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Über dieses Buch

This inspiring textbook provides an essential introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores the potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design.

The book discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, the interrelation between given coverage and connectivity to the number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine the location of the base station for data collection, while also exploring the use of anchor nodes to determine the relative positions of sensors. The book addresses energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting, together with key topics in sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and potential applications. The book defines routing methods and performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology and covers sensor-based intrusion detection.

The book focuses on applications such as interaction with actuators, final design with respect to a given application, personal and body-area networks for health-care applications and sensor networks as an integral component of the IoT. The importance of both coverage and connectivity is examined thoroughly in both randomly deployed sensor networks for defense applications and regularly placed sensors for an industrial setup.

The content includes exercises as well as design-based project concepts. The book’s comprehensive coverage makes it well suited for use as a textbook for graduate and upper undergraduate courses, or as course material for professional courses.



General Sensor Characteristics


Chapter 1. Introduction to Cell Phones and Wireless Technologies

Cell phones or mobile phones have unprecedented impact on human lifestyle, and people are busy communicating with each other using such devices.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 2. Applications of Sensor Networks

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consisting of a large number of randomly deployed sensor nodes (SNs) was initially introduced for intrusion detection for tactical applications , and a scheme determining type and number of talks in a battlefield is shown in Fig. 2.1.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 3. Different Types of Transducers

A transducer basically converts energy from one form to another, usually from many different forms such as energy, force, torque, light, motion, and position to electrical signals and is shown in Fig. 3.1. Active transducer such as a thermocouple converts temperature to voltage and do not require any external energy. However, a passive transducer is based on change in some passive electrical quantity, such as capacitance, resistance, or inductance, and requires external energy source.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 4. Transducers’ Range Modeling

Transducers have been proposed for many unattended surveillance applications , forest fire detection, and healthcare monitoring. As we use a thermometer to measure temperature, the reading represents for the whole body and there is no need to use a second thermometer.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 5. Clock Synchronization and Localization

WSNs have numerous applications and are usually embedded in the environment. The basic objective in a WSN is to collect sensed data from a large number of SNs at one location commonly known as BS (or sink node), analyze the data to monitor the environment, and eventually control the actuator.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 6. Topology Discovery, Residual Energy, and Energy Harvesting

A WSN commonly has a large number of randomly deployed SNs that send their sensed data to a BS. As each SN uses battery as the energy source, energy consumption is of prime concern. As the energy consumed is a function of square of distance, a transmitted signal can be received, and information is transmitted from a SN to BS in a multi-hop fashion.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 7. TCP, Neighborhood Formation, Reliable Transport, and Simulators for WSNs

TCP is the widely used transport protocol and most of the IP-based technologies already well known and proven to be working. The pervasive nature of IP networks allows use of an existing infrastructure. But, TCP needs to distinguish between the natures of errors.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 8. Sensor Nodes (SNs), Camera Sensor Nodes (C-SNs), and Remote Sensor Nodes (RSNs)

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of sensor nodes (SNs) that transmit a volume of data to a central station, commonly known as a base station (BS) or sink node in a multi hop fashion.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Random Topology


Chapter 9. Sensor Node Coverage and Connectivity for Random Deployment

A comprehensive sensor node (SN) has been developed by the University of California at Berkeley and marketed by Crossbow, and the resulting product Mica mote (www.​memsic.​com/​wireless-sensor-networks/​, [1]) is shown in Fig. 9.1.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 10. Medium Access and Routing

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of sensor nodes (SNs) that collect data at BS or sink node in a multi-hop fashion. The SNs use a single channel and could have collision present under many different scenarios as the hidden terminal problem was discussed in earlier chapter.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 11. Broadcasting, Data Aggregation, and Opportunistic Forwarding

A large number of SNs are randomly deployed in a WSN, and the question that comes is how each SN route data to BS? In order to conserve energy, usually multi-hop solution is adopted.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 12. Clustering and Energy Consumption Minimization

A large number of SNs are deployed in a WSN, and SNs need to route data to BS. This creates a volume of data at BS and efforts need to be made to reduce the size of data. One effective approach is to explore the use of clustering WSN such that cluster members can send data to selected CH where data are aggregated and a single packet is forwarded by each CH. This leads to drastic reduction in data size.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 13. Intrusion Detection Using WSNs

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of small, cheap, and low-powered sensors which can dynamically form a network without any infrastructure and is supported by wireless communication while the objective is to monitor environmental changes in a given area.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Regular Topology


Chapter 14. Coverage and Connectivity for Regular Deployments

Up till now, we have considered WSN to have a large number of randomly deployed SNs, primarily useful for defense applications and natural disasters. But, they can be utilized using a regular topology pattern if the area is accessible and SNs can be placed at any point within the area.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 15. Routing and Performance of Regular WSNs

We considered the usefulness of regular deployments of WSNs, and it is time now to quantify some of the specific parameters and compare how they perform as compared to a random scheme. An obvious reason to use regular scheme is that a desired area can be covered by fewer SNs and some underlying characteristics are shown in Table 15.1.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 16. Personal/Body Area Networks and Healthcare Applications

A personal area network (PAN) is the interconnection of devices for information technology within the range of a single person, characteristically within a range of 10 m, and is typically coupled with wireless links and hence called wireless PAN (WPAN). These devices could be Bluetooth-based or ZigBee, or even new near-field communication components as pico-networks.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Security and Actuator Issues


Chapter 17. Authentication, Encryption, and Secured Communication

WSNs are impacting our daily life and are deployed 24×7 unattended monitoring a given environment. Therefore, many possible attacks are possible. Moreover, authentication of a user is an important factor that needs special consideration. This ensures that the user that is claiming is the correct one and is applied to different SNs. Then, when data are transferred from SNs to BS, the data must be transferred in a secured way. This also applies to transfer query from BS to SNs, and encrypting transmitted data is critical. These are the topics considered in this chapter.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 18. Interaction with Actuators and WSN Test Beds

SN in a WSN senses the environment and sends data to BS which makes decision about corrective action that needs separate unit(s) called actuators. In this way, SNs sense the environment and measure multiple physical properties, thereby acting as an interface between physical world and devices.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Research Directions


Chapter 19. Deployed Large-Scale WSNs and Associated Design Steps

SNs and WSNs are being used for numerous civilian and defense areas and numerous applications have been covered in Chap. 2. In most of these presentations, few SNs have been deployed to show usefulness in different areas and very few projects deal with a large number of SNs for continuing monitoring over few months.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal

Chapter 20. Recent Advances

The use of WSNs is being explored in new application areas and they offer endless possibilities. Researchers across the globe are busy finding new areas of research, and development is progressing at an unprecedented rate.
Dharma Prakash Agrawal


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