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Über dieses Buch

This book provides semester-length coverage of electronics for embedded systems, covering most common analog and digital circuit-related issues encountered while designing embedded system hardware. It is written for students and young professionals who have basic circuit theory background and want to learn more about passive circuits, diode and bipolar transistor circuits, the state-of-the-art CMOS logic family and its interface with older logic families such as TTL, sensors and sensor physics, operational amplifier circuits to condition sensor signals, data converters and various circuits used in electro-mechanical device control in embedded systems. The book also provides numerous hardware design examples by integrating the topics learned in earlier chapters. The last chapter extensively reviews the combinational and sequential logic design principles to be able to design the digital part of embedded system hardware.



Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Passive Circuit Analysis

This chapter analyzes the first-order passive RC and RL circuits and the second-order passive RLC circuits encountered in all Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). The general understanding of passive circuits in time and frequency domains also establishes a vital background for more complex circuits that contain active elements such as diodes and transistors.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 2. Diode and Bipolar Transistor Circuits

This chapter reviews rectifier diodes, light emitting diodes, Zener diodes and explains simple circuits incorporating them. The chapter also includes a complete review of bipolar transistors, circuit behavior and the conditions that lead to the bipolar transistor to operate in cut-off, active and saturation regions.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 3. MOS Transistors and CMOS Circuits

The third chapter explains the N-channel and the P-channel MOS transistors, their current-voltage characteristics and CMOS gates. It explains the proper circuit design techniques that lead to transistor sizing to meet design requirements prior to simulation. The estimation of rise and fall times, rise and fall delays are also given in this chapter as a function of load capacitance or gate fan-out.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 4. TTL Logic and CMOS-TTL Interface

This chapter starts with Transistor-Transistor-Logic (TTL), explains the circuit operation of a TTL inverter, TTL NAND and NOR gates, their logic levels and fan-out limit. However, the emphasis of this chapter is more about the CMOS-TTL interface and the various circuits used at the interface for successful logic translation.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 5. Physics of Sensors

Sensors and preliminary sensor physics are discussed in this chapter. The most common sensors such as thermocouple, photo-diode and photo-detector, Hall-effect device and piezoelectric sensors are examined with examples.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 6. Operational Amplifiers and Circuits

This chapter examines the operational amplifiers and low-frequency operation amplifier circuits used for sensor amplification and conditioning. Voltage and trans-resistance amplifiers, analog comparators, Schmitt triggers, square waveform generators are included in this chapter.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 7. Data Converters

This chapter reviews the theory behind data converters such as analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and digital-to-analog converters (DAC). Many different types of ADC designs, such as flash, ramp and successive approximation are explained in this chapter with numerical examples. The weighted adder-type and ladder-type DAC designs are also shown in this chapter.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 8. Front-End Electronics for Embedded Systems

This chapter combines most of the sensors studied in the previous chapters to explain the electromechanical control circuits. The usage of relay switch, opto-isolator, Hall-effect device, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) circuits to operate electromechanical devices, such as DC motors, are also discussed. In the last part of this chapter, several full-scale, front-end electronics projects are presented. In each project, sensor characteristics are discussed, signal conditioning stage is designed to clean up the amplified sensor signal to prepare the unit for analog-to-digital conversion, and finally a proper ADC is selected to interface with the microcontroller.
Ahmet Bindal

Chapter 9. Review of Combinational and Sequential Logic Circuits and Design

In order to provide a reference material for all the past eight chapters, a brief review of combinational and sequential logic design principles is presented in this chapter. A complete design does not only contain a sensor, analog signal conditioning circuits and data converters. Combinational and sequential logic blocks, in the form of “glue logic”, support various parts of the analog data-path, and therefore they constitute the major part of the design. Some of the analog front-end projects presented at the end of chapter eight prove that both analog and digital components must be integrated in a design in order to achieve complete functionality. Therefore, a solid understanding in digital logic design becomes a requirement to be able to build the entire analog front-end electronics for a sensor array prior to interfacing with a microcontroller.
Ahmet Bindal


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