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Über dieses Buch

This empirically and theoretically grounded book provides insights into the ascendance of powers such as Turkey, South Korea and Indonesia and their relationship with Africa. Leading scholars present case studies from the BRICS and beyond to demonstrate the constantly evolving and complex character of these ties and their place in the global capitalist order. They also offer new theoretical insights, as well as theorisation of the spatio-temporal dynamics involved in processes of accumulation within the African space. Their contention is that, despite their supposed anti-imperialism, these emerging powers have become agents for continued uneven development. This innovative edited collection will appeal to students and scholars of international relations, political science, development studies, area studies, geography and economics.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Seeing Through the MIST: New Contenders for the African Space?

Abstract
As capitalism’s last frontier, Africa is again at the forefront of global capital accumulation. The rise of powers such as Turkey, South Korea and Indonesia, and the faltering of some of the more established emerging markets, are pointing to significant changes in the relationship between these powers and Africa. These changes necessitate the re-evaluation of this relationship within the global capitalist order. This chapter introduces case studies from the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) and beyond to demonstrate the constantly evolving and complex character of these relationships. In addition to this, the chapter previews new theoretical insights as well as theorisation of the spatio-temporal dynamics involved in processes of accumulation within the African space. It contends that, despite their supposed anti-imperialism, these emerging powers have become agents for continued uneven development.
Justin van der Merwe

Theoretical Directions and New Geographies: Space, Time and Accumulation

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Theorising Emerging Powers in Africa within the Western-Led System of Accumulation

Abstract
Justin van der Merwe presents the usefulness of understanding the global political economy as a series of interconnected systems of accumulation. The analysis is centred and builds on the notion of a ‘complex’, which is often said to embody a system or theory of accumulation. The chapter develops a systemic understanding of global accumulation centred on what may be called the ‘government-business-media complex’. Synthesising Harvey and Gramsci, Van der Merwe theorises that complexes, including state, capital and information and knowledge systems, operate through hegemonic and transactional activities to facilitate capital accumulation across space and time. After an assessment of the global structure, the role of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) and other emerging powers within this system and particularly their involvement in Africa, is assessed.
Justin van der Merwe

Chapter 3. The BRICS in Africa: Agents of Development?

Abstract
Ian Taylor challenges the tropes surrounding a notional ‘Africa Rising’ which have become ever more pressing in recent years. What is interesting is the way in which the discourse on ‘Africa Rising’ reflects—and is an extension of—the wider spatio-temporal impulses of emerging economies, most emblematically captured in the acronym BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). The BRICS term is a neologism symbolising a putative changing world order. However, this understanding is critiqued in this chapter. This has serious implications for those who place hope on the BRICS as centres of resistance to the dominant neoliberal system. This is particularly (but not exclusively) so with regard to Africa, where numerous elites and intellectuals have greeted the BRICS as the heralds of a new dawn, but resource dependency continues to impede genuine development.
Ian Taylor

Chapter 4. Emerging Powers in the Southern Maritime Space

Abstract
The Southern oceans are becoming heavily networked spaces—criss-crossed with military, maritime and financial interests. South Africa serves as a nexus between emerging powers such as India and Brazil, as it shares oceans with both parties, creating a unique spatialisation of its waters. The shared need for maritime security has led to ententes and agreements such as IBSAMAR and to closer cooperation. At the same time, territories are being redefined in relation to competition for marine resources. The African maritime space has thus become increasingly defined by the energy resources, actual and potential, which it contains. A new scramble for resources is under way, as these resources are now exploitable because of technological advances within the extractive industries.
Raymond Steenkamp Fonseca

The BRICS in Africa

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Conceptualising the Dialectics of China’s Presence in Africa

Abstract
Li Xing aims to provide a framework for understanding the emerging presence of China in Africa in view of its competition with the traditional Western colonial powers. He discusses China’s relationship with Africa by reflecting on theoretical perspectives related to Kautsky, Lenin, Gramsci and Wallerstein in a new light, together with incorporating contemporary theoretical inflections. Li Xing questions the changes that the rise of China will bring to the global capitalist system, asking whether these changes will be merely functional, without resulting in any deeper structural transformation.
Li Xing

Chapter 6. Nehru’s Neoliberals: Draining or Aiding Africa?

Abstract
Ian Taylor, Justin van der Merwe and Nicole Dodd discuss how India has undergone a neoliberal transformation, rendering its elites more outwardly and globally orientated. Their findings suggest that rhetoric centred on global Southern solidarity, drawn from its history and politics, translates well in Africa, enhancing access to African markets. But India’s interest in Africa is more baldly economic, primarily informed by its quest for energy. The government-business-media complex is used to account for the contradictions between India’s Africa policy and practice.
Ian Taylor, Justin van der Merwe, Nicole Dodd

Chapter 7. New Dynamics or Old Patterns? South–South Cooperation Between Brazil and Angola

Abstract
Jurek Seifert’s case study focuses on the tensions between Brazil’s development cooperation and its emerging economic interests and the implications of this for dependency theory. In so doing, Seifert considers whether dependency theory is in fact a useful tool for analysing emerging powers’ involvement in Africa. He applies a critical eye to notions of South–South cooperation, analysing the merits and demerits of an accumulation strategy centred on a global Southern ‘charm offensive’.
Jurek Seifert

Chapter 8. Guns and Poseurs: Russia Returns to Africa

Abstract
Alexandra Arkhangelskaya and Nicole Dodd assert that post-Soviet Russia’s authoritarian-corporatist identity has resulted in foreign policy that extols the virtues of solidarity and development, but covertly promotes Russian sovereignty and economic exploitation in Africa through trade in minerals, energy and arms. The government-business-media complex is used as a vehicle through which to expose the dynamics of Russia and Africa’s duplicitous engagement.
Alexandra Arkhangelskaya, Nicole Dodd

Chapter 9. South African Corporations in BRICS: New Waves of Entrepreneurial Thinking?

Abstract
Every BRICS nation has grown a multitude of successful companies over the past two decades. At the fifth BRICS Summit in Durban in 2013, South Africa demonstrated an entrepreneurial enthusiasm for collaboration within the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). High priority was accorded to examining how to create intra-BRICS opportunities on the African continent to benefit all partners, including African businesses.
Nadine Wenzel

Emerging Powers Beyond BRICS

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. South Korea in Africa: Exporting an ‘Economic Miracle’ or ‘Imperialist Mimicry’?

Abstract
South Korea has become one of the top five trade partners with Africa, assisted mainly by the cohesiveness of its government–business relationship. Murad Shamilov explores two main issues which have arisen as South Korea opens up markets and furthers its influence in Africa: whether exportation of the Korean ‘economic miracle’ to Africa is viable; and whether the support Korea received following the Korean War created sub-imperialist tendencies, notably manifested in its use of official developmental assistance as leverage for economic access in Africa.
Murad Shamilov

Chapter 11. Turkey’s Political-Economic Engagement With Africa

Abstract
Mehmet Ozkan’s case study describes Turkey’s involvement in Africa, particularly in the Horn of Africa, and notably in Somalia. It describes the successive waves of donor aid, economic engagement and political interventions and overtures employed to facilitate Turkey’s access to African markets. These geopolitical ‘gambits’, rolled out in five phases and spanning various arms of the state, business and the non-governmental sectors, have rapidly and successfully ‘normalised’ and institutionalised Turkey’s state–capital relations in Africa. This is used as the basis for the conceptualisation of a novel, multifaceted model to discuss Turkey’s engagement with Africa and which may inform other emerging powers’ engagement with Africa.
Mehmet Ozkan

Chapter 12. Indonesian Engagements with Africa and the Revitalised ‘Spirit of Bandung’

Abstract
Indonesia has grown in global stature as an emerging power and as the fourth most populous country in the world has significant growth potential. It is from this perspective that István Tarrósy explores the relationship between Indonesia and Africa. He mainly focuses on the developmental implications of Indonesia’s engagement with two key African markets: Nigeria and South Africa. He asks whether there is an Indonesian way of interacting with the continent, and if so, what the developmental implications are for Africa.
István Tarrósy

Chapter 13. Conclusion: How New is the ‘New Wave’?

Abstract
Despite the much lauded prospects of South–South cooperation and the hope that commodity exports would result in ‘Africa Rising’, evidence points to a starker reality. In this text, Taylor analyses evidence from emerging powers’ engagement with the African continent in the light of the West’s continued global economic dominance, and concludes that the new wave of emerging powers in Africa has done little to substantively improve Africa’s prospects. This chapter draws on dependency theory and critical reflection on the required conditions for development to pinpoint specific obstacles to progress on the continent. Although sobering, the work highlights key areas for reflection for anyone interested in Africa’s long-term prospects for autonomy and poverty alleviation.
Ian Taylor

Backmatter

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