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This volume honors the lifetime achievements of the distinguished activist and scholar Elise Boulding (1920–2010) on the occasion of her 95th birthday. Known as the “matriarch” of the twentieth century peace research movement, she made significant contributions in the fields of peace education, future studies, feminism, and sociology of the family, and as a prominent leader in the peace movement and the Society of Friends. She taught at the University of Colorado, Boulder from 1967 to 1978 and at Dartmouth College from 1978 to 1985, and was instrumental in the development of peace studies programs at both institutions. She was a co-founder of the International Peace Research Association (1964), the Consortium on Peace Research Education and Development (1970), and various peace and women’s issues-related committees and working groups of the American Sociological Association and International Sociological Association.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Elise Boulding on Peace Research and Peace Education

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Study of Conflict and Community in the International System: Summary and Challenges to Research (1967)

Abstract
It is a paradox that research on conflict processes and integrative processes in the international system has been slow in getting underway in that very same century which has made the great discovery that here is an international system. In the dawn of the year 1900 it looked as if a peaceful world community would come of itself. World War I made this prospect a little less self-evident, and in the thirties a number of social scientists began thinking about what contributions their disciplines might make to the problems of international order. Quincy Wright’s A Study of War (1942) embodied the pioneering interdisciplinary efforts for a new study of international relations made at the University of Chicago in that decade. Anthropologists struggled to conceptualize modem warfare more adequately and to relate the phenomenon of war to evolution.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 2. Peace Research: Dialectics and Development (1972)

Abstract
When scholars committed to peace and conflict research first began consciously separating themselves from the older discipline of international relations, particularly during the period of explosive development of new institutions and working groups in the late fifties and early sixties, much time was spent trying to figure out the logical basis for an essentially intuitive revolt against the “International Relations (IR) Establishment.” Intuitions of a new way of thinking have a way of leaping out of the existing fields of one’s conceptual structures, leaving the mind with the task of reorganizing cognitive maps. In the course of cognitive reorganization that followed on the initial intuitive leap, peace researchers elaborated so many different ways of mapping the peace research field that they acquired a somewhat illusory sense of working in an intellectual movement of enormous diversity in terms of conceptualizations and substantive interests.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 3. Perspectives of Women Researchers on Disarmament, National Security and World Order (1981)

Abstract
Since disarmament and problems of national security and world order are not fields in which women scholars are generally considered to be prominent, the decision to do a survey of how women working in this field treat these problems immediately presented the challenge of how to identify enough scholars in the field to give a fair picture of their work. This survey therefore can serve two purposes: (1) to find out what specialists in the field do and (2) to make these women visible to one another and provide the ingredients of an informal network for those who choose to use it. The isolation of professional women from one another as well as from colleagueship with men is one of the extra handicaps under which they work.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 4. World Security and the Future from the Junior High School Perspective (1981)

Abstract
We have before us a panel of experts on the view of world security from the seventh grade, two young men and two young women. They are experts because they are the only ones here who have the expertise of knowing what it is like to experience today’s world as twelve-year old persons. They are the only ones who know their memories of the past decade, the only ones who know their hopes and fears for the future. In this International Year of the Child there have been many programs about children and youth, and few programs involving them as active collaborators. I have called the unrecorded activities of women the Underside of History. Today I would add the unrecorded activities of children to that Underside. They have burdensome responsibilities to carry out, and burdensome judgments to make, in home, school and neighborhood that go unnoticed. To the extent that we dismiss what they do as “child’s play” we are the losers. They are in fact our collaborators, and we must learn to think of them in that way. The future depends on how well we listen to them, learn from them, dialogue with them, and engage in cooperative activities with them.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 5. Peace Education as Peace Development (1987)

Abstract
Peace education has been the stepchild of both the peace research and the peace action communities in the post-Word II era. Not seen as intellectually respectable enough for the researchers, not action-oriented enough for the activists, it has been regarded as the domain of do-gooder teachers and tactically unskilled community volunteers. As for impacting foreign policy, it is thought of as the least effective instrument in the peace field. Taking another point of view entirely, I will argue that peace education is the critical interface between research and action, and a major vehicle for the underlying culture change necessary for peace development in war-dominated societies.
J. Russell Boulding

Elise Boulding on Peacemaking

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. The Child and Nonviolent Social Change (1978)

Abstract
Any design for a nonviolent world must take special account of what happens to children, and what they are prepared for. Since in any case they are the shapers of the future, we cannot avoid an examination of the nature of the child and the impact of various socialization experiences on the child’s capacity to act nonviolently on a changing social order. The socialization model developed here draws on several different disciplinary frameworks and research areas that have not been brought together before in just this way. Included are (1) animal and human ethology, with emphasis on both genetic and developmental aspects of animal-man potentials; (2) a variety of social learning theories; (3) a delineation of the social spaces within which the individual receives social shaping and acts out roles; and finally (4) a review of studies on altruism and nonviolent activists in recent protest movements.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 7. Image and Action in Peace Building (1988)

Abstract
Usually the historical record is invoked to show the inevitability of war. Indeed history (mostly written by men) is largely a story of wars won or lost. Yet the capacity to envision a human condition of peacefulness is a continuing feature of every civilization, handed down from generation to generation. The current lack of general awareness of this imagery compounds the feeling that war is inevitable. Earlier civilizations knew their “peace stories.” The Greeks celebrated the Elysian fields where former warriors laid weapons aside and walked arm in arm through green meadows discoursing on philosophy and declaiming poetry. The Norse warriors feasted and shared like brothers on the mythological plains of Ida. Chinese writings described a small and sparsely populated kingdom “where people love their lives and no one wants to move afar .... Fine weapons are in their possession, but no one uses them”. In the ancient Hebrew prophecy, swords shall be beaten into plowshares and nation shall not lift up a sword against nation. The Christian book of Revelations speaks of the river of the water of life, where the tree of life grows, with its leaves for the healing of the nations. In the Islamic scriptures God guards humans from the evil of the day, gives them radiancy and gladness, and rewards patience with the gift of a peaceable garden.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 8. New Understanding of Citizenship: Path to a Peaceful Future? (2003)

Abstract
This article, written when Elise Boulding was 82 years old, integrates themes that she had written about over a period of many years into a multidimensional view of citizenship that embraces love of the local community, one’s nation, the international community as exemplified by the constellation of institutions that make up the United Nations and Gaia/Mother Earth herself.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 9. The Other America: The Forgivers and the Peacemakers (2003)

Abstract
In spite of all the public rhetoric about the United States being the world’s policeman, a corollary of the Manifest Destiny doctrine, in spite of the new drive to achieve mastery in space through an anti-ballistic missile defense system, and in spite of our commitment to keep order in our own society by being tougher on crime, there is another America with a long history of nonviolence and peacemaking, forgiveness, and reconciliation. This history goes back to William Penn’s Holy Experiment in the colony of Pennsylvania in the last decades of the 1600s, which involved both Quaker settlers and Native Americans. … It might be said that from the beginning, the two traditions of the gentle Quakers and the judgmental Puritans were present but that the Puritan tradition has remained more visible. Although the willingness to use violence to right wrongs has been the more celebrated image, traditions of nonviolent problem solving and peaceful change strategies played a significant role in the American Revolution itself and have been alive and present in a continuing series of movements over the past three centuries.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 10. Witness to Islam’s Creativity: A Scholar’s Reflections on the Islamic Contribution to Peace Dialogue Among Faiths (2003)

Abstract
I am often asked why a retiree Quaker sociologist associates herself with Islam and the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA). As one associated with developing peace and world order studies over the past half-century, I deeply appreciate Islamic Horizons’ coverage of so many positive aspects of American Muslim life and thought. This inherent creativity is a good antidote to the prevailing negative coverage of Islam since September 11.
J. Russell Boulding

Elise Boulding on the Future

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Futurology and the Imaging Capacity of the West (1970)

Abstract
With professional futurists crowding to the microphone to announce the outlines of the future, it is of some interest to examine today’s futurology in the light of the work of one of the first post-World War Two futurologists, Fred Polak. When he sat down at his desk in The Hague to write The Image of the Future in 1951, he felt driven by a sense of extreme urgency to point out to his colleagues in the West that their visioning capacity was becoming seriously impaired. Many great European thinkers had suffered, gone underground or died, and he himself emerged from years of continuous hiding as a Jew in the Netherlands determined to show that young men could still dream dreams.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 12. The Dynamics of Imaging Futures (1978)

Abstract
Forecasting, prediction and social planning involve well-developed methodologies for dealing with the future, but they depend for their effectiveness on the capacity to imagine otherness. The very fact that we have made tremendous advances in data collection techniques for the measurement of social, economic and political development nationally and for the planet 7 as a whole, and comparable advances in the use of the computer for increasingly complex social and economic planning, has blinded us to the shrinking time horizon within which planning is done.
J. Russell Boulding

Chapter 13. A Journey into the Future: Imagining a Nonviolent World (2002)

Abstract
The inspiration for this essay came to me after a daylong workshop on Imagining a Nonviolent World which I offered for prisoners at the Massachusetts Correctional Institution at Norfolk on a wintry Saturday morning. This type of imaging workshop first evolved in the late 1970s, as I began to realize that we peace activists, working to bring about a nonviolent world without war, really had no idea how a world in which armies had disappeared would function. How could we work to bring about something we could not even see in our imaginations? Stepping back into the 1950s in my own mind, I remembered translating Fred Polak’s Image of the Future from the Dutch original, a macrohistorical analysis that showed a war paralyzed and depressed Europe how past societies in bad situations but with positive images of the future had been empowered by their own imaginations to work to bring the imaged future about. Here was a possible answer!
J. Russell Boulding

Backmatter

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