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This book intends to bring together and integrate the subject matter of water quality. The book covers aspects of water related to climate change, emerging aspects of engineering sciences, bio-geochemical sciences, hydro geochemistry, river management and morphology, social sciences, and public policy. The book covers the role of disruptive innovations in water management, policy formation and impact mitigation strategies. The book includes lab results as well as case studies. It provides recommendations and solutions for policy making and sustainable water management. The chapters in this book deal cohesively with many aspects of the water environment during the Anthropocene era. The contents cover myriad issues, such as land degradation, water scarcity, urbanization, climate change, and disruptive innovation. The book also discusses issues highly pertinent to society and sustainability, such as the prevalence of enteric viruses and pharmaceutical residues as a possible anthropogenic markers in the aquatic environment. The book will prove useful for students, professionals, and researchers working on various aspects of water related concerns.



Chapter 1. A Review on Antibiotic Resistance Gene (ARG) Occurrence and Detection in WWTP in Ishikawa, Japan and Colombo, Sri Lanka

In this chapter, we give a brief overview on occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene in WWTP based on previous studies conducted in several countries. Then, we describe our initial effort in antibiotic resistance gene screening from samples collected in four WWTP in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, employing the activated sludge process, and wastewater samples collected from WWTPs in Colombo, Sri Lanka, Bangkok, Thailand, and Can Tho, Vietnam.
Sulfikar, Sorn Sovannlaksmy, Ryo Honda, Tushara Chaminda, Manish Kumar

Chapter 2. Two Sides of a Coin: Targets and By-Products of Water and Wastewater Treatment

With time new methods/technique developed for clean/portable as same, it is essential to authenticate them. In this chapter the discussion on what is the disadvantage of tertiary treatment including harmful disinfection by-products (DBP). The details of Trihalomethanes, Haloacetic acid, Nitrosamine and Perfluorinated compounds, its necessary condition like precursors for formation the in treatment. As well as how to get rid of these compounds and their pathways are also summarized. Chlorination is the cheapest, realistic and most effective method in comparison to ozonation and UV radiations. Among all the methods mentioned above, chlorination is the cheapest, realistic and most effective method for achieving the best results. However, its results in harmful disinfection by-products, which need to understand the critical situation.
Bhagwana Ram, Divya Sharma, Manish Kumar

Chapter 3. Water Quality Under the Changing Climatic Condition: A Review of the Indian Scenario

The current work reviews the state of Indian water quality under the climate change regime. Rising temperatures will lead to higher concentration of pollutants like nutrients (nitrates, phosphates etc.), persistent organic pollutants and pesticides. Probable negative consequences include increase in harmful algal blooms, toxicity hazards in people etc. Rising temperatures could lead to release of higher amounts of fluoride and uranium due to prevalence of drier oxic conditions, and also arsenic due to release from iron (hydr)oxides. Implications on emerging contaminants, a new class of pollutants without any regulatory status, is not clearly understood. Prevalence of microbes in water is also predicted to increase. Coastal aquifers appear to be at risk from salt water intrusion. Conflicts on the international and national platform is predicted to rise due to issues with sharing of water. Lastly, we also discuss the sustainability options for water in India under a changing climatic regime, under three broad subcategories signifying the roles of (1) science, (2) policies and legal framework and the (3) people perspective, while also highlighting the existing lacunae.
Nilotpal Das, Chandan Mahanta, Manish Kumar

Chapter 4. Review on Occurrence and Toxicity of Pharmaceutical Contamination in Southeast Asia

The manufacture and use of pharmaceuticals for human and veterinary use is on the rise in Southeast Asian countries. Thus, the discharge from wastewater treatment plants may contain pharmaceuticals across a wide range of drug classes. Various regions in Southeast Asia are characterized by species richness, presence of threatened species and diversity of endemic species. The rapidly growing economy, aquaculture and livestock industries, increased incidence of infectious diseases, and change in lifestyle may adversely affect these biodiversity hotspots due to increased release of pharmaceuticals. This review focuses on use and occurrence of five commonly used pharmaceutics, i.e., atenolol, carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, and 17 α-ethinylestradiol in the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants and in various aquatic environments, i.e., surface water, groundwater, marine environment and sediments. Threats posed by these pharmaceuticals are evident from a discussion on their adverse effects on various freshwater species. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) constructed for each of the pharmaceuticals using reproductive toxicity data for universal biomarker species reported in the literature, reveal the community level toxic effects of these pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem. Based on SSD and occurrence data, 17 α-ethinylestradiol poses the highest risk, while atenolol and carbamazepine poses negligible risk on reproductive toxicity/reproductive failure at the concentrations currently prevailing in the aquatic environment. The high risk posed by 17 α-ethinylestradiol is due to its ability to cause reproductive failure and/or vitellogenin induction at concentrations of the order of ng/L.
N. Gayathri Menon, Sanjeeb Mohapatra, Lokesh P. Padhye, Sankara Sarma V. Tatiparti, Suparna Mukherji

Chapter 5. Geochemical Modelling of Groundwater Using Multivariate Normal Distribution (MND) Theory

Groundwater has become scarce especially in arid and semi-arid regions but is essential for drinking, domestic purposes and for survival of human beings. It must be conserved and not used for irrigation and industrial purposes especially in areas where no surface water is available. Groundwater is rarely polluted by natural processes but often by excess use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and/or by disposal of untreated domestic/industrial wastes. Groundwater quality can be assessed using both physical (pH, EC, TDS etc.) and chemical characteristics (volume/weight concentrations of cations and anions measured on a sufficient water sample). Before use, groundwater must be tested for its required quality especially for drinking/domestic use. Quality of groundwater is assessed using linear statistical technology (multivariate normal distribution; MND) for measured continuous random variables on each sample. Prerequisites for applying MND theory are: (i) samples are independent and belong to one homogeneous population, and (ii) all input random variables possess Gaussian density. Since chemical constituents add to a constant sum (1.0 or 100%, 1000 (per mil), 1 million, 1 billion etc.) they are NOT INDEPENDENT as desired, but possess spurious negative correlations, as well as the random variables are not Gaussian but approximately log-normal with high positive skewness. Both these defects are simultaneously eliminated by log(c/(1 − c)) pre-transformation, where c (0 < c< 1) is the fractional concentration of any constituent. As chemical constituents (cations or anions) are found in trace quantities in groundwater, the log(c/(1 − c)) transform reduces to a simpler log (c) transform as inputs to MND model. The main MND methods are PCA and FA, Multiple Regression (Correlation) for a Single Populations and MANOVA, Linear Discriminant Functions (LDFs), MANCOVA for Multiple Populations. Geochemical models provide us with expected outcomes/correlations which can be compared/contrasted with observed outcomes/correlations to take appropriate and optimal decisions. Time series/geostatistical modeling requires very large number of samples along each line of investigation, hence these methods should not be used for routine groundwater studies.
B. K. Sahu

Chapter 6. Nutrient Exchange at Water and Sediment Interface of the Largest Brackish Water Lagoon (Chilika), South Asia

The nutrient flux (NO3, NH4+, PO43− and SiO44−) at water and sediment interface studied for the Asia’s largest brackish water lagoon, Chilika. The benthic chamber (in situ) and diffusive flux techniques were employed for the estimation of nutrient flux. Measured nutrient flux by benthic chamber technique varied in between 3,000 and 14,000 µmol m−2 d−1 for NO3, 2,000 and 20,000 µmol m−2 d−1 for NH4+, 120 and 2,400 µmol m−2 d–1 for PO43−, 3,000 and 20,000 µmol m−2 d−1 for SiO44−. Calculated nutrients flux by diffusive flux technique varied in between 1,200 and 7,500 µmol m−2 d−1 for NO3, 450 and 5,500 µmol m−2 d−1 for NH4+, 15 and 280 µmol m−2 d−1 for PO43−, and 1,500 and 4,800 µmol m−2 d−1 for SiO44−. Sectoral variation for the flux enrichment (in situ flux: diffusive flux) were in between 1 × 8 and 5 × 9 in the central sector, between 2 × 5 and 18 in the outer channel, and between 1 × 5 to 6 × 1 in the northern sector. The higher flux enrichment in outer channel could be due to dominance of macrofaunal activities. In central sector, the benthic fluxes of PO 4 −3 and NH4+ were 50 and 25% of the total nutrient flow of the Bhubaneswar municipal sewage treatment plant through river Daya and Bhargavi respectively. Pre-monsoon season, a noteworthy fractions of nutrients employed by primary producers in the water column, which is supplies by the benthic sediment regeneration in the central sector.
Saroja Kumar Barik, Prasanta Rath, Tapan Kumar Bastia, Dibakar Behera

Chapter 7. Determination of Anthropogenic Sources in the Groundwater Chemistry Along KT Boundary of South India

The variation in geochemistry of Ariyalur region was investigated by analyzing 71 samples for cations and anions like K+, Na+, F, Cl, HCO3, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42−, PO43−, NO3 and H4SiO4 along with the physico-chemical variables like pH, total dissolved Solid (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities in the study area. The statistical analysis reveals that the main factors governing the geochemistry of the regions are dissolution of secondary salts, anthropogenic activities and ion exchange. The study findings also suggest that, the enriched samples are mostly along the Archean and Cretaceous formation with high chloride, reflecting the recharge from open water source. Relatively enriched samples are observed in Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary formation with low chloride indicating the recharge from meteoric source. However, depleted samples of Quaternary and Tertiary formation with high chloride indicates recharge from anthropogenic sources.
N. Devaraj, S. Chidambaram, Banajarani Panda, C. Thivya, K. Tirumalesh, R. Thilagavathi

Chapter 8. Hydrogeochemical Investigation and Health Perspective of Arsenic in the Mid-Brahmaputra Floodplain of Assam, India

The present study focusses on understanding the hydrogeochemical processes favouring Arsenic (As) mobilization and its health perspective in the aquifers of the Mid-Brahmaputra Floodplains (BFP), India. Groundwater samples (n = 80) were collected from the study area during the period 2010–2017. Biomarkers viz. urine (n = 4), hair (n = 4) and nail (n = 3) were also collected from affected population for evaluating As exposure levels. The highest As concentration found in the study area was 44.39 µg/L. The relative abundance pattern of major ions showed Na+ and HCO3 to be the dominant ionic species. Piper plot suggested Mg–HCO3 water type (42%) to be dominant in the study area. Hydrogeochemical evaluation suggested the occurrence of both silicate and carbonate weathering processes in the aquifers. The relationship between As and ORP (r = −0.60**), SO42− (r = −0.44**), Fe (r = 0.79**) and pH (r = 0.34**) suggested that mobilization of As is favoured by dissolution of Fe(hydr)oxides in reduced environment at alkaline pH. This further corroborates the findings of PCA and correlation analyses. Inspection of exposure levels of the metalloid among the population revealed a probable sub-clinical effect of the same.
Latu Khanikar, Rashmi Rekha Gogoi, Kali Prasad Sarma

Chapter 9. Assessment of the Land-Use Pattern Changes and Its Impact on Groundwater Quality in Parts of the National Capital Region (NCR) Delhi, India

The changes in land use pattern are known to have a profound impact on the groundwater regime of a region. These changes coupled with the process of concretization in growing urban clusters could influence the local groundwater dynamics, which in turn may influence the chemistry of the groundwater resources. In this context, a study was undertaken in parts of the National Capital Region (NCR) Delhi, a region that has seen significant urbanization in the last decade. Thus, the study tries to highlight the linkage between urbanization and groundwater dynamics along with their impact on overall groundwater quality in Sonipat and Rohtak districts of Haryana. The study uses maps and other available resources to observe the changes in land use pattern, groundwater dynamics and quality between 2006, 2010 and 2014 to assess the situation. The observations from this study highlighted the extent of urbanization and its supposed influence of groundwater quality in the area. It showed that the impact of land use pattern change on groundwater quality of Sonipat and Rohtak districts is uneven. Further, it also revealed that even though the eastern part of the study area showed evidence of heavy groundwater abstraction and urbanization, water quality has remained good in these areas between the year 2006 and 2014.
Aditya Sarkar, Simran Arora, Suman Kumar, Shashank Shekhar, Suvrat Kaushik

Chapter 10. Assessment of Water Quality Using Multivariate Analysis—A Case Study on the Brahmaputra River, Assam, India

Chemical composition of river water is vital to assessment of water quality for irrigation, agriculture and domestic usage. Chemical attributes of riverine water primarily governed by natural weathering of rocks have become overshadowed by increasing range of anthropogenic activities. Progressive pollution of the river waters are critical as rivers in floodplain zones recharge ground water; a vital source of drinking water in India. The degree of impact of the anthropogenic activities within the surface waters of the developing countries has expanded significantly amid the past decades. Hence identification and quantification of natural as well as anthropogenic impact and understanding the source of contaminant is fundamental. In addition continuous monitoring of river water quality is required in order to maintain freshwater assets. The Brahmaputra River is the lifeline of Assam. People residing along its bank directly or indirectly are heavily dependent on the river for their livelihood. Majority of the population in the region is dependent on an agricultural economy. In the present study different multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied for evaluation of spatial and temporal variations of water quality of the Brahmaputra River for two years (2011–2014) by monitoring nine sampling sites from upstream to downstream along the Assam stretch. The present study highlights the usefulness and need of multivariate statistical assessment of the database in identification of main process that influence the water quality of the river and probable source of contamination.
Pallavi Das, Manish Kumar

Chapter 11. Performance Appraisal of Filter-Based Sanitation System for Onsite Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

This chapter deals with the long-term performance of a filter-based sanitation system, under the actual field conditions, to identify its feasibility as a package plant for on-site treatment of domestic wastewater generated by household activities. The study is aimed at designing a more efficient and low-cost sanitation system as a replacement for the conventional septic tank. Two bioreactors, a modified septic tank and an anaerobic bioreactor, are accommodated in a single compact unit in the proposed system. The septic tank is placed first, which is further connected to the anaerobic bioreactor. An attempt has also been made to do wastewater characterization at single-household level. The analysis of the monthly variations in the sludge characteristics and the associated microbial communities has also been done. The system performed substantially well in removing the major pollutants, including pathogens, during its long-term operation. Based on its on-site performance, the present package system with a simple design, easy operability, lesser maintenance and electricity-free functioning has a good potential to replace the conventional septic tank as far as domestic wastewater treatment in the unsewered areas of the developing countries is concerned.
M. K. Sharma, V. K. Tyagi, A. A. Kazmi

Chapter 12. Lake Eutrophication: Causes, Concerns and Remedial Measures

Eutrophication is one of the most challenging ecological problem that the surface water bodies are facing from more than a century ago. Human activities such as rapid urbanization and industrialization, improper sewage disposal, use of agrochemicals and laundry detergents etc. have resulted in rapid cultural eutrophication of many freshwater lakes in recent times. Eutrophication have serious impact on the whole ecosystem, drinking water, agriculture, fisheries, and economic as well as aesthetic view. The cases of lake eutrophication have been observed almost every part of the world, especially it is increasing in fast developing countries like China, India etc. In recent times several control measures have been implemented to mitigate eutrophication. Some of the methods such as biological control and physio-chemical control measures have been addressed in the review. However efficiency of these methods to control eutrophication are case specific and need detail investigation prior to choice of method. In recent times ecological modelling has emerged as a powerful tool for government and decision makers to implement a proper lake eutrophication control program. Present understanding of knowledge about lake eutrophication mechanism and its mitigation measures will be beneficial for future research as well as lake restoration prospects.
Biswajit Bhagowati, Bishal Talukdar, Kamal Uddin Ahamad

Chapter 13. Role of Phytoremediation Strategies in Removal of Heavy Metals

Heavy metal pollution is a threat to the environment in the current world as they are non-biodegradable. Phytoremediation has emerged as a technology for removal of contaminants from the polluted environmental components like water, soil and air. It has attracted attention in recent years for environmental benefits through the implementation of low cost materials. Various mechanisms of heavy metal phytoremediation are phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. This paper reviews phytoremediation strategies that are being used for heavy metal remediation. The full scale application of phytoremediation technology is obstructed due to dearth of information about uptake and translocation of metals, role of chelants in metal enrichment and after effects of the technology. Hence, a multidisciplinary perception is required to make it as a commercially suitable technology for heavy metal remediation. It has a great potential as a feasible alternative to traditional remediation methods.
Leela Kaur

Chapter 14. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals/Metalloids by Native Herbaceous Macrophytes of Wetlands: Current Research and Perspectives

This chapter focuses on heavy metal/metalloid phytoremediation potential of some native herbaceous wetland macrophytes with special reference to macrophytes found in wetlands of Assam, India. Depending on the plant type, site condition and contaminants, seven different plant-based phytoremediation techniques can be used. Aquatic macrophytes are usually found to follow phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) technique for cleanup of inorganic as well as organic contaminants in aquatic environment. Physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of the plants are being studied for better understanding of metal uptake, translocation, localization and tolerance capacity. Accumulation of toxic metals/metalloids in plant cells cause deactivation of cell enzymes, consequently affects plant growth. Detoxification mechanisms of plant to survive and grow in metal contaminated environments include chelation of metal cations by ligands and sequestered away these toxic metal complexes into less metabolically active sites such as vacuoles and cell wall where metal cannot readily dissociate. Different techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nuclear micro-probe technique (NMP) are applied to assess the distribution of metals/metalloids in plant tissues at subcellular level. However, physicochemical parameters such as pH, salinity, light, temperature and, presence of other cations and anions also play important roles in metal/metalloids uptake by macrophyte. Some of the macrophytes are reported as hyperaccumulator of one or more metals/metalloids. Many of the native macrophytes found in Indian wetlands also have worldwide distribution which indicates their global interest in the research area of phytoremediation. This chapter also presents an appraisal of the current research and practical applicability of these macrophytes in an effort to elucidate their significance in environmental pollution research. A multidisciplinary as well as integrated approach towards this phytoremediation technology is necessary to make it as the most promising solution to combat heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment.
Monashree Sarma Bora, Kali Prasad Sarma

Chapter 15. Mitigating the Risk of Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination of Groundwater Through a Multi-model Framework of Statistical Assessment and Natural Remediation Techniques

The present book chapter discusses the mechanism of Arsenic and Fluoride release in the groundwater and its related toxicity. The use of spatial modelling techniques involving machine learning classification algorithms can help predict the concentration in binary outputs. The variability in the cause of occurrence of Arsenic forces researchers to try different adsorption materials that could help decrease the concentration levels of contaminants to permissible levels. The co-occurrence of Fluoride and Arsenic at places complicates both prediction as well as remediation. Therefore a multi-model technique involving statistical assessment and natural remediation is required to be used in tandem.
Ashwin Singh, Arbind Kumar Patel, Manish Kumar

Chapter 16. Water Management: Effects on Human Health and Nutrition

India was a net importer of foods at independence 1947. The “green revolution” in the following decades changed this dramatically. Affordable fertilizers, better seeds and irrigation were major factors behind this, irrigation being the main factor. While this has improved nutrition, problems like salinization, alkalinisation and “mining” of trace elements may have effects on human health. Excess fluoride causing dental and skeletal fluorosis is common in connection to alkaline soils. Increase in yields by irrigation and increased use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers have caused mining of trace elements like zinc, important for the immune response in notably children. Increased use of groundwater in households have decreased exposure to bacterial pollution. However, locally the new wells have drawn water from groundwater with elevated arsenic. Construction of dams caused, especially in during the first decades of the “green revolution”, increased spread of vector born diseases. A better “tool box” to combat this problem has gradually been developed. Irrigation takes 75–80% of the total water use. With limited water resources there is an urgent need to save water in agriculture in South Asia by water harvesting, more efficient irrigation methods and new ways of cultivation. Rice, a major food crop, is gradually switched over to be cultivated by intermittent irrigation saving about 40% of the water.
G. Jacks, D. S. C. Thambi

Chapter 17. Water Scarcity and Land Degradation Nexus in the Anthropocene: Reformations for Advanced Water Management as Per the Sustainable Development Goals

Over the last decays, soil and water pollution resulting from land degradation has led to strong impacts on the epoch of Anthropocene with unknown dimensions and large costs for society. In some cases, clear links have been established between the specific contaminants (e.g., heavy metal contamination) and their direct effects, in other cases, the links are rather unknown (e.g., endocrine substances). In the global context, health impacts of acute or chronic exposure to soil contaminants are of particular interest, and decision makers and researchers have not paid much attention to it until now. Soil contaminants may be responsible for serious health effects resulting in large secondary costs, but holistic studies for identifying the sources of contamination, health impact, and secondary costs are still lacking. Soil pollution leads to serious health problems spanning from cancer, neurological damage, lower IQ, kidney disease, skeletal and bone diseases to endocrine disruption causing sterility or adiposity. Unfortunately, soil pollution will not affect human health by the direct contact with the soil only. Indirect effects are also possible e.g. by the uptake of pollutants by plants used as animal feedstuff or food, incorporation of soil-borne dust, or contaminated drinking water. Nevertheless, it is a daunting task to make strong scientific connections between soil contamination and human health because a holistic study of soil contamination and human health has to be multidisciplinary involving soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, toxicologists, endocrinologist, medical doctors, anthropologists, etc. A community-level socio-economical approach is necessary for addressing the individual environmental deterioration of soils and human activities and maintaining the sustainable goals. On the other hand, it also has to be clearly stated that each heavy soil contamination does not affect population health dramatically and that sometimes low contamination might affect population health even more dramatically, especially, if the pollution-health functional chain is not well understood. This is the need of the hour to try and eradicate some factors behind the present threatening environment and make our mother earth a better place to live in. Therefore, much more research is needed to address all the issues related to this topic.
Santanu Mukherjee, Arbind Kumar Patel, Manish Kumar

Chapter 18. Groundwater Contamination Issues in the Shallow Aquifer, Ramganga Sub-basin, India

Groundwater contamination assessment using geochemical methods and management were carried out in the shallow aquifer, Ramganga Sub-basin (RSB), India. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer is an important parameter to manage groundwater recharge and abstraction for various uses in the RSB. In order to identify the pollution sources and geochemical processes in detail, groundwater samples were collected from shallow (n = 37) and few deep wells and analysed for major and minor ions and trace metals. Results reveal that the water chemistry in the RSB is controlled by the carbonate and silicates weathering and ion exchange reactions. Ion activity ratios and stability field diagrams, obtained from PHREEQC geochemical modeling, show that silicate weathering products (kaolinite and gibbsite) regulate water chemistry in the study area. Results of the present study and previous literatures imply that the groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer is degraded by the vertical leakage of wastewater derived from the anthropogenic sources (irrigation return flow, animal waste accumulation, domestic sewage water) and nitrification process. Hence, management program including periodic groundwater quality monitoring and awareness program among the local populace will help to preserve the groundwater resources in the shallow aquifer of the RSB.
N. Rajmohan

Chapter 19. Water Governance: A Pragmatic Debate of 21st Century; An Indian Perspective

The developing economies are facing water problems at a massive level. At present, coining the term water crisis is trending, either it’s United Nations or Indian Government officials have used it enormously. Whenever there is an issue because of water unavailability and water contamination, the Indian government have always taken steps to provide alternatives instead of reviving the current situation. There are many research going on the topic of ‘quality of water’, and every result has shown the pathetic condition of almost every river, and wetlands in the country. This chapter will interpret the available literature knowledge and look into the journey of water being considered as a deity, and through this sentiment of holiness to the highly exploited natural resources. In present time water is considered in the category of crisis or emergency like it is going to extinct one day. The past and present situation of water availability will be the central analyzed part of this paper. People and governance will be the most arguable theme of the chapter, and it will explain the purpose of understanding water resource management in the country. The purpose of targeting the governance system for water will come up with the complexity in society and management. It will find the misconceived perception of water. The arguments in this chapter revolve around the opinion on rivers and other available sources of water and its sustainable and managed condition in the country.
Omi Kumari, Manish Kumar
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