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Über dieses Buch

The purpose of this book is to help the reader to understand off-the-shelf circuits and to enable him to design his or her own circuitry. The book is written for students, practicing engineers and scientists. It covers all major aspects of analog and digital circuit design. The book is a translation of the current 12th edition of the German bestsellerHalbleiter- Schaltungstechnik. PartI describes semiconductor devices and their behavior with respect to the models used in circuit simulation. This part introduces all major aspects of transistor level design (IC-design). Basic circuits are analyzed in ?ve steps: large-signal transfer characteristic, small-signal response, frequency response and bandwidth, noise and distortion. Digital circuits are covered starting with the internal circuitry of gates and ?ip-?ops up to the constructionofcombinatorialandsequentiallogicsystemswithPLDsandFPGAs.Design examples and a short form guide for the digital synthesis toolispLever are included on the CD enclosed. Part II is dedicated to board level design. The main chapters of this part describe the use of operational ampli?ers for signal conditioning including signal ampli?cation, ?ltering andAD-conversion. Further chapters cover power ampli?ers, power supplies and other important functional blocks of analog systems. The chapters are self-contained with a minimum of cross-reference. This allows the advanced reader to familiarize himself quickly with the various areas of applications. Each chapter offers a detailed overview of various solutions to a given requirement. In order to enable the reader to proceed quickly fromanideatoaworkingcircuit,wediscussonlythosesolutionswehavetestedthoroughly by simulation. Many of these simulation examples are included on the CD enclosed.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Device Models and Basic Circuits

Frontmatter

Chapter 1:. Diode

The diode is a semiconductor component with two connections, which are called the anode (A) and the cathode (K). Distinction has to be made between discrete diodes, which are intended for installation on printed circuit boards and are contained in an individual case, and integrated diodes, which are produced together with other semiconductor components on a common semiconductor carrier (substrate). Integrated diodes have a third connection resulting from the common carrier. It is called the substrate (S); it is of minor importance for electrical functions.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 2:. Bipolar Transistor

The bipolar transistor is a semiconductor component with three terminals that are known as the base (B), emitter (E) and collector (C). There are discrete transistors that are used for mounting to printed circuit boards and are contained in their own individual case and integrated transistors that are produced together with other semiconductor elements on a common substrate. Integrated transistors feature a fourth connection called the substrate (S), which represents the common carrier; it is of secondary importance for the transistor’s electrical function.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 3:. Field Effect Transistor

The field effect transistor (FET) is a semiconductor component with three terminals, known as the gate (G), source (S) and drain (D). There are discrete transistors that are used for mounting on printed circuit boards, and are contained in their own housings, and integrated field effect transistors that are produced together with other semiconductor elements on a common substrate. Integrated field effect transistors feature a fourth terminal called the substrate or bulk (B), which results from the common substrate.1 This terminal also exists internally in discrete transistors, where it is not connected to the outside but to the source terminal.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 4:. Amplifiers

Amplifiers are important elements in analog signal processing. They amplify an input signal of low amplitude to such a degree that it can be used to drive a subsequent unit. For example, a microphone signal has to be amplified in several stages from the microvolt (µV) range to the volt (V) range in order to feed a loudspeaker. Similarly, the signals of thermocouples, photodiodes, magnetic reading heads, receiving antennas and many other signal sources can only be processed after suitable amplification. Since digital circuits such as microprocessors and digital signal processors (DSP) are increasingly being used in the processing and evaluation of complex signals, a typical signal processing chain usually consists of the following elements or stages:
1.
A sensor for converting a physical unit such as pressure (microphone), temperature (thermocouple), light (photodiode) or electromagnetc field (antenna) into an electrical signal.
 
2.
One or more amplifiers to amplify and filter the signal.
 
3.
An analog-to-digital (A/D) converter for digitizing the signal.
 
4.
A microprocessor, DSP or other digital circuit for processing the digitized signal.
 
5.
A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter to produce an analog output signal.
 
6.
One or more amplifiers to amplify and filter the signal to such a degree that it can be used to drive an actuator.
 
7.
An actuator to convert the signal into a physical unit such as pressure (loudspeaker), temperature (heating rod), light (incandescent lamp) or electromagnetic field (transmitting antenna).
 
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 5:. Operational Amplifiers

An operational amplifier is a multi-stage DC-coupled amplifier realized as integrated circuit. It is available as an individual component or as a library component for the design of larger integrated circuits. There is essentially no difference between a normal amplifier and an operational amplifier. Both are used to provide voltage or power gain. However, whereas the characteristics of a normal amplifier are governed by its internal design, an operational amplifier is constructed such that its mode of operation can be determined primarily by external feedback circuitry. In order to make this possible, operational amplifiers are designed as direct voltage-coupled amplifiers with a high gain. To render any additional measures for setting the operating point unnecessary, the input and output potential must be 0V. As a rule, this requires two operating voltage sources: one positive and one negative. Amplifiers of this kind were at one time used exclusively in analog computers and for performing mathematical operations such as addition and integration — hence the term “operational amplifier.”
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 6:. Latching Circuits

In the case of linear circuits, we set the collector quiescent potential between V+ and VCEsat, thus enabling them to be driven about this operating point. The characteristic feature of linear circuits is that the swing is kept so small that the output voltage is a linear function of the input voltage. Consequently, the output voltage must not attain the positive or negative limits of the swing, as this would result in distortion. With digital circuits, on the other hand, only two operating states are employed. We are only interested in whether a voltage is greater than a specified value V H or less than a specified value V L < V H . If the voltage exceeds V H , it is referred to as being in the H (high) state, and if it is below V L , it is said to be in the L (low) state.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 7:. Logic Families

Although, at first sight, digital equipment appears to be relatively complicated, its design is based on the simple concept of the repeated use of a small number of basic logic circuits. We can work out how these basic logic elements have to be linked by applying purely formal methods to the problem. This approach is based on Boolean algebra which, when applied specifically to digital circuit design, is known as computational algebra. In the next few subsections, we shall summarize the basics of computational algebra.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 8:. Combinatorial Circuits

A combinatorial circuit describes an arrangement of digital circuitry without variable memory. The output variables y i are clearly defined by the input variables x i according to the block diagram in Fig. 8.1, whereas in sequential logic circuits the output variables are also dependent not only on the current state of the system but also on its history.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 9:. Sequential Logic Systems

A sequential logic system is an arrangement of digital circuits that can carry out logic operations and, in addition, store the states of individual variables. It differs from a combinatorial logic system in that the output variables y j are not only dependent on the input variable x i , but also on the previous history, which is represented by the state of flip-flops. In what follows, we shall first discuss the design and operation of integrated flip-flops.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 10:. Semiconductor Memories

Semiconductor memories fall into two main categories, as shown in Fig. 10.1: table memories and function memories. With table memories, an address A is defined in the range
$$ 0 \leqslant A \leqslant n = 2^N - 1 $$
The word width of the address is between N = 5 and N = 22, depending on the size of memory. Data can be stored at each of the 2 N addresses. The data word width is m = 1−16 bits. Figure 10.2 shows an example for N = 3 address bits and m = 2 data bits.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

General Applications

Frontmatter

Chapter 11:. Operational Amplifier Applications

Most analog signal processing is done today with circuits using operational amplifiers because opamps are available with good data for little money. Most signals that must be processed in electronic circuits arise in analog form and are needed after processing in analog form also. Therefore analog signal processing is first choice.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 12:. Controlled Sources and Impedance Converters

In linear network synthesis, not only passive components are used, but also idealized active elements such as controlled current and voltage sources. In addition, idealized converter circuitry, such as the negative impedance converter (NIC), the gyrator, and the circulator, is often employed. In the following sections, we describe the most common ways of implementing these circuits.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 13:. Active Filters

Simple lowpass and highpass filters are discussed in Sects. 29.3.1 and 29.3.2, the circuit of the simplest lowpass filter being shown again in Fig. 13.1. The ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage can be expressed using (29.3.1) as
$$ \underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{A} (j\omega ) = \frac{{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{V} _0 }} {{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{V} _i }} = \frac{1} {{1 + j\omega RC}} $$
and is called the frequency response of the circuit. Replacing by +σ = s gives the transfer function:
$$ A(s) = \frac{{L\{ V_0 (t)\} }} {{L\{ V_i (t)\} }} = \frac{1} {{1 + s RC}} $$
This is the ratio of the Laplace-transformed output and input voltages for signals of any time dependence. On the other hand, the transition from the transfer function A(s) to the frequency response A() for sinusoidal input signals is made by setting σ to zero.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 14:. Signal Generators

In this chapter we shall describe circuits that generate sinusoidal signals. In the case of LC oscillators, the frequency is determined by a tuned circuit, in the case of crystal-controlled oscillators a piezoelectric crystal is used, and with the Wien and differential-equation oscillators, RC networks are the frequency-determining components. The function generators primarily produce a triangular signal, which can be converted into sinusoidal form using a suitable function network.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 15:. Power Amplifiers

Power amplifiers are designed to provide large output powers, with the voltage gain playing only a minor role. Normally, the voltage gain of a power output stage is near unity and the power gain is thus mainly due to the current gain of the circuit. The output voltage and current must be able to assume positive and negative values. Power amplifiers with unidirectional output current are known as power supplies. They are discussed in Chap. 16.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 16:. Power Supplies

Every electronic circuit requires a power supply that provides one or more DC voltages. For larger power requirements, batteries are not economical. The DC voltage is therefore obtained from the AC line supply by transformation and subsequent rectification. The DC voltage thus obtained usually has considerable ripple, and changes in response to variations in the line voltage and the load. Therefore, a voltage regulator is often connected to the rectifier to keep the DC output voltage constant and counteract these variations. The following two sections describe ways of providing the unregulated DC voltage; regulator circuits will be dealt with later.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 17:. Analog Switches and Sample-and-Hold Circuits

An analog switch is designed to switch a continuous input signal on and off. When the switch is in the on-state, the output voltage must be as close to the input voltage as possible; when the switch is off, it must be zero. The principal characteristics of an analog switch are defined by the following parameters:
  • the forward attenuation (the on-state resistance),
  • the reverse attenuation (the off-state current),
  • the analog voltage range,
  • the switching times.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 18:. Digital-Analog and Analog-Digital Converters

To display or process a voltage digitally, the analog signal must be translated into numeric form. This task is performed by an analog-to-digital converter (A/D converter, or ADC). The resultant number Z will generally be proportional to the input voltage V i :
$$ Z = V_i /V_{LSB} $$
where VLSB is the voltage unit for the least significant bit; that is, the voltage for Z = 1.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 19:. Digital Filters

In Chapter 13, several transfer functions are discussed and their realization by active filters is described. The processed signals are voltages which, in turn, are continuous functions of time. The circuits are made up of resistors, capacitors, and amplifiers.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 20:. Measurement Circuits

In the previous chapters, a number of methods for processing analog and digital signals have been described. Many applications, however, require that even electrical signals must be conditioned before they can be processed in analog computing circuits or A/D converters. In such cases, measurement circuits are needed which have a low-resistance single-ended output; that is, produce a ground-referenced output voltage.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 21:. Sensors and Measurement Systems

This chapter deals with circuits for measuring nonelectrical quantities. For this purpose, it must first be detected by a sensor and then converted into an electrical quantity. The interface circuit for the sensor normally converts this quantity into a voltage which, after conditioning, is then displayed or employed for control purposes.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 22:. Electronic Controllers

The purpose of a controller is to bring a physical quantity (the controlled variable X) to a predetermined value (the reference variable W) and to hold it at this value. To achieve this, the controller must counteract the effect of disturbances in a suitable way.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 23:. Optoelectronic Components

The human eye perceives electromagnetic waves in the range 400 to 700 nm as light. The wavelength produces the sensation of color, and the intensity that of brightness. In order to quantify brightness, it is necessary to define a number of photometric quantities. The luminous flux φ is a measure of the number of quanta of light (photons) passing through a cross-sectional area of observation area A per time. It is expressed in lumen (lm). The luminous flux φ is unsuitable for characterizing the brightness of a light source, as it is generally a function of the cross-sectional area A and the distance r from the light source. In the case of a spherically symmetrical point source, the luminous flux is proportional to the solid angle ω. This is defined as ω = surface/(radius)2 and is actually dimensionless. However, it is generally assigned the unit steradian (sr). The solid angle that encloses the entire surrounding sphere is given by
$$ \Omega _0 = \frac{{4\pi r^2 }} {{r^2 }}sr = 4\pi {\text{ }}sr{\text{.}} $$
A circular cone of aperture angle ±ϕ encloses the solid angle
$$ \Omega = 2\pi (1 - cos\varphi )sr{\text{.}} $$
(23.1)
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Communication Circuits

Frontmatter

Chapter 24:. Basics

Today, telecommunication systems are as much a part of everyday life as electrical energy. Besides the analog telephone as a conventional cable system and analog radio and TV broadcasting as classical wireless systems, there are countless more modern telecommunication systems including ISDN telephones, cordless and mobile telephones, radio and TV broadcasting via wideband cable networks or satellite transmission, PC modems, wireless PC mouses and keyboards, wireless garage door openers, and remote controlled car locks with the actuator integrated within the car key. Furthermore, heterogeneous systems such as the Internet evolve from the combination of several systems and the application of specific network procedures.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 25:. Transmitters and Receivers

This chapter describes the design of transmitters and receivers for radio transmission. The terms used shall have a defined meaning such that the components from the modulator up to the transmitting antenna form the transmitter, while the components from the receiver antenna up to the demodulator form the receiver.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 26:. Passive Components

When dimensioning and simulating high-frequency and intermediate-frequency circuits, the high-frequency response of passive components must be taken into consideration. For this purpose, the high-frequency equivalent circuits shown in Fig. 26.1 are used to model resistors, inductors, and capacitors.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 27:. High-Frequency Amplifiers

Today, in the high- and intermediate-frequency assemblies of telecommunication systems, amplifiers composed of discrete transistors are still used in addition to modern integrated amplifiers. This is particularly the case in high-frequency power amplifiers employed in transmitters. In low-frequency assemblies, on the other hand, only integrated amplifiers are used. The use of discrete transistors is due to the status quo of semiconductor technology. The development of new semiconductor processes with higher transit frequencies is soon followed by the production of discrete transistors, but the production of integrated circuits on the basis of a new process does not usually occur until some years later. Furthermore, the production of discrete transistors with particularly high transit frequencies often makes use of materials or processes which are not (or not yet) suitable for the production of integrated circuits in the scope of production engineering or for economic reasons. The high growth rate in radio communication systems has, however, boosted the development of semiconductor processes for high-frequency applications. Integrated circuits on the basis of compound semiconductors such as gallium-arsenide (GaAs) or silicon-germanium (SiGe) can be used up to the GHz range. For applications up to approximately 3 GHz bipolar transistors are mainly used, which, in the case of GaAs or SiGe designs, are known as hetero-junction bipolar transistors (HBT). Above 3 GHz, gallium-arsenide junction FETs or metal-semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) are used.1 The transit frequencies range between 50 . . . 100 GHz.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 28:. Mixer

Mixers are required for frequency conversion in transmitters and receivers and together with amplifiers and filters are among the essential components of radio transmission systems. The following sections explain the functional principle of a mixer and then describe the circuits used in practical applications.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Chapter 29:. Appendix

PSpice from OrCAD (previously MicroSim) is a circuit simulator from the Spice family (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) for the simulation of analog, digital, and mixed analog/digital circuits. In 1970 Spice was developed at Berkely University and is available today in the version 3F5 for use without licence. On this basis, commercial offshoots evolved which contain specific expansions and additional modules for entering circuits graphically, presenting results and controlling processes. The most common ones are PSpice and HSpice. While HSpice from Synopsys (previously Meta Software) was designed for developing integrated circuits comprising several thousand transistors and is used in many IC design systems as the simulator, PSpice is a particularly well-priced and easy to operate simulation environment for developing small and medium-sized circuits on PCs with a Microsoft Windows operating system.
Ulrich Tietze, Christoph Schenk, Eberhard Gamm

Backmatter

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