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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, SETE 2019, held in conjunction with ICWL 2019, in Magdeburg, Germany, in September 2019.

The 10 full and 6 short papers presented together with 24 papers from 5 workshops were carefully reviewed and selected from 34 submissions. The papers cover the latest findings in various areas, such as: virtual reality and game-based learning; learning analytics; K-12 education; language learning; design, model and implementation of e-learning platforms and tools; digitalization and industry 4.0; pedagogical issues, practice and experience sharing.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Correction to: A Teaching Experiment on a Knowledge-Network-Based Online Translation Learning Platform

The original version of this chapter was revised. The authors’ affiliations were corrected to:Yuanyuan Mu1. School of Foreign Studies, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China2. Center for Translation Studies of Specialized Corpora, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, ChinaWenting Yang3. School of Foreign Languages, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, China

Yuanyuan Mu, Wenting Yang

Emerging Technologies for Education

Frontmatter

A Case Study on How Greek Teachers Make Use of Big Data Analytics in K-12 Education

Big Data Analytics can help teachers to make better and informed decisions. Several recent articles in the field of technology enhanced learning concern this potential, yet little is known about how teachers actually make use of Big Data Analytics in their school to support themselves and their students. To compensate for this gap, this paper focuses on the actual uses of Big Data Analytics by active schoolteachers. Thirty teachers who live in Greece participated in survey about their usage of (a) Big Data analytics and (b) online learning environments which capture student data. The data were analysed using mixed methods. Main findings reveal that the schoolteachers are storing and actively using student data as well as Big Data which involve the support of the teaching-learning process. Also, it became clear that teachers use Big Data Analytics for two main distinctively different purposes: to cover teaching-learning aspects and to complete administrative tasks. Finally, it emerged that a small number of teachers is archiving digital multimedia. Consequently, a need arises for appropriate analytics and relevant privacy frameworks. Other practical implications of the findings of this work touch upon the design of teachers ‘development programs in Big Data and their analytics.

Anna Mavroudi, Spyros Papadakis

Applying the Teach-Back Method and Mobile Technology to Support Elementary Students’ Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies

A great amount of elementary students encounter failure to solve mathematical problems because they cannot understand the meanings of the problems. As indicated, problem-solving is the core of the mathematics curriculum. Thus, students need to develop reading comprehension ability to solve mathematics problems. The teach-back is a constructive method that can help students present the understanding of a certain topic through dialogues. This study investigated the effects of the teach-back approach, exploring elementary students’ mathematics learning efficacy of problem-solving and attitudes towards an interactive learning platform, HiTeach. The participants in this study were six-graders from a public school in Taiwan. There were twenty-four participants in the experimental group and twenty-four participants in the control group. The results indicated that students in the teach-back approach group performed better than those in the traditional collaborative group. Moreover, the teach-back approach helped students in comprehending the meaning of questions in problem-solving.

Chiung-ling Tung, Chiou-hui Chou, Su-jiann Yang, Chiu-pin Lin

EFL Writing Assessment: Peer Assessment vs. Automated Essay Scoring

This study aimed to explore problems and potentials of new technologies in English as foreign language (EFL) writing education. Forty-six students as a foreign language (EFL) learners in a Chinese university participated in this study. They submitted their draft to Pigai Network and Scholar Network separately and received automated essay scoring (AES) and peer assessment (PA) feedback. Results showed a moderate, positive partial correlation between PA and AES, controlling for performance level. The EFL learners in China preferred AES over PA. These findings raise several relevant issues in how to improve peer assessment feedback effectively, such as writing rubric in peer assessment, specialized peer assessment tool, technology assistant and peer feedback.

Meixiu Lu, Qing Deng, Manzhen Yang

Dimensions of Learning Organization in Relation to Learning Time – Cross-Sectional Study at Secondary Schools from the Czech Republic

The measurement of the learning organization with the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) hasn’t been dealt with very much in the Czech Republic. This study’s aim was to conduct a questionnaire survey with DLOQ at secondary schools in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the time devoted to learning in these organizations. Respondents were approached via e-mail addresses obtained from the rehearsals of secondary schools in the Czech Republic. A total of 121 respondents the Czech Republic participated in the study. Most of them were employees aged 51–60 (47.11%), university graduates (95.04%) and managers (71.90%). When comparing the learning time, more than 40% of respondents spend 11–20 h per month with learning. Using t-test among the respondents with different learning time, a statistically significant difference (1–10 h per month versus 36 and more hours per month: p = 0.049, 21–35 h per month vs. more than 36 h per month: p = 0.012) was found.

Vaclav Zubr

How Much Is Online Community Engaged in Learning Content? Case of World Top Universities’ Facebook

Social media (SM) has become a part of everyday life, including higher education and its learning environment. Therefore, this study aims on understanding of content published on SM, its learning impact, as well as on identification of relevant level of community engagement. Research sample used official Facebook sites of six world top universities, specifically posts (N = 120) communicated during November 2018 were investigated in detail. A new scale, specifically designed for this study, was designed to capture a learning potential of content communicated on the SM. An analysis oriented on main characteristics of engagement: its responsiveness measured by number of “likes” and other available symbols, its involvement measured by number of comments, its virality, measured by number of sharings, and finally its total engagement expressed as the sum of preceding characteristics. Several interesting results are provided in the study: the research is the most frequent topic communicated by top universities; different content strategies are taken by universities to engage their communities; and different engagement levels exist according to the university as well as according to the content published on its Facebook site.

Pavel Bachmann

HandLeVR: Action-Oriented Learning in a VR Painting Simulator

The development of vocational competence has so far been inefficiently implemented in some trades, as for example in the training of vehicle painters. The HandLeVR project therefore underscores the use of Virtual Reality to promote action-oriented learning of techniques for carrying out vehicle painting work. This article describes both the instructional and technological aspects of a VR Painting Simulator developed in the project and presents intermediate results.

Raphael Zender, Pia Sander, Matthias Weise, Miriam Mulders, Ulrike Lucke, Michael Kerres

Reflection of HCI in Foreign Language Teaching

The present time is significantly influenced by the development of information and communication technology, that allows us to access a huge amount of information and widen our possibilities. Using advanced digital technology has become an essential tool of advancement in every branch. Students consider ICT as a commonplace, as an integral part of their lives. The organization of the study is influenced by this fact, for example, consultations are agreed through email correspondence, submitting of assignments also works on an online basis.The biggest focus of Human-computer interaction (HCI) as a multidomain discipline is put on a user interface. The interconnection with IT science world shall be obvious. We even today in times of modern technologies, even better computers and cell phones know, or at least suspect, that there is always something remaining for improving. We aim to mediate the communication between human and computer in such a way, that it would be as most intuitive and natural.Students consider ICT as a commonplace, as an integral part of their lives. The organization of the study is influenced by this fact, for example, consultations are agreed through email correspondence, submitting of assignments also works on an online basis. We tried to explore the current state of the use of multimedia in teaching and learning with research. We focused primarily on what devices students use most frequently. To identify the relationship of students to ICT and to determine students’ views on teaching supported by ICT, we used the method of a questionnaire in such a process. The paper brings a short reference to another grasp of the problematic nature of effectiveness in an educational process. The final part of the paper deals with the possible effectiveness of eLearning which may – under certain circumstances - be a bit higher than the effectiveness of face to face teaching.

Sarka Hubackova

Expert-Oriented Digitalization of University Processes

Digitalization challenges the way business processes are seen. The potential for enhancement is recognized even in business areas that traditionally have little to do with IT. Even though universities have long traditions of how work is organized, they have not been eager to adopt digitalized processes. Because core processes of universities rely on highly skilled experts, digitalizing processes is not as straightforward as in more mechanical work. We developed an expert-oriented digitalization model (EXOD) for university processes’ digitalization and tested it using a case study. After digitalizing a core process, we interviewed the experts involved. The results show the usefulness and adaptability of the model. Based on the results, we recommend future studies be done to refine and test the model more comprehensively. Also, based on the adaptability of the model, we recommended it as a baseline for university process digitalization projects in general.

Raine Kauppinen, Altti Lagstedt, Juha P. Lindstedt

Itinerant Virtual Museum: An Innovate Technique to Learn Ancient History

The aim of this study is to consolidate specific knowledges about ancient history in high school students, mediated using the itinerant virtual museum and virtual lenses, due to difficulties to learn history in Social Studies subject students have shown. This research presents a series of authors who support the use of virtual museums as a strategy in history contents and education. The methodology in this study is the co-design and it presents phases to co-create the itinerant virtual museums with the users to learn ancient history according to the Costa Rica curriculum. The data recollect was analyzed with different methods.

Luz Díaz Granados

Influence of the Type of Organizations on Their Readiness for Implementing Industry 4.0

Many studies have been conducted about Industry 4.0 and also about readiness and maturity models. The available studies are mostly from the technological point of view. Nonetheless, the organizational culture dimension of Industry 4.0 has some importance and requires more attention. The goal of this paper is to find out if the type of an organization impacts the innovative culture and subsequently the readiness of the organization for implementing industry 4.0. Results confirm that in fact the innovative organizational culture according to the index of organizational culture does depend on the type of an organization, and therefore type of the organization affects the readiness of the organization for implementing Industry 4.0.

Majid Ziaei Nafchi, Hana Mohelská

Semantic Competency Directory for Constructive Alignment in Digital Learning Designs and Systems

The paper describes the semantic competency directory as a technology which can be used to support constructive alignment in digital learning designs and systems. This article describes the competency directory developed in the Open Virtual Mobility project which can be used to align competencies (learning objectives) with learning activities, e-assessment and digital credentials (Open Badges). We describe technical considerations, requirements and the implementation of the competency directory with three components, i.e. Node.js-based backend with REST API, Neo4j graph database and a web-based user interface which fetches information from the REST-API backend. The paper demonstrates the value of the competency directory for support of constructive alignment in learning designs and systems especially in context of competency alignment in digital credentials.

Ilona Buchem, Johannes Konert

Education Needs in Context of Migration and Industry 4.0 in Selected EU Countries

Migration is a phenomenon of the 21st century. A lot of countries are looking for an effective solution to solve it. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT), which plays a key role during the fourth industrial revolution is one of the options. ICT have a crucial role in societal and technological progress. If domestic countries use ICT and modern technologies that are encouraged, their people will be able to use advanced technologies more than in countries where they are not used to such an extent. For this reason, the Digital Adoption Index (DAI) results for selected countries were evaluated in the article. The DAI is a worldwide index that measures countries’ digital adoption across three dimensions of the economy: people, government and business. The aim of the article is to compare all countries from Visegrad group and from Germany. Migrants in the Czech Republic and in Germany were connected with Digital Adoption Index and DAI People sub-index from countries of their origin were evaluated into deeper evaluation.

Libuše Svobodová, Martina Hedvicakova, Alfiya Kuznetsova

Students’ Language Needs Analysis as a Motivation Mover - Czech and Taiwanese Case Study

The paper discusses a proved pedagogical scenario on active involvement of students into the learning process by formulating their needs and expectations and sharing experience on individual subjects at the introductory lesson at the beginning of semester. This study investigates students’ language learning behaviour, their approach and motivation in Czech and Taiwanese university environment. The paper focuses on students’ experience in utilization of online study material and correlation between their needs in practising individual language competences and their level of language competence.A mixed qualitative-quantitative research was conducted. Data collection consisted of the survey based on the key tool, which was a questionnaire on Students’ language needs and a follow up-discussion on students’ experience, expectations and perceived potential benefits of on-line sources as well as traditional teaching/learning approaches.The output of the study brought the following conclusions. The case study has shown that students’ learning background, experience and behaviour was different in several analysed areas in two compared environments but highly inspiring and leading to the fruitful discussion enlarged with an intercultural dimension. The tutors’ interest in students’ needs proved to be a motivating factor enabling students to think of their language needs, formulate them and discuss them so that they could adapt and widen their language learning habits.

Miloslava Cerna, Chi-Jen Lin

Uncovering the Potential of the Google Search Engine for L2 Learning and L2 Translator Training

The paper presents a study investigating the use of the Google Search Engine in L2 translation and L2 learning. A group of undergraduate students in Tourism Management was introduced to three tips for effective Google search as part of their optional course in the basics of translation. A week later, half of the students attended a session devoted to further practice of the tips. Later, both groups were asked to translate a short text from Czech, their native language, into English with the assistance of the Google Search Engine. Drawing on the participants’ translations, written protocols and search histories, the study analyses their online behavior during L2 text production, providing examples of successful applications of search strategies and explaining cases where online search techniques failed to connect effectively with the user’s language skills and reflection.

David Mraček

The Effect of Gamification in User Satisfaction, the Approval Rate and Academic Performance

Continuous Education Centre from the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador (CEC-EPN) develops online education courses under a constructivist academic approach, following the ADDIE instructional approach, reaching more than 10,000 students per year. These courses implementation suffers common problems related to low student participation, low academic performance, low approval rate and low student satisfaction. The current trends of virtual education are influenced by new strategies such as the use of gamification in the design of virtual content; this is due to the good results it has had on motivation, academic performance and student participation. This document describes the implementation of a strategy of gamification based on role-play in a MOOC course on Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in the CEC-EPN. The strategy was validated through an experimental design involving a control group (receiving a traditional course) and an experimental group (receiving the gamified course). The evaluation focuses on the analysis of the following variables: User Satisfaction, Approval Rate and Academic Performance. The results show the implemented strategy contributes to the improvement of the aforementioned variables.

Gabriela Martínez, Silvia Baldiris, Daniel Salas

Topic Detection for Online Course Feedback Using LDA

In an online course, student feedback is used widely in order to enhance the quality of teaching and learning process by improving the teacher-student relationship. If a lecturer wants to get a summary of these comments, the lecturer has to manually read and summarize all these comments. However, dealing with a very large number of comments is difficult. In this paper, we proposed an approach for topic detection for online course feedback by adopting Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The course feedback from the website of Coursera (i.e., Machine Learning course) is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

Sayan Unankard, Wanvimol Nadee

SPeL (Social and Personal Computing for Web-Supported Learning Communities)

Frontmatter

An Educational Model for Integrating Game-Based and Problem-Based Learning in Data-Driven Flipped Classrooms

Active learning has been employed in higher education, as a way to engage students more efficiently and encourage the development of 21st century skills. The flipped classroom (FC) in particular has known a remarkable development. The FC is defined as a teaching method where “events that have traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside and vice versa”. The FC takes place into three stages: pre-class, in-class and post-class, all of which have used various technological tools and online environments. There is still, however, some lacks in research and development around the FC. Research into combining the FC with other active learning methods such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) or Game-Based Learning (GBL) is a recent field of study. Furthermore, any endeavor into combining the FC and other methodologies or expanding the FC has been limited to one of its three stages, usually either for pre-class preparation or for in-class activities. Similarly, use of technology and learning analytics had so far been mostly limited to out-of-class periods. Therefore, we consider that there is potential in building a new theoretical model to enhance the FC methodology by incorporating problem-based learning and learning analytics in the full learning process, and to develop the new FC model as an adaptive, data-driven, personalized experience. This paper will therefore present the new pedagogical model, its structure, and the technological tools that will support its development.

Muriel Algayres, Evangelia Triantafyllou

Distributed Student Team Work in Challenge-Based Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E) Course

Challenge-based learning is proposed as an alternative to traditional learning in training engineering graduates with the skills for the future. It puts equal emphasis on academic learning and on competences that students need more for their jobs. Challenge-based leaning is the learning in which students learn through understanding and resolution of a real-world challenge. In this paper we show how such challenge-based course can be implemented in a cross-university setting in which students work on challenges provided by companies: the Universities that implemented the course are University of Trento, UNITN, Italy and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UPM, Spain and in it students form and work in teams composed of students coming from both of the locations. Both of the locations delivered the course at the same time. The positive feedback from the students shows the importance of such new multi method to train students adequately for remote team-work and training them with skills for 21st century, especially in the era of digital transformation. In addition, our paper draws important leanings on how to set such cross-university teams as well as important future research directions.

Galena Pisoni, Javier Segovia, Milena Stoycheva, Maurizio Marchese

Semantic Recommendations and Topic Modeling Based on the Chronology of Romanian Literary Life

As part of the Romanian Academy’s effort aimed at underlining the importance of events centered on national authors and writings across time, the Chronology of Romanian Literary Life (also referred to as CVLR) is a centralized text repository which contains all important literature-related events that occurred after World War II. The current work presents an approach to capture topics’ evolution across time and helps learners by recommending events from the chronology on a given topic, based on a subset of 24 years of the CVLR. Our method combines techniques from information retrieval, topic modeling using LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation), and recommender systems to improve e-learning centered on Romanian literature. The most frequent topics in each year are ranked in order to identify and visualize the main interests in literature across time periods. Recommendations are performed in order to facilitate the exploration of the chronology, as it is currently indexed only by event dates.

Laurentiu-Marian Neagu, Teodor-Mihai Cotet, Mihai Dascalu, Stefan Trausan-Matu, Lucian Chisu, Eugen Simion

A Web-Based Platform for Building PBL Competences Among Students

Problem-based learning (PBL) is at the heart of all degree programmes at Aalborg University and is most often project-organized. Experience shows that it is a challenge to develop the competences necessary for students to carry out PBL and requires systematic reflection of the part of students. The PBL Exchange/stud platform is a web-based platform intended for sharing student reflections and experience concering problem-based learning. In this paper we describe PBL Exchange/stud and our experience with introducing it in guided interventions in degree programmes at Aalborg University. The main challenge faced with PBL Exchange/stud turned out to be that of building a stable community of student users.

Hans Hüttel, Dorina Gnaur, Thomas Ryberg, Jette Egelund Holgaard

Reconstructing Scanned Documents for Full-Text Indexing to Empower Digital Library Services

The digital era raises new challenges for traditional library services in which information has to be delivered and supported by technology-enhanced systems. The increasing need for rapid access to information requires librarians to re-evaluate the way they develop, manage and deliver resources, as well as services. However, most information extraction systems are not designed to work with PDF files generated after Optical Character Recognition, and several problems are encountered while trying to properly restructure the recognized text, for example: disruption of paragraphs, improper page breaks, or loss of content structure. This paper introduces a pre-processing pipeline designed to support university libraries to adequately index old document collections. The extracted text is indexed into Elasticsearch which facilitates the search for relevant documents, based on keywords. The information extraction system is designed to assist librarians in the digitization process by enabling a systematic review of documents, which leads to more accurate representations of the indexed files.

Melania Nitu, Mihai Dascalu, Maria-Iuliana Dascalu, Teodor-Mihai Cotet, Silvia Tomescu

Curating Educational Resources for Homework Management: A Support Prototype

Learning content curation plays an important role given the increasing amount of educational resources available on the Web. The process implies searching, collecting, annotating, filtering, organizing and sharing relevant resources for a specific learning context. Our aim is to provide a support platform which allows both teachers and students to become content curators, leveraging various levels of expertise. More specifically, we propose a system dedicated to homework management, called EdReHo, which allows the collection and sharing of educational resources needed to understand and solve assignments. When teachers create an assignment in EdReHo, they can recommend also a set of resources relevant for that topic, which are aimed to supplement the mandatory course material. The students can also add useful resources and share them with peers, becoming more actively involved in the process and benefitting from the “learning by searching” approach. The paper describes the EdReHo system prototype in terms of concept, features and implementation and illustrates its main functionalities.

Andreea-Isabela Bala, Stefania-Carmen Dobre, Elvira Popescu

UMLL (User Modeling and Language Learning)

Frontmatter

The Analysis of Worldwide Research on Artificial Intelligence Assisted User Modeling

Information and communication technologies is being heralded as a catalyst for educational innovations. Artificial intelligence (AI) assisted user modeling has attracted great increasing interests from the academia with a growing research articles available. In this article, a bibliometric analysis of scientific literature concerning AI assisted user modeling was carried out. 333 articles from Web of Science were retrieved and analyzed to comprehensively understand trends and developments of the research field. Specifically, we analyzed the articles in terms of article count and citation count, influential journals, subjects, authors, and keyword occurrence. Finally, special attention was paid to the study of leading countries/regions and institutions. Findings of this work are useful in helping scholars as well as practitioners better understand the development trend of research of AI assisted user modeling, as well as being more aware of the research hotspots.

Xieling Chen, Dongfa Gao, Yonghui Lun, Dingli Zhou, Tianyong Hao, Haoran Xie

Analyzing the Influence of Academic Papers Based on Improved PageRank

The number of papers, published in different fields, is continually increasing, but the quality of papers varies widely. Scholars evaluate the quality and influence of a paper by the number of times the paper was cited, but the result of this citation quantity method is not accurate enough especially for new papers. Our society needs an accurate, objective and fair evaluation of papers. To address these problems, this article presents a method for evaluating the impact of papers. We analyze the influence of each academic paper in the citation network based on the improved PageRank algorithm and combined with the personal influence of the authors and the published date. Thus, this method tends to select high-quality authors and high-quality citations as high-impact papers. The comparison results showed that our method outperformed the traditional method of citation number and PageRank algorithm.

Chang Ji, Yong Tang, Guohua Chen

A Systematic Review of Frameworks for Coding Towards Classroom Dialogue

Classroom dialogue, characterized by its interactive features and verbal encounters between teachers and students or among students, has been commonly used in teaching and learning. This paper conducted a systematic review of the coding frameworks used in the examination of classroom dialogue. We discussed over three main issues relating to the development of coding frameworks: linguistic ethnography versus sociocultural approach, coding units and levels, and objects of coding. The review indicates that there are six themes that a dialogic framework should encapsulate in its categories, which are prior knowledge, personal information, analysis, generalization, speculation and uptakes. With this knowledge, scholars and practitioners would become more competent in designing or selecting frameworks.

Yu Song, Tianyong Hao, Zhinan Liu, Zixin Lan

Application of Parallel Corpus to Teaching Style and Translation

This paper is a detailed account of the application of parallel corpus to the teaching of style and translation. Facilitated by corpus tools, a quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis of the translation of narrative markers, a key style of Chinese full-length vernacular fictions, is thoroughly demonstrated. Through the class learning, students are expected to be aware of the pseudo oral storytelling feature of Chinese vernacular fictions and understand that narrative markers, as crucial narrative devices ensuring the cohesion and coherence of the text and more importantly, reflecting the style of the genre, require proper rendition in translation. It concludes that the introduction of parallel corpus to Style and Translation class obtains positive effects. On the one hand, parallel corpus provides abundant authentic bilingual data for observation; on the other hand, convenient searching tools help sort out the desired data in an accurate and swift manner, thus facilitate class demonstration and discussion.

Lu Tian

The Design and Application of an Web-Based Online Examination System

Online examination has been used more and more widely in the education and other fields due to its advantages of efficiency, convenience, and fairness. This paper proposes a new web-based online examination system, which utilizes PHP, Ajax and other technologies to implement online examination functions, including testing question collection, user management, online testing, real-time score calculation, answer checking, and result analysis. Particularly, an automated test paper generation module was designed and integrated. The system has been applied to a course involving more than 1000 students per semester at Guangzhou University of Foreign Studies. It has been proved to save efforts of teachers and students, demonstrating its effectiveness in assisting teaching and learning.

Jilu Jiang, Baoxian Wu, Liang Chang, Kui Liu, Tianyong Hao

A Text Mining Application in Operation Management Course Teaching

Sharing bicycle, as one of the hottest and newest industries in recent years, has drawn much dramatic attention from society. In the operation management course in this paper, students are expected to analyze the interview texts and investigate the problems occurred in sharing bicycle with corresponding suggestions. A list of interview texts from sharing bicycle users in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center are collected and analyzed. TF-IDF, as a widely used text mining method, is applied to extract frequently used key words for a qualitative analysis. Finally, ten key problems are identified and summarized, which provide government suggestions about supervision, such as user-centered management, user experience improvement, user interest protection, and deposit management.

Yingying Qu, Zihang Liang, Wenxiu Xie, Xinyu Cao

Leveraging Neural Network for Online Learning Performance Prediction and Learning Suggestion

Learning performance analysis is such a research field that draws much attention from researchers though it has just been emerged in recent years. On the one hand, analyzing learning behaviors can help learners to choose their learning methods and allocate their study time in a more appropriate way. On the other hand, learning analysis can provide valuable feedbacks for teachers and administrators to improve teaching efficiency and quality. This paper studies and analyzes more than 640,000 learning data from the MOOC platform edX. A tree-based model along with an information gain measure is applied to identify the usefulness of data features. A back-propagation neural network model is further adopted to train data and achieve a prediction model of learning performance. In addition, a genetic algorithm calculates learning score conditions and return feedbacks as suggestions to learners. Experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the utilization of the methods in the predication of online learning performance.

Yingshan Shen, Weiwei Liu, Qiumei Wu, Ruiyang Chen, Kui Liu

An Empirical Study of Corpus-Based Translation Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges in China

This paper analyzes the current situation of corpus-based translation teaching, and highlights the necessity and advantages of using corpora to facilitate translation teaching in vocational colleges in China. The development of corpus not only provides an unprecedented wide range of text materials for language research, but also promotes further development of various research fields of linguistics. The teaching research based on corpus is conducive to expanding and deepening translation research, promoting translation practice and improving the quality of translation and translation teaching. This research also applies a corpus-based online translation teaching and learning platform in translation courses of a vocational college and summarizes a “data-driven” mode of translation teaching and learning assisted by corpora.

Wen Zhao, Yuanyuan Mu

Species Assignment for Gene Normalization Through Exploring the Structure of Full Length Article

Gene normalization is a process of automatically detecting gene names in the literature and linking them to database records. It is critical for improving the coverage of annotation in gene databases. Automatic association of a gene with a species, also known as species assignment, is an essential step of gene normalization. In this article, we propose a new species assignment method which explores the structure of full length article. Experimental results show our method outperforms state-of-art systems on full length article level species assignment. Thus, we believe our work can be used in the process of full length article gene normalization.

Ruoyao Ding, Huaxing Chen, Junxin Liu, Jian Kuang

ETLTL (Educational Technology for Language and Translation Learning)

Frontmatter

Blended Learning Approach in English Language Teaching – Its Benefits, Challenges, and Perspectives

At present, blended learning (BL) is commonly used in majority of the institutions of higher learning since it appears to have a positive impact on student learning outcomes and brings a number of benefits for the whole educational process. This is also true for English language teaching (ELT). In ELT, the BL approach offers more opportunities for exposure, discovery, and use of target language. In addition, the BL approach is especially suitable for distant students, who due to their work commitment cannot be involved in full-time English language study. However, recently there has been a shift from the online courses used as counterparts to traditional instruction in the BL approach towards the use of mobile applications. The findings show that such a BL approach (i.e., a combination of mobile learning via mobile applications and traditional instruction) is particularly effective in vocabulary learning. However, such an approach demands even more rigorous teaching methods and strategies, as well as a more elaborate and meaningful context within which learning can take place. Therefore, future research should focus on the exploration of effectiveness of this new BL approach.

Blanka Klímová, Marcel Pikhart

Investigating Students’ Use of a Social Annotation Tool in an English for Science and Technology Course

This study investigates the linguistic and pedagogical benefits and challenges of using a digital annotation tool (called Perusall) to facilitate second language (L2) reading in an advanced English language course at university level. The goals of the study are to analyze the students’ reading and annotating behavior, examine the effects of social reading on their understanding of English for science and technology texts and investigate how an L2 teacher might effectively incorporate this activity in his/her classroom. The results indicate that students spent an above average amount of time reading (compared to that reported in the literature) and that most students completed their reading assignments before class with the Perusall platform. Moreover, they predominantly used the social reading experience to summarize the sections of the long article, and query fellow students about the meaning of difficult and transitional sentences. Perusall allowed students to co-construct meaning and scaffold their learning while engaged in close readings of the science and technology texts outside of the physical classroom. Drawbacks of social reading in this environment are primarily others’ comments impeding some students’ understanding of the text and students’ frustrations with some technical aspects of the Perusall tool. Pedagogical suggestions regarding L2 social reading include better integrating students’ virtual comments into classroom discussion/activities, and offering more structure for students.

Jianqiu Tian

The Application of Deep Learning in Automated Essay Evaluation

The shift from Automated Essay Scoring (AES) to Automated Essay Evaluation (AEE) indicates that natural language processing (NLP) researchers respond positively to the request from language teaching field. Writers and teachers need more feedback about writing content and language use from AEE software beside a precise evaluative score. This requirement can be met by the neural network based deep learning technique. Deep learning has been applied in many NLP fields and great success has been made, such as machine translation, emotional analysis, question answering, and automatic summarization. Neural network based deep learning is suitable for AES research and development since AES requires mainly a precise score of writing quality. This can be accomplished with human accurately scored essays as input and scoring model as output with deep learning technology. However, AEE requires more than a score and deep learning can be used to select linguistically meaningful features for writing quality and apply in the AEE model construction. Related experiments already show the feasibility and further research is worth exploring.

Shili Ge, Xiaoxiao Chen

A Teaching Experiment on a Knowledge-Network-Based Online Translation Learning Platform

This paper aims to elaborate on the design and application of an online platform as a knowledge-network-based system for online teaching/(self-)learning of translation in/between English and Chinese. We have two purposes for this research: first, to obtain a good understanding of translation trainees’ learning behaviors in the corpus-assisted and knowledge-network-based translation learning setting, in the hope that sufficient data will be collected to draw a model of knowledge-network-based learning. Equally important is our second purpose, which is to initiate a more systematic and in-depth data-based empirical investigation into teaching designs for knowledge-based translation learning. This research conducts an experiment on how teachers can use knowledge nodes to organize online translation learning and how students perceive knowledge-network-based learning. The experiment reveals a rising trend of students’ translation quality and they generally hold a positive attitude towards this learning model. Based on theoretical discussions of the platform design rationale and the findings from the teaching experiment, this paper explores how the knowledge-network-based translation learning can assist students in forming more efficient translation learning strategies.

Yuanyuan Mu, Wenting Yang

Design of Discipline Information System for ‘Foreign Language and Literature’

‘Discipline construction’ is the most important and fundamental task of universities, which is based on discipline information management. Since there are no specialized information systems for the discipline of ‘Foreign Language and Literature’, and the existing systems cannot fully meet today’s needs, this paper designs a discipline information system for ‘Foreign Language and Literature’ on the basis of previous studies, which combines the operation process of the discipline (as an organization) and the features of the discipline (as a research field). The system functions include discipline display, discipline information management, discipline planning, interdisciplinary management, and system management. According to these functions, the system is divided into 2 parts: a website and an information management system, each part consists of 4 basic modules, teaching staff, talent training, scientific research and social services, in which internationalization and interdisciplinary characteristics run through.

Jing He

AIE-TRST (Artificial Intelligence in Education – Teacher’s Role for Student-Centered Teaching)

Frontmatter

Simplifying the Validation and Application of Games with Simva

The suitability of games for learning has been proven for many years. However, effective application of games in education requires two important stages: their initial validation, and their later use in the classroom. Serious games should be validated prior to exploitation to prove their efficacy and usefulness as tools for teachers, via larger experiments that include data collection, either from in-game interactions or from external questionnaires; this, in turn, requires dealing with data privacy regulations and informed consent. Once validated, serious games can then be applied in educational environments, where their effective application is closely linked to the tools and preparation available to the teachers and educators that use them. In this paper, we revise the steps and considerations that need to be dealt with both when conducting experiments with games and, later, when applying them as part of teaching in educational scenarios. For both these stages, we provide guidance and recommendations to simplify stakeholders’ tasks, including the use of the tool Simva, which simplifies the management of users, questionnaires, privacy, data collection, and storage.

Cristina Alonso-Fernández, Antonio Calvo-Morata, Manuel Freire, Iván Martínez-Ortiz, Baltasar Fernández-Manjón

The Robot in the Classroom: A Review of a Robot Role

The 20th-century was the age of computers and information communication technology; at the beginning of the 21st-century researchers are exploring the use of robots in the classroom. Our review investigates the implementation of copresent social robots with teaching purposes in a classroom setting in areas other than the teaching of subjects that are closely related to the field of Robotics. We are interested in anthropomorphic robots, with an active role in the classroom and capable of human-like activity. With a search of the WOS database and a subsequent manual search in 19 journals we identified 24 relevant articles which have been included in the analysis. Studies mostly include small number of participating learners. In all studies special conditions are established for the robot intervention in a classroom. Most often robots appear in roles as teacher, teacher assistant and Care-Receiving Robot. Robots interventions were conducted by NAO, Saya, RoboThespian, Bioloid, BAXTER, Darwin, NIMA-Robocop, Robosapien, TIRO. Social robots diverge from the computer-mediated communication technologies, as they are not mediating interaction but are partner in interaction. ITSs and ILEs assist teachers in teaching, while the teacher and a robot have a shared presence in the classroom. The copresent social robots perform a social role by interacting with students. Robotic activities are aimed at delivering learning materials and not primarily for individualised teaching, which encompasses the delivery of feedback and the tailoring learning activities for individual learner’s needs.

Violeta Rosanda, Andreja Istenic Starcic

ISTIL (‘I Search Therefore I Learn’)

Frontmatter

Reordering Search Results to Support Learning

Although many learning activities involve search engines, their ranking criteria are focused on providing factual rather than procedural information. In the context of Searching as Learning, providing factual information may not be the best approach. In this paper, we discuss the relevance criteria according to traditional learning theories to support search engine results reordering based on content suitability to learning purposes. We proceeded on the investigation by selecting some self-proclaimed search literacy experts to answer thoroughly questions about their views on the reordered results. We take into account that literacy expert’s judgment may reveal issues regarded to technical side on learning supported by search tools. Experienced users claimed a preference for reliable sources and direct answers to what they are looking for, as they have exploratory skills to overcome information incompleteness.

Cleber Pinelli Teixeira, Marcelo Tibau, Sean Wolfgand Matsui Siqueira, Bernardo Pereira Nunes

How Do Search Engines Shape Reality? Preliminary Insights from a Learning Experience

More and more often, search engines are used by students as a tool to access information on the Web. This has the potential to affect the learning activities conducted by students. In this paper, the project “In WWW veritas?” is presented. The project has the following objectives: (1) to investigate how searches carried out on the Web through search engines can lead to different results based on different criteria; (2) to increase students awareness on how search engines “filters” can work and thus lead to a different perception of reality; (3) to stimulate critical thinking in the use of searching tools on the Web to fully exploit their potential. The project involved students of a high school in northern part of Italy. They examined the results presented by a popular search engine on selected controversial topics and tried to support or contrast the different points of view through a role-playing game. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of results showed an increased students’ awareness on the presence of filters through which the search engines provide information. Moreover, the activities undertaken into the project were also effective in developing critical thinking processes.

Davide Taibi, Giovanni Fulantelli, Luca Basteris, Gabriella Rosso, Elisa Puvia

Backmatter

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