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Über dieses Buch

Preface to first edition 1997 This book has developed from more that 40 years of work with static electric problems and almost as long a period of teaching courses on electrostatics, primarily at The Technical University of Denmark. Several chapters of the book are hardly more than a brush-up of the general knowledge of most physicists. But with the ever increasing specialization, in today's teaching and research, little attention seems to be paid to simple and basic relations. For this regrettable fact I am grateful. It is my hope that the book may take the newcomer by the hand and also remind the specialist of some basic facts she may have forgotten or perhaps never learned. Preface to second edition This book differs from the first edition by several topics being totally rewritten. This is the case as far as chapters 4, 5, 6 and 8 are concerned. The background for the new versions is to a large extent my contributions to the ESDA (ElectroStatic Discharge Association) symposia and tutorials and especially my articles (Mr. Static) in Compliance Engineering. Most of the figures have been redrawn. A major part has been borrowed from Compliance Engineering, and the permission to do so is gratefully acknowledged.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
If you ask an average group of people “Do you know anything about electromagnetic induction?” or dielectric relaxation, Gauss’ law, the photoelectric effect or any other arbitrary selection of important physical phenomena or conce pts, the chances are that quite a large fraction of your group has never heard of them.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 2. Fundamental Concepts

Abstract
In order to understand basic static electric phenomena it is necessary to be familiar with some fundamental concepts.The most fundamental of these concepts is the charge.The closest we can get a definition of what a charge is, is to say that it is a property of some fundamental atomic particles, primarily the proton and electron.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 3. Static Electrification

Abstract
As already mentioned two bodies interacting with electrical forces are said to be charged. The main question is then: how do the bodies obtain the charges?
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 4. Decay of Charge

Abstract
Static electricity is often defined as the behavior of electric charges at rest on insulators or insulated conductors. Nevertheless, an important part of this science deals with the movement of charges under the action of the fields they create themselves, spreading or neutralizing the charges and making the fields decay As a matter of fact it is usually incorrect to talk about decay of a charge accumulation. If we have a certain amount of a radioactive substance the number of atoms will decrease with time, turning into other nuclides. And that process is a real decay But in the case of a static electric charge there is only one situation, where the charge literally disappears. That of a negatively charged metallic object being connected to ground through a metallic connection. In that situation the excess electrons will flow to ground. In all other situations the apparent decay consists of oppositely charged carriers, electrons or ions, being attracted to the charge where the field from the carriers will superimpose the original field making the total field decrease, i.e. decay.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 5. Electrical Breakdown

Abstract
Under normal circumstances atmospheric air is considered a good insulator, and a charged insulator or insulated body will loose it’s charge slowly when surrounded by air. The reason for this is that air, as a rule, contain very few mobile charge carriers, atmospheric ions.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 6. Electrostatic Effects

Abstract
In Chapter 3: STATIC ELECTRIFICATION the principal ways in which electrical charges can be separated was discussed. After separation the charges may be located on insulators or insulated conductors. All effects of such static charge distributions are caused by the forces upon and between themselves or induced charges on grounded and ungrounded conductors, or from forces on the charge distributions on airborne charge carriers, i.e. ions and electrons.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 7. Abatement of Static Electricity

Abstract
Although useful applications of static electric effects are numerous, in most peoples’ mind static electric phenomena are harmful, and their effects should be avoided and abated
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 8. Electrostatic Measurements

Abstract
Most static electric measurements involve the determination of fundamental electric quantities, like voltage difference, current, resistance, and capacitance. In practice, however, electrostatic measurements differ from traditional electrical measurements, first of all because the voltage differences are caused by static charge distributions, which are unable to deliverer a current without ruining the voltages.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 9. Static Electricity and People

Abstract
Static electricity has often, at least in some parts of the world, in a rather unspecific way been attributed effects on human beings — usually unhealthy and/or unpleasant effects. In this chapter we shall discuss such effects, which are documented, or at least have a scientifically based possibility of being real.
Niels Jonassen

Chapter 10. Applications of Static Electricity

Abstract
In the previous chapters we have discussed the effects of mostly fortuitous static charge distributions and most of the time we have considered the concepts of static electricity and static electric fields as one of nature’s more useless whims only causing inconveniences to mankind. But this attitude is not really fair. An increasing number of important processes, industrial as well as some at a more modest scale, are totally or in part based on electrostatic phenomena. Although the use of these processes is common and widespread, many people do not realize their static background. Among the many examples of such processes let us mention: precipitation of airborne particulates, separation of different materials, electrostatic surface treatment (with liquids as well as powders) and electrostatic copying and printing. Of more specific applications are constructions like: electrostatic generators, motors, speakers and microphones.
Niels Jonassen

Backmatter

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