, sondern auch eine gut ausgebaute und aus Sicht der Verbraucher attraktive Ladeinfrastruktur im öffentlichen Raum werden notwendig sein, um der Elektromobilität zum Durchbruch zu verhelfen. Auch unterwegs muss ein Laden jederzeit einfach und preisgünstig möglich sein. Die Erfahrungen und Gewohnheiten des Tankens konventioneller Fahrzeuge setzen hier die Maßstäbe.
Gero Lücking, Markus Adam
Backbone Power Grid Requirements and Rules for Successful Grid Integration of e-Mobility
Abstract
From the perspective of the power grid, an electric vehicle is first and foremost a new mobile consumer with a relatively high power output. In addition, it is hard to predict its energy demand. High storage capacity and optional temporal flexibility are also characteristics of electric vehicles, which can make the task of balancing generation and demand at all times more complex. Charging processes can also put additional strain on the grid and make further grid expansion necessary. However, this does not always have to be the case if e-mobility is integrated into the electricity system in a forward-looking and targeted manner. The high total additional battery capacities can create a high potential for a flexible integration of renewable energy. In this context, the factors influencing the development of e-mobility and the corresponding charging infrastructure will be considered and their challenges in grid integration will be presented. The need for action will be identified and suitable solutions will be presented.
Florian Regnery
Metastudy
Research Overview Grid Integration of E-Mobility
Abstract
The expected effects on the grid, coupled with a high degree of uncertainty regarding the development of e-mobility, are currently motivating a large number of e-mobility research initiatives in recent years. The focus of the investigations and the scenarios considered are very diverse and cover a wide range of aspects. The metastudy is based on 284 national and 36 international studies and research projects. They are the result of extensive research and evaluation of relevant research projects, scientific publications and dissertations. Based on the criteria of completeness of data for quantitative evaluations as well as scope and clarity of conclusions, a pool of 60 studies (52 national and 8 international) was then selected from the field of grid integration of e-mobility. Based on a detailed analysis of the studies, a parameter set was then developed to describe the scenarios. This set of parameters (e.g. market penetration of e-mobility, increase in network load, controllability of charging equipment and its intended use) defines the basis for a uniform evaluation of all selected studies. Since many studies from the pool consider several different scenarios in the sense of this parameter set, 157 evaluable scenarios result. In the quantitative evaluation, the simulation and measurement results from field tests were compared in the studies and in the qualitative part the findings of the studies were summarised by topic.
Florian Regnery
Safe Grid Operation of the Low-Voltage Level by Optimizing the Charging Processes of Electric Vehicles
Abstract
In the next few years, an increasing number of private charging processes of battery-electric- and plug-in hybrid vehicles is expected. The charging processes are additional loads. These volatile loads cause an alteration in the load profiles. In particular, this confronts distribution system operators with new challenges. As the loads increase, the utilization of operating resources increases. In order to ensure a reliable grid operation, the loads must not exceed certain limit values. If a reliable grid operation is no longer guaranteed due to an increased load in the low-voltage level, the low-voltage grid is normally adapted by reinforcing the grid. Since the charging processes described are volatile loads, grid reinforcements or grid expansion can perhaps be avoided. This, however, requires intelligence in the low-voltage grid. In the concrete case this means the integration of measuring equipment and the possibility of controlling charging processes in the form of load shifting as a result of load limitation. This paper describes a Grid Load Management Simulator (GLMS) that can be used to investigate the theoretical utilization of the low-voltage grid during the integration of private charging processes. Furthermore, the simulator offers different optimization variants for controlling charging processes, which consequently ensure safe grid operation.
Sebastian Deters, Detlef Schulz
TenneT—Driving Energy Innovations
Abstract
Due to the decentralisation and integration of RES in the energy system the tasks and challenges of grid operators like TenneT changes fundamentally. In order to be able to cope with the new tasks and challenges TenneT conducts different innovation projects with respect to digitalization. First TenneT is investigating sensor data from vehicles for forecasting feed-in of PV. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of sensor data from vehicles these data may improve forecasts. In a second project TenneT supports the integration of mobile storages from electric vehicles into the energy system. Thus, the high potential of flexibility from increasing number of mobile storages shall be unlocked and make available for the energy market. Finally, TenneT analyses blockchain technology in pilot project. Blockchain may support the integration of high number of small scale flexibilities into the energy system.
Axel Kießling
Future of Multi-Modal Mobility
Abstract
Todays’ travelling is a mess. Overcrowded at any transportation mode: in the air, on the road and on rail tracks. Key requirement of end users for passenger and cargo is easy, convenient and affordable in-time door-to-door transportation. The author is proposing a disruptive way to reach these requirements: Not the passenger or the freight is interchanging but will be interchanged in a personalized transportation box, the pod. The pods are standardized and suitable for all transportation modes, according to the actual needs of the end users and the actual traffic situation in the different modes an optimized routing will be calculated and executed.
Advantages for the travelers: Maximum convenience through personalized pods and maximum reliability of the journey bey usage of all available transportation modes. Advantages for the environment and the society: the pods are the most time in movement, all pod carriers are electrified and interconnected for maximum efficiency of the system.
Jürgen Schlaht
The Role of a Contract Manufacturer in Times of Electrification
Abstract
With over 100 years of experience in vehicle production, Magna affiliate Magna Steyr in Graz is the leading brand-independent development and manufacturing partner for both OEMs and new players in the automotive industry. Magna is the only automotive supplier in the world with expertise for the entire vehicle: from electronics to bodywork and powertrain to complete vehicle development and production. The Graz location plays a special role within the Group. It is not only Magna’s largest site worldwide, but currently also the only one where vehicles are build.
If you look at the types of mobility services that will exist until 2030 alone, the extent of the current industry change quickly becomes clear: electrification, ride sharing and hailing or even autonomous driving. Even today, mobility should be understood more as a service.
Increasing market volatility, political influences, growing complexity in automotive engineering and the reduction of time-to-market are the main challenges for future vehicle production. These challenges represent a real challenge for traditional vehicle production methods. It is therefore an essential success factor for contract manufacturers to be able to effectively map this diversity in production. If you want to be an innovation leader in such a rapidly changing industry, you have to understand the latest developments. Agility means being able to react quickly to market changes and, above all, to customer wishes and is a sustainable success factor in Magna Steyr’s business model.
The strategy consists of three blocks that build on each other. The basis is the “Digital Factory”, the digital representation of product, process and factory. This is the foundation of the “Smart Factory”. In addition to the well-known industry 4.0 applications, it includes optimum networking in the production network, including the entire production control and logistics. Finally, the “Versatile Factory” represents the highest evolutionary level, with production methods for an agile reaction of the company following the market exactly without significant fixed costs in regular operation.
To summarize, Magna has always seen change as an opportunity and still sees: with a changed view of one’s own place in this changing automotive landscape, a world with new dynamic and new players. No one in this industry can master the challenges alone. The constant pursuit of innovation and the ever faster realization of ideas require new ways. With a comprehensive knowledge of all product areas and technologies, agility and entrepreneurial thinking, Magna helps not only established manufacturers but also new players to face the change.
Kurt Bachmaier
Auf dem Weg in die Serienproduktion: Industrialisierung von Brennstoffzellensystemen für Nutzfahrzeuge
Zusammenfassung
Brennstoffzellenantriebe bieten die Chance, klimaneutrale Nutzfahrzeuge ohne Einschränkungen des Nutzwertes zu realisieren. Damit sich die Technik am Markt durchsetzt, gilt es, die spezifischen Anforderungen von Speditionen und Verkehrsunternehmen zu erfüllen. Freudenberg Sealing Technologies entwickelt deshalb eine neue Generation von Brennstoffzellensystemen, die hinsichtlich Dauerhaltbarkeit und Lebenszykluskosten auf dieses Marktsegment zugeschnitten sind. Eine Schlüsselrolle spielen dabei die Skalierbarkeit des Systems sowie eine Membran-Elektrodeneinheit, deren Komponenten optimal aufeinander abgestimmt sind.
Manfred Stefener
The Future of Transportation: Industrialization of Fuel Cell Systems for Commercial Vehicles
Abstract
Fuel cell drives enable manufacturers to offer climate-neutral commercial vehicles that are unhampered by range and power challenges. In order for this technology to be successful, however, the specific use requirements of transportation companies must be taken into account. Freudenberg Sealing Technologies is developing a new generation of commercial fuel cell systems that address durability and life cycle requirements. Both the scalability of the system and a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) whose components are ideally matched to one another will play important roles in achieving energy optimization.
Manfred Stefener
Thermal Modeling for High Power Charging (HPC) of Electric Vehicles
Abstract
Driving and Charging—TWO Worlds—ONE thermally balanced Wiring System! Tracing the link from contact physics to safe operation.
Electrification and digitization, within the vehicle and the surrounding environment, are having a significant impact on powertrain architectural design. One example is increasingly powerful batteries, designed for greater range. Their behavior during driving operation differs greatly from the charging operation. This means that a clear distinction must be made between AC and DC charging.
The thermal design of the battery and its charging path is a key factor that determines performance in driving and charging modes that can be an important competitive differentiator. Therefore, the right balance of materials, weight, heat management and the associated costs is necessary for component dimensioning. Assembly and connector technology are an important element in ensuring performance, reliability and serviceability. It is therefore critical that the effects of permanent, short-term and transient loads are considered from the outset. Simulation methods help to identify systemic relationships for optimum component design.
Uwe Hauck, Michael Ludwig
Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles: Influence of Intelligent Charging Strategies
Abstract
While it is undisputed that battery electric vehicles (BEV) are considerably more efficient than vehicles with an internal combustion engine during operation, the energy demand for the production of the traction battery currently reduces this advantage. The operational emissions of BEV strongly depend on the underlying energy system, which is currently undergoing a drastic change towards higher shares of renewable energies. This results in a future reduction of the average emission factor of electricity on the one hand, and an increase of the volatility of the hourly emission factor on the other hand. In this paper both of these effects are considered in the assessment of the carbon footprint of BEV by including the changing composition of electricity generators as well as various optimized charging strategies.
Steffen Fattler, Anika Regett
Preferences and Perceptions of Bidirectional Charging from a Customer’s Perspective – A Literature Review and Qualitative Approach
Abstract
Bidirectional charging management could offer benefits to individuals, society and energy providers by using the batteries of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) as a means of storage. To successfully design and implement this technology, it is necessary to match customer mobility needs with the goals of the energy sector. Therefore, practice and research need a better understanding of potential customers’ acceptance of the new technology. The authors address this void by providing a review of the existing user-centered literature on users’ perceptions and demands regarding smart charging. In addition, the authors conducted qualitative interviews to gain up-to-date, country- and use case-specific insights. The authors interviewed experienced BEV drivers as well as owners of photovoltaic systems and presented them with two use cases: Intraday and Optimized Private Consumption. The results give an overview about facilitating factors as well as potential barriers to the adaptation of bidirectional charging (BC). However, the review shows that research focusing on actual users of the technology is still rare. In addition, the interviews reveal that perceptions and demands differ between scenarios, which should be addressed by future research.
Bettina Kämpfe, Johanna Zimmermann, Marina Dreisbusch, Anna-Lena Grimm, Jan H. Schumann, Frederik Naujoks, Andreas Keinath, Josef Krems
Transnational Approach for DSO-controllable e-Mobility Charging Infrastructure in A-CH-CZ
Abstract
In spring 2019 a cooperation of neighbouring distribution system operator (DSO)-associations started to find a harmonized technical solution for controlling EV-charging infrastructure. It concerns the associations in Austria (A), Switzerland (CH) and the Czech Republic (CZ)—A-CH-CZ.
Reinhard Nenning, Patrick Bader, Stanislav Hes
Providing A Grid-friendly, Large-scale, Affordable chargeBIG Infrastructure Using Intelligent Load and Charge Management
Abstract
The power industry has to face several challenges regarding energy production and distribution, especially due to the rapid expansion of renewable energies, reduction of base-load thermal power plants, and an increasing fleet of battery electric vehicles. Discussing the challenges of battery electric vehicle charging, it is often ignored that even today these vehicles can be utilized as an adjustable load. And the quality of the energy supply can be measured by anyone checking grid voltages and grid frequency. MAHLE and its partners strive to prove the effectiveness of a new, cost effective, large scale charging infrastructure utilizing existing power grid connections, and at the same time providing grid friendly load adjustments. This project is publicly funded by the BMWi “Sofortprogramm Saubere Luft 2017–2020”.
Sebastian Ewert, Walter Krepulat, Max Gerstadt, Hauke Stamer
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Electrified Mobility 2019
herausgegeben von
Dr. Johannes Liebl
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-658-32471-1
Print ISBN
978-3-658-32470-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32471-1

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