Skip to main content

Über dieses Buch

Opening with a detailed review of existing techniques for selective encryption, this text then examines algorithms that combine both encryption and compression. The book also presents a selection of specific examples of the design and implementation of secure embedded multimedia systems. Features: reviews the historical developments and latest techniques in multimedia compression and encryption; discusses an approach to reduce the computational cost of multimedia encryption, while preserving the properties of compressed video; introduces a polymorphic wavelet architecture that can make dynamic resource allocation decisions according to the application requirements; proposes a light-weight multimedia encryption strategy based on a modified discrete wavelet transform; describes a reconfigurable hardware implementation of a chaotic filter bank scheme with enhanced security features; presents an encryption scheme for image and video data based on chaotic arithmetic coding.



Multimedia Systems


Chapter 1. Introduction

In the past few years, multimedia communication has gained significant attention, particularly over mobile and embedded devices (such as wireless sensors). Multimedia applications are data-intensive, therefore requiring special treatment as against common data coding, communication and encryption applications. This section discusses some basics about video coding, data encryption and computer architectures used for data processing.
Chapter goals:
  • Basic introduction to video coding techniques.
  • Basic introduction to video encryption techniques.
  • Basic introduction to ‘general-purpose’ and ‘custom’ computer architectures.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno

Chapter 2. Advances in Multimedia Encryption

Rapid advances in embedded systems and mobile communications have flooded the market with a large volume of multimedia data. In this chapter, we present a summary of multimedia compression and encryption schemes, and the way they have evolved over the decades.
Chapter goals:
  • Familiarize with existing deal of research approaches in the area of multimedia encryption.
  • Summary of key/popular schemes proposed in research literature.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno

Chapter 3. Securing Multimedia Content Using Joint Compression and Encryption

Algorithmic parameterization and hardware architectures can ensure secure transmission of multimedia data in resource-constrained environments such as wireless video surveillance networks, tele-medicine frameworks for distant health care support in rural areas, and Internet video streaming. Joint multimedia compression and encryption techniques can significantly reduce the computational requirements of video processing systems. We present an approach to reduce the computational cost of multimedia encryption, while also preserving the properties of compressed video (useful for scalability, transcoding, and retrieval), which endangers loss by naive encryption. Hardware-amenable design of proposed algorithms makes them suitable for real-time embedded multimedia systems. This approach alleviates the need of additional hardware for encryption in resource-constrained scenario, and can be otherwise used to augment existing encryption methods used for content delivery in Internet or other applications.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno



Chapter 4. Polymorphic Wavelet Transform

Many modern computing applications have been enabled through the use of real-time multimedia processing. While several hardware architectures have been proposed in the research literature to support such primitives, these fail to address applications whose performance and resource requirements have a dynamic aspect. Embedded multimedia systems typically need a power and computation efficient design in addition to good compression performance. In this chapter, we introduce a Polymorphic Wavelet Architecture (Poly-DWT) as a crucial building block towards the development of embedded systems to address such challenges. We illustrate how our Poly-DWT architecture can potentially make dynamic resource allocation decisions, such as the internal bit representation and the processing kernel, according to the application requirements. We introduce a filter switching architecture that allows for dynamic switching between 5/3 and 9/7 wavelet filters and leads to a more power-efficient design. Further, a multiplier-free design with a low adder requirement demonstrates the potential of Poly-DWT for embedded systems. Through an FPGA prototype, we perform a quantitative analysis of our Poly-DWT architecture, and compare our filter to existing approaches to illustrate the area and performance benefits inherent in our approach. Poly-DWT serves as an example of joint design of algorithms and architectures for multimedia compression.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno

Chapter 5. The Secure Wavelet Transform

There has been an increasing concern for the security of multimedia transactions over real-time embedded systems. Partial and selective encryption schemes have been proposed in the research literature, but these schemes significantly increase the computation cost leading to tradeoffs in system latency, throughput, hardware requirements and power usage. In this work, we propose a light-weight multimedia encryption strategy based on a modified Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) which we refer to as the Secure Wavelet Transform (SWT). The SWT provides joint multimedia encryption and compression by two modifications over the traditional DWT implementations: (a) parameterized construction of the DWT and (b) subband re-orientation for the wavelet decomposition. The SWT has rational coefficients which allow us to build a high throughput hardware implementation on fixed point arithmetic. We obtain a zero-overhead implementation on custom hardware. Furthermore, a Look-up table-based reconfigurable implementation allows us to allocate the encryption key to the hardware at run-time. Direct implementation on Xilinx Virtex FPGA gave a clock frequency of 60 MHz, while a reconfigurable multiplier-based design gave an improved clock frequency of 114 MHz. The pipelined implementation of the SWT achieved a clock frequency of 240 MHz on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA and met the timing constraint of 500 MHz on a standard cell realization using 45 nm CMOS technology. SWT introduces parametrization of a video compression operation for video encryption by generating a parametric key for encryption. Implementations over FPGA and VLSI technology are both presented.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno

Chapter 6. Chaotic Filter Banks

Chaotic filter bank schemes have been proposed in the research literature to allow for the efficient encryption of data for real-time embedded systems. Some security flaws have been found in the underlying approaches which makes such a scheme unsafe for application in real life scenarios. In this work, we first present an improved scheme to alleviate the weaknesses of the chaotic filter bank scheme, and add enhanced security features, to form a Modified Chaotic Filter Bank (MCFB) scheme. Next, we present a reconfigurable hardware implementation of the MCFB scheme. Implementation on reconfigurable hardware speeds up the performance of MCFB scheme by mapping some of the multipliers in design to reconfigurable Look-Up Tables, while removing many unnecessary multipliers. An optimized implementation on Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX330 FPGA gave a speedup of 30 % over non-optimized direct implementation. A clock frequency of 88 MHz was obtained.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno

Chapter 7. Chaotic Arithmetic Coding

Arithmetic Coding (AC) is widely used for the entropy coding of text and multimedia data. It involves recursive partitioning of the range [0,1) in accordance with the relative probabilities of occurrence of the input symbols. In this work, we present a data (image or video) encryption scheme based on arithmetic coding, which we refer to as Chaotic Arithmetic Coding (CAC). In CAC, a large number of chaotic maps can be used to perform coding, each achieving Shannon-optimal compression performance. The exact choice of map is governed by a key. CAC has the effect of scrambling the intervals without making any changes to the width of interval in which the codeword must lie, thereby allowing encryption without sacrificing any coding efficiency. We next describe Binary CAC (BCAC) with some simple Security Enhancement (SE) modes which can alleviate the security of a scheme against known cryptanalysis against AC-based encryption techniques. These modes, namely Plaintext Modulation (PM), Pair-Wise-Independent Keys (PWIK), and Key and ciphertext Mixing (MIX) modes have insignificant computational overhead, while BCAC decoder has lower hardware requirements than BAC coder itself, making BCAC with SE as excellent choice for deployment in secure embedded multimedia systems. A bit sensitivity analysis for key and plaintext is presented along with experimental tests for compression performance.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno

Chapter 8. Conclusion

This book gave a glimpse to joint approaches to the design of secure embedded multimedia systems.
Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno


Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.



Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung

Unternehmen haben das Innovationspotenzial der eigenen Mitarbeiter auch außerhalb der F&E-Abteilung erkannt. Viele Initiativen zur Partizipation scheitern in der Praxis jedoch häufig. Lesen Sie hier  - basierend auf einer qualitativ-explorativen Expertenstudie - mehr über die wesentlichen Problemfelder der mitarbeiterzentrierten Produktentwicklung und profitieren Sie von konkreten Handlungsempfehlungen aus der Praxis.
Jetzt gratis downloaden!