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Über dieses Buch

This volume provides a discussion of the challenges and perspectives of electromagnetics and network theory and their microwave applications in all aspects. It collects the most interesting contribution of the symposium dedicated to Professor Peter Russer held in October 2009 in Munich.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Antennas and Propagation

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. A Hybrid MoM/UTD Method for the Analysis of a Monopole Antenna in an Aperture

Abstract
Automotive antennas are usually realized as conformal antennas that are placed on the car glazing. Therefore they reside in the apertures of the metallic car body. In a simplified representation the passenger cabin is an absorbing cavity which features one or more apertures.
Christoph Ullrich, Peter Russer

Chapter 2. Electromagnetic and Network Theory of Waveguide Radiation by Spherical Modes Expansions

Abstract
In recent years, modal techniques have been successfully improved and are increasingly used for dealing with design of waveguide discontinuities and passive components [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8], due to their efficiency and also because they provide rigorous and useful network representations. One distinguished characteristic of modal techniques is to separate the transverse field behavior from the longitudinal one; this decoupling makes it feasible to consider electromagnetic wave propagation inside a waveguide as a superposition of transmission lines (each pertaining to a mode) which couple only at discontinuities. Electromagnetic field representation inside a waveguide with finite cross-section, is therefore achieved by a discrete summation of the relevant waveguide modes.
Cristiano Tomassoni, Mauro Mongiardo, Peter Russer, Roberto Sorrentino

Chapter 3. Circuit Representation and Performance Analysis of Phased Array Antennas Including Mutual Coupling Effects

Abstract
Phased array antennas have gained a prominent position in the design of microwave and millimetre-wave radio and radar systems due to their beam steering capability. In most cases, such phased array structures are large-scaled and may involve a very large number of radiating elements that are interrelated to each other through certain signal routing, feeding mechanism and geometric arrangement. On the basis of the well-established array theory, the array pattern is calculated by the product of an isolated element pattern and related isotropic array factor. This scheme assumes that voltage (current) excitation for each element is uniform (constant) in amplitude but progressively in phase over the entire array. This assumption is valid only for an infinitely extended array. For a finite array, this assumption is very much questionable because it doesn’t account for array edge effects as well as non-uniform current distribution that depend on the geometry, frequency, and scan angle. This complicated parameter dependence results from mutual coupling effects observable among all elements in the array. It is usually difficult to explain and formulate the mutual coupling phenomenon, which is generally related to the re-radiation of power through neighbouring elements, and/or electromagnetic interaction and surface-wave propagation within the substrate as well as the influence of feeding network.
Liang Han, Ke Wu

Chapter 4. Time-Domain Modelling of Group-Delay and Amplitude Characteristics in Ultra-Wideband Printed-Circuit Antennas

Abstract
With the release of the 3.1–10.6 GHz band for ultra-wideband (UWB) operation, a variety of typical UWB applications evolved; examples are indoor/outdoor communication systems, ground-penetrating and vehicular radars, wall and through-wall imaging, medical imaging and surveillance, e.g. [1,  2].Many future systems will utilize handheld devices for such short-range and high bandwidth applications. Therefore, the realization of UWB antennas in printed-circuit technologies within relatively small substrate areas is of primary importance. And a number of such antennas with either microstrip, e.g. [3–10] or coplanar waveguide feeds, e.g. [11–23], and in combined technologies, e.g. [24–25], have been presented recently, mostly for the 3.1–10.6 GHz band, but also for higher frequency ranges, e.g. [26].
Hung-Jui Lam, Yinying Lu, Huilian Du, Poman P. M. So, Jens Bornemann

Chapter 5. Diffraction of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Waves by Impedance Cones

Abstract
This paper deals with a canonical problem in the theory of diffraction, namely, diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by impedance cones. The method can be applied in general for acoustic potential or Debye potentials in electromagnetics satisfying the Helmnoltz equation. This paper will be centred on a more demanding case, i.e., diffraction of an electromagnetic plane wave by an axially anisotropic impedance cone. The diffraction coefficients of such an impedance cone in the so-called oasis, that is, domain where only a spherical wave beside the incident plane wave exists, will be determined in an analytical-numerical way.
Jean-Michel L. Bernard, Mikhail A. Lyalinov, Ning Yan Zhu

Microwave Systems

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Pattern Design and DBF Analysis of a Dielectric Lens Antenna for 77 GHz Automotive Long Range Radar

Abstract
The antenna is a key component of automotive radar systems. In this paper we present a novel dielectric lens antenna configuration, where a cylindrical lens is illuminated by a uniform linear array (ULA), allowing the application of standard array signal processing such as digital beamforming (DBF) or high resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in azimuth. In the elevation plane the lens shows superior performance compared to a conventional patch array. Array imperfections generated due to influence of the lens edges are studied with respect to DBF performance and the resulting design tradeoffs are discussed.
Peter Wenig, Robert Weigel

Chapter 7. High Precision Distance Measurement for Pedestrian Protection Using Cooperative Sensors

Abstract
For pedestrian protection in urban traffic scenarios precise localization in combination with reliable identification is needed. Both requirements are ideally met with cooperative sensor technology. Each road user gets equipped with an active microwave sensor combining communication and localization services. The following article describes a high precision distance measurement system, enabling car drivers to detect visually hidden pedestrians by exchanging signal data. A Round Trip Time of Flight measurement principle was implemented using bi-phase coded pulse compression. Signal compression is realized by correlation of pseudo random codes assuring secure time of arrival detection and clear burst identification. The SNR improvement of this method is utilized by spatial interpolation to get a highly precise distance measurement. The system is intended to address a large number of communication partners within each measurement cycle. This multi-user ability is achieved by ordering sensor transmit times in a Time Division Multiple Access scheme. The system performance was evaluated by use of a prototype system at 2.4 GHz that was able to achieve an accuracy of centimeters at a range of 450 m.
C. Morhart, E. Biebl

Chapter 8. A High-Precision Wideband Local Positioning System at 24 GHz

Abstract
A new radio based high precise location positioning system is introduced for detecting coordinates of transmitters and transfer them to a 3D application. This application can be for example an Augmented Reality (AR) system, which is used to assist the user with an optical feedback or additional information. In an AR-system the scenario is recorded by camera, overlaid with a specific virtual geometry in the computer and transferred back to video monitors, which are mounted on glasses. In the scenario the user interacts additionally with a marker. Consequently, an acceptable overlay of the virtual geometry with the real object requires very exact position detection of the marker as well as of the camera. The common detection systems of a standard AR-system unfortunately only allow applications in a clean and defined environment. They are normally based on optical or acoustical tracking systems. Such systems fulfill the high requirements on the accuracy but their main drawback is their limited robustness against material impurity like dirt, smog or dust. By contrast, radio based positioning systems have a much better robustness against most kinds of environmental conditions. According to the state of the art there are until now no radio based positioning systems existing which fulfill the necessary millimeter accuracy in a reflecting scenario. This article describes a high precision direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) radio location system at a carrier frequency of 24 GHz. The desired high robustness and positioning accuracy is achieved by high speed code generators for the spreading code and a new developed digital signal processing, which increases the resolution by about 60%. Moreover, a new receiver architecture was investigated to correlate such high speed spreading codes. This new architecture allows the correlation in the RF-band. Therefore the correlation is split in two stages. The multiplication stage is realized in the RF-mixer and the integration stage is represented in low pass filters in the analog baseband. Further on a multistage signal processing was investigated, which detects the LOS-path in the correlation function as a distance measurement and the phase information of the received signal. The system uses their probability density functions of both informations for enhanced distance estimation. The distance measurement as well as the phase information is processed with a specially modified Kalman filter. The theory of Kalman is used also to calculate the position of the transmitter as well as the position and the direction of the camera-video-glasses and of the marker via trilateration. The new 3D-radio based DSSS local positioning system was realized and extensively tested. Three receivers have been installed in an arbitrary environment and connected to each other via a hybrid RF circuitry, a digital signal processing board and a computer for data processing. Measurement accuracy for a dynamically moved transmitter of only ± 0. 5 mm could be proved, while the position of a static transmitter was measured with a standard deviation of only 0.1 mm with an update rate of 10 Hz. In addition, within a real time AR-application this newly developed location system proves a quite precise overlay of the real objects with the virtual information. Consequently, it is now possible to realize new AR-applications for industrial environments based on this radio positioning system. But also for other industrial requirements of precise positioning this system is useful.
Stefan Lindenmeier, Christian Meier, Anestis Terzis, Joachim Brose

Chapter 9. Monitoring of Electrochemical Processes in Catalysts by Microwave Methods

Abstract
Many electrochemical reactions occur at high temperatures and inside bulk materials. Because of the difficulties associated with a direct observation of the reaction, one often resorts to indirect measurement strategies. An example is the three-way catalyst (TWC) in the exhaust pipe of a gasoline engine which stores oxygen when it is abundant in the exhaust gas and releases it later to oxidize noxious gas components such as CO in oxygen-deficient (“lean”) exhaust gases. Currently, the oxygen loading of the TWC is derived indirectly from the output signals of two lambda probes, one upstream and the other downstream of the catalyst, which monitor the air-to-fuel ratio λ in the exhaust gas. We have investigated a microwave cavity perturbation approach towards the direct measurement of the catalyst state. It will be shown that the uptake or release of oxygen in the catalyst is observable in situ via the S-parameters of a cavity resonator.
Gerhard Fischerauer, Andreas Gollwitzer, Alexander Nerowski, Matthias Spörl, Sebastian Reiß, Ralf Moos

Communication Technology

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Mobile Phones: The Driving Force Towards the Integration of Analog and Digital Blocks for Baseband and RF Circuitry

Abstract
Next generation cellular systems are currently under standardization. Peak data rates will go well beyond 100 Mb/s; while the computational complexity has been constantly increasing, the complexity per transmitted bit has been reducing due to advances in algorithm design and semiconductor manufacturing. It is shown that an approach maximizing reuse will be an attractive way to implement future platforms for mobile phones, whereby an evolutionary approach would be preferred over a revolutionary software-centric approach. The main challenges that will be faced in developing future chip sets for cellular modems will be managing increasing complexity for systems verification, supporting higher levels of System on chip (SoC) integration, taming RF power consumption, and coping with exponentially growing development costs. On the other hand the Ultra Low Cost segment of the cellular phone market asks for inexpensive integrated solution that can provide the possibility to the large number of people in the unconnected part of the world to participate in the advantages of wireless connection to the world with voice and data services.
Josef Hausner, Christian Drewes

Chapter 11. Wireless for Industrial Automation: Significant Trend or Overrated?

Abstract
The paper gave an overview on the potential of wireless sensor systems in industrial applications. The emergence of wireless technologies for industrial automation creates new opportunities to make plants more efficient, productive, and secure. Since industrial networks carry data through harsh conditions, specific requirements for these networks exist. Different standards for industrial applications are being presented and evaluated. The paper concludes by analysing industrial applications and new innovations on wireless sensors.
F. Krug, L. Wiebking

Chapter 12. Sub-Microsecond Contactless Ultra-Wideband Data Transmission in Rotating Systems Using a Slotted Waveguide Ring

Abstract
In time-critical applications a fast transmission of control data between rotating parts of a machine is required for proper system operation. This chapter presents an ultra-fast data transmission using ultra-wideband (UWB) technology for a continuous sub-microsecond communication in rotating systems. A slotted waveguide ring allows a reliable and robust, contactless non-stop data transmission. Control data is encoded in packets of one byte including start and stop bits and transmitted with a data rate of 100 Mbit/s. With high-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing less than 150 ns are required for data transmission and reception with possible control data transmission every 80 ns. Circuit design and operating principle of the system are explained and measurement results provided to prove its functionality.
Christoph Seifarth, Gerd Scholl

Chapter 13. “Green” Inkjet-Printed Wireless Sensor Nodes on Low-Cost Paper, Liquid and Flexible Organic Substrates

Abstract
This paper introduces the capabilities of inkjet-printing technology in integrated wireless biosensors on organics bridging RFID and sensing technology. A novel flexible magnetic material is presented as an alternative substrate for wearable biosensors. In addition, a CNT-film is inkjet-printed on paper to realize ultrasensitive gas sensors. The paper concludes with the presentation of novel wearable integration platforms, including liquid antennas, with enhanced-range that could enable multi-hopping algorithms targeting the realization of “intelligent networks of RFID-enabled sensors”.
M. M. Tentzeris, L. Yang, A. Traille, A. Rida

Chapter 14. A Joint Matlab/FPGA Design of AM Receiver for Teaching Purposes

Abstract
This paper presents the design procedure and implementation results of an amplitude modulation (AM) double sideband – Large carrier (DSB-LC) receiver using an Altera FPGA EP3C120 development board. The design is first implemented in MATLAB/SimulinkTM using also embedded MATLABTM blocks. It is then automatically converted to VHDL level with the Simulink HDL coder. The VHDL code is then synthesized and fitted with QuartusII ®;  software and downloaded to the Altera CycloneIII EP3C120 FPGA development board. The results show that this approach makes it is easy for students to understand and develop the reception of AM signals using programmable logic tools. It also presents an efficient design flow for realizing design modules using MATLAB.
Alejandro A. Valenzuela, Hikmat N. Abdullah

Chapter 15. MoM Based EMI Analysis on Large Wind Turbine GSM Communication System

Abstract
Electro-magnetic fields resulting from a GSM transmitter mounted on a large wind turbine will be analyzed. This cellular system operates as novel communication backup in case the standard communication between operator and hub control systems is interrupted. The method-of-moments is used to analytically describe the electro-magnetic fields caused by a GSM 900 MHz transmitter mounted on the hub of a wind turbine. Using a commercial simulation tool the electromagnetic field distribution will be analyzed to determine an optimized wireless communication link to a base station. Different transmitter positions are evaluated based on their radiation patterns. Scattering and diffraction by the turbine’s rotation is taken into account.
F. Krug, B. Lewke

Numerical Methods for Electromagnetic Field Modeling

Frontmatter

Chapter 16. Novel Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain Techniques for the Combined Maxwell–Dirac Problem in the Characterization of Nanodevices

Abstract
We present the explicit derivation of the electromagnetic-field solution of Maxwell equations starting from the Dirac equation, used in describing the so called spinor wavefunction of quantum particles. In particular we show that if the four-component vector (spinor) solution of the Dirac equation for zero mass is identified with the four-potential of the EM field, then, under the Lorentz gauge, fields derived from that potential satisfy Maxwell equations. Viceversa, the four-potential could be used to express a spinor solution, provided that the latter satisfies the Lorenz gauge. Some examples in the frequency domain clarify this connection. A crucial choice is needed: the electromagnetic potential has to be assumed as a linear combination of positive- and negative-solutions of the spinor. The present work may help to clarify the controversial relation between Maxwell and Dirac equations, while presenting an original way to derive the electromagnetic fields, leading, perhaps, to novel concepts in EM simulations.
Tullio Rozzi, Davide Mencarelli, Luca Pierantoni

Chapter 17. Electromagnetic Partitioning Methodology Towards Multi-Physics Chip-Package-Board Co-Design and Co-Simulation

Abstract
This contribution discusses electromagnetic (EM) functional and topological (geometry) partitioning methodologies towards multi-physics Chip-Package-Board co-simulation and co-analysis. Although partitioning methodologies help containing EM analysis in manageable complexity, they bring fundamental challenges concerning the validity of cascade-based assumptions. Such challenges include proper incorporation in global analysis of couplings between constitutive sub-domains resulting from partitioning procedures. In the context of domain-decomposition approaches, importance of couplings between sub-partitions is illustrated through the concept of macro-pixel formulated using TWF (Transverse Waves Formulation) method. The formalization of partitioning strategies for better optimization of sub-partition interfacing borders or frontiers defined by the location of auxiliary sources introduced for the excitation of each partition brings the question of internal ports (local ground references) and their de-embedding.System-level mixed-signal power and signal integrity aware co-design and co-simulation requires combining EM analysis with high-speed digital switching activity and analog block transistor level description (or behavioral models). An original power-signature concept is introduced to model high-speed digital modules temporal and spatial distribution of their power switching activity through specified chip partitions. Limitations of classical segregated approaches based on cascading solutions from chip, package and board are investigated in reference to an integrated approach where chip, package and board are simulated with one single integrated approach. The segregated and the integrated approaches are assessed with real-world carrier design examples at component-level, function bloc-level as well as at system-level. Both full-wave and quasi-static solutions are obtained and compared. Finally, a multi-physics co-simulation approach combining EM and thermal simulations is discussed.
Sidina Wane, Damienne Bajon

Chapter 18. Parallel TLM Procedures for NVIDIA GPU

Abstract
As multi-core computing technology becomes mature, a new front in parallel computing technology based on graphics processors has emerged. This paper reports a parallel implementation of the Transmission Line Matrix algorithm for the CUDA enabled NVIDIA graphics processors.
Poman So

Chapter 19. Stability Enhancement of Digital Predistortion Through Stationary Iterative Methods to Solve System of Equations

Abstract
The power amplifiers are an inherently nonlinear component in wireless communication systems. Therefore linearization techniques are utilized to compensate these nonlinear effects of power amplifiers. In this chapter the stability of digital predistortion based on an indirect learning architecture is investigated. The first-order and second-order iterative methods are addressed in this chapter to solve the system of equations for a digital predistortion system to improve the numerical stability without degradation of the digital predistortion performance concerning reduction of ACP and EVM. The key advantage of iterative methods is that only matrix-vector multiplications and vector additions are performed by solving the system of equations.
Xin Yu, Georg Fischer, Andreas Pascht

Chapter 20. Analysis of Complex Periodic Structures

Abstract
In this contribution is shown how complex periodic structures – like periodic hyperstructures, circular resonators with periodic sections, resonators coupled with each other or with waveguides – can be analyzed in an efficient way. The Floquet’s theorem is introduced (in case of hyperstructures twice following each other). The structures are divided into subsections. Depending of the properties of these subsections the method of lines (MoL) or a special Finite Difference Method is applied. For each subsection a suitable coordinate systems is used.
Reinhold Pregla

Chapter 21. Macromodeling in Finite Differences

Abstract
In recent years a powerful concept of macromodels has emerged in computational electromagnetics. The technique is particularly attractive for mesh based methods because macromodels are capable of capturing complex field behavior in selected areas of finely meshed computational space with fewer variables than the original scheme. Moreover the technique allows one to avoid adverse effect of local fine meshing on convergence (for frequency domain) or stability (for time-domain) of iterative algorithms used. Due to these properties macromodels significantly improve the efficiency of grid based numerical methods such as Finite Differences (FD) and Finite Elements (FE).
Lukasz Kulas, Michal Mrozowski

Chapter 22. Analysis of a Time-Space Periodic Filter Structure with Tunable Band-Pass Characteristic

Abstract
A periodically in time and space modulated medium gives rise to an electromagnetic bandgap structure. The band characteristic can be shifted by tuning of the time modulation of the medium. We compare the effect of a sinusoidally modulated structure on the bandgap using an FDTD implementation for curved moving boundaries with an approximation to the analytic solution derived from Floquet’s theorem. For the latter one we consider the mutual coupling of a finite set of time-space harmonics.
Johannes A. Russer, Andreas C. Cangellaris

Backmatter

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