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Über dieses Buch

This book includes the original, peer-reviewed research from the 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Communication and Information Technologies (ICECIT 2015), held in December, 2015 at Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India. It covers the latest research trends or developments in areas of Electrical Engineering, Electronic and Communication Engineering, and Computer Science and Information.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Trends in Knowledge and Data Engineering, Big Data and Advanced Computing Techniques, Computer Networks, Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence

Frontmatter

An Enhanced Mechanism for Balanced Job Scheduling Based on Deadline Control in Computational Grid

Grid can be thought of as a network of heterogeneous interactive computational resources from multiple administrative domains that collectively works towards achieving a common goal. Inefficient scheduling and work load distribution among the various computational resources in a network is one of the major issues that affect grid performance. Some resources may tend to be heavily loaded while some are kept idle, thus affecting the overall performance of the grid. Balanced load scheduling is thus a serious issue which needs to be properly addressed in the grid. Balancing the load affects some factors like job execution and service selection, thus making it all the more necessary to be well implemented. In this paper we propose a distributed, dynamic and balanced load scheduling scheme on grids which considers deadline of jobs. Our approach for solving the problem goes as follows: The resources first check their state and make a request to the Grid Broker based on the change in state of their load. Then, the Grid Broker assigns Jobs (Gridlets) among resources, provides schedules for load balancing and selecting best node of a resource for execution under the given deadline. We applied our balanced job scheduling mechanisms into a popular simulation platform called GridSim Tool kit. Experimental results prove that our balanced job scheduling mechanism can reduces the make span, failure tendency, and resubmitted time by maximizing the throughput.

K. Jairam Naik, A. Jagan, N. Satyanarayana

A Secure Location-Based Coupon Redeeming System

With the rapid evolution of mobile computing technologies, Mobile location based services are identified as one of the most promising target application. Mobile location based services have lot of limiting factors. In this paper we propose a new rewarding system based on location of the Mobile User where Mobile Units will collect Coupons from the Coupon Distribution Center and then redeem their Coupon’s at the Coupon Collection Center. Coupons acts as virtual currency Coupon’s Distributers and Collectors can be any entity or retailer. This rewarding system based on location of the Mobile Unit is a secure one and preserves privacy of the Mobile user.

J. Maruthi Nagendra Prasad, A. Subramanyam

Sanskrit as Inter-Lingua Language in Machine Translation

This paper gives an insight into the role of Sanskrit as inter-lingua language in Multi-language machine translation. Inter-lingua and direct transformation based approaches have been used for a long period complementing each other while sometimes competing with each other. Inter-lingua based approach is efficient when used for multi-lingual machine translation e.g. Angla-Bharati system uses pseudo lingua for Indian language (PLIL) as inter-lingua language for translation from Hindi to other Indian regional language. It is proposed to use Sanskrit as an inter-lingua in Multi-language machine translation.

Sunita Chand

Scalability in Virtualization

Virtualization is the process of creating a virtual version of an operating system, a server, a storage device or network resources. The main objective of this paper is developing virtualization infrastructure using open source solution for enabling virtual machine for a selected or developed application. This system makes use of bare-metal virtualization in which Virtual Machine Monitor runs directly on physical hardware. The system allocates resources dynamically via virtualization based on the application demand. As the demand increases the hypervisor dynamically creates virtual guest operating system and shutdown the guest operating system as demand decreases, thus achieving scalability. Hypervisor distribute the resources equally among the guest operating system.

Chandrika Prasad, H. M. Varun, M. T. Vijay kumar, K. Yashaswini, G. Suhas

Blind Spectrum Sensing Techniques in Cognitive Radio-Survey

With the always expanding interest for remote correspondences, the spectrum has turned into a rare asset. Spectrum lack is turning into a major obstacle for the advancement of new remote advances and presentation of new applications and administrations. To keep away from this lack issue, the thought of cognitive radio (CR) was proposed. It permits the utilization of spectrum in a proficient way. The thought of cognitive radio is in view of compelling spectrum use. The spectrum is apportioned to essential client or authorized client. At the point when essential client is not using the assigned band, optional client can guarantee for that empty band of essential client. For that spectrum sensing is needed. At the point when the essential client comes then auxiliary client all will be dropped. Spectrum sensing is a standout amongst the most difficult issue. This paper concentrates on diverse Blind spectrum sensing procedures.

S. Vasundara, D. Raghavaraju, D. Venkatesh

Offline Data Synchronization with Occasionally Connected Databases Using Smart-IPMS

We live in a world with an increasing number of connected computing resources. However, in many cases we cannot expect one hundred percent connectivity throughout. Applications may not be able to access network resources all the time without good network connectivity. A requested service could be busy, down, or just temporarily unavailable. The worldwide network is increasing rapidly. The devices connected to network are vastly different from desktop computers, because they are meant for different purposes. Their main purpose is to connect people to information. Social media, their work information and their emails are information sources. Offline data synchronization plays a vital role in ensuring efficiency in communication between the client devices and the web server in an environment with limited internet connection. This paper presents an algorithm for data synchronization in Insurance Policy Management System.

R. M. Jagadish, L. Swarna Jyothi, Rohini Patil

An Empirical Analysis of Unsupervised Learning Approach on Medical Databases

The early prediction of disease from diverse clinical features is among the critical job for health care practitioners. The clinical database are generally integrated from various sources such as electronic health records, administrative health records, and monitoring facilities, including CT scan or ultra sonic images. Thus it employs numerous efforts by clinical and data mining specialists to discover knowledge from large and complex clinical databases for future medical diagnosis. The discovery of patterns should be an automated process as data is voluminous and complex in nature. To discover hidden and novel information from such databases a proficient methodological technique must be involved. In this article we have laid emphasis on diabetes mellitus II dataset to discover clusters of variant shape and size. In current approach we have initially preprocessed datasets to reduce missing, noise and inconsistent values from database. Further preprocessed data is clustered using Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm; however the key parameters are controlled in DBSCAN clustering algorithm to discuss the comparative results for efficient discovery of clusters with variant shapes and size. The study relatively determines the clusters with variants shapes and size from diabetes mellitus II datasets for future medical diagnosis of disease.

Ritu Chauhan, Harleen Kaur, Roma Puri

Applying Agile Programming and Design Patterns in IT Domain

Agile software development methods have recently become popular in software engineering. Agile methods emphasize simplicity and the elimination of work that is not absolutely necessary. These techniques give preference for working software which satisfies all stake holders, and leads to a successful completion in shorter time frames, giving much importance to real-time communication. Design Patterns have been widely used by many software developers. Recent statistics reveals that patterns can have a beneficial impact on software quality. In brief, what is needed for today’s software development scenario is a combination of Agile Methodologies for faster development and usage of Design Patterns for maximizing design reusability. The combined approach applied to the software development leads to robust, secure and almost risks free software which has adaptability to accommodate rapid requirements changes. Section 1 of this paper explains the Agile Development Methodologies. Section 2 outlines the Design Patterns, while 3rd and 4th sections elaborate case studies for the combined approach.

V. Dattatreya, K. V. Chalapati Rao, V. M. Rayudu

A Novel Approach to Improve the System Performance by Proper Scheduling in Memory Management

Virtual memory techniques are available in modern operating system will permits the execution of a program even if it is partially available in memory thus providing an illusion of very large memory to the user and freeing the user from the concern of large program size. The primary storage size has increased by multiple order of magnitude. With several gigabytes of primary memory, algorithms that require a periodic check of each and every memory frame are becoming less and least practical. Some basic assumptions used by the traditional page replacement algorithms were invalidated, resulting in a revival of research area. Currently the usage of the object oriented programming is much higher than the structured programming. Hence the locality of reference of user software has weakened. Due to the above problem for the page replacement methods also we have to think about new methods. In this paper mainly focused on the improvement of the processor performance. In order to achieve this, the number of page faults are tried to reduce, by using the page replacement method in the correct way. In modern operating systems mainly make use of the Least Recently Used (LRU) page replacement method, in which only the arrival time of the pages to the page frame are make used. Here we made an attempt to consider both the arrival time and the number of reference done on the page is considered. By consider these two parameter we developed a new algorithm Least Recently Used and Least Frequently Used (LRU-LFU) which will give a better performance than LRU page replacement method.

Jisha P. Abraham, Sheena Mathew

Query Performance Prediction Using Joint Inverse Document Frequency of Multiple Terms

In an information retrieval system, predicting query performance, for keyword based queries is important in giving early feedback to the user which can result in an improved query which in turn results in a better query result. There exists clarity score based and ranking robustness score based techniques to solve this problem. Both these, eventhough shows good performance, suffers from high computational time needs and are post-retrieval methods. In contrast to this, there do exist several pre-retrieval parameters which can judge the query without executing it. Pre-retrieval parameters based on distribution of information in query terms, which basically depends on inverse document frequency (idf) of query terms, are shown to be good predictors. Among these, the standard-deviation of idf values of query terms is known to be better. This paper generalizes this and proposes to use joint idf for a set of terms together, than using each term’s idf individually. Empirical studies are done using some standard data sets. The parameters based on the proposed method are shown to be better than the previous method which is nothing but a special case of the proposed method.

P. Viswanath, J. Rohini, Y. C. A. Padmanabha Reddy

Removal of High Density Salt and Pepper Noise from the Image Using CMA

The quality of the image plays a vital role in numerous image processing applications such as medical image analysis, pattern recognition, satellite image processing, etc. One of the most important noises that affect the quality of the image is impulse noise. This noise alters the value of the pixels to either extreme. An efficient noise reduction algorithm is required to improve the quality of the image by detecting the noisy pixels and then replacing it with the appropriate value. The algorithm should have high noise reduction efficiency and computational efficiency especially when dealing with high noise density images. This paper proposes an improved algorithm which detects the noisy pixels using Cloud Model method and replaces the value of the corrupted pixel by Cloud Model Average (CMA) method, which improves computational efficiency by 2.94 % without compromising the noise reduction efficiency compared to the existing methods in the literature.

S. Vijaya Kumar, C. Nagaraju

Neural Network—Based Diesel Engine Emissions Prediction for Variable Injection Timing, Injection Pressure, Compression Ratio and Load Conditions

The present study investigates the use of artificial neural network modelling for prediction of emission parameters of a four stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine. ANN model was developed to predict emissions namely CO, NOX and HC. Emission data was collected by conducting experiments by varying compression ratio, Injection time, and injection pressure in four steps and load in five steps. Two training algorithms traingd and trainlm with hidden nodes varying from 3 to 20 in step of one were developed and trained. Best network from 36 networks was selected based on MSE, regression coefficients for training, validation, testing and correlation coefficient for prediction of unseen data. The best model was found to be Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm with 17 neurons and regression coefficients for training, validation and testing are 0.99628, 0.99561, 0.99472 and 0.99577 respectively. The correlation coefficient R for training data is 0.99643 and for unseen data is 0.99322. The regression coefficients for prediction of training sets of CO, NOX and HC are 0.99643, 0.99486 and 0.99601 respectively. The average % error for prediction of CO, NOX and HC are -0.16178, -0.38814 and 0.7459 respectively which are less than 1. It is found that artificial neural networks serve as an excellent tool for prediction of emissions from diesel engine under variable operating and design parameters.

M. Shailaja, A. V. Sita Rama Raju

Control System of Mobile Robotic Complex Based on Mini Tractor “Belarus 132H”

This article describes systems of navigation and communications of mobile robotic system (MRS), MRS manipulation modes, the most suitable mode solving assigned tasks. In this paper, we consider an example of designing robotic system on the basis of mini tractors Belarus 132 N chassis, which allows maximal use of mechanical components of series production, and would reduce the cost of the final product. The goal is to provide navigation and communication of mobile robotic system. Generalized block diagram of a multi-purpose mobile robotic complex, relationship diagram of main MRS components and object tracking were proposed.

Makpal Zhartybayeva, Tamara Zhukabayeva, Ainur Zhumadillayeva

CA Based Design of Fault Detection Unit for Hierarchical Directories in Scalable CMPs

In a Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs) with large number of cores, directory size increases linearly with number of sharers. To over-come the shortcomings of flat directory structures, hierarchical directory structures are used. An insignificant fault in the sharer set representation of such a directory may introduce major inconsistency throughout the system. Therefore, the current work targets detection of any faulty recording in the sharer set representation of a hierarchical directory. The solution is developed around a special class of Cellular Automata (CA) with single length cycle attractors. The CA based design ensures low cost hardware implementation as well as high-speed operation.

Supriti Mukherjee, Bhanu Pratap Singh, M. Chinnapureddy, Chandan Koley, Mamata Dalui

A New Stratified Immune Based Approach for Clustering High Dimensional Categorical Data

With development in Database Technology, many existent real world applications contain outsized volumes of categorical data, which are playing an important role in data analysis and effective decision making. However, the clustering algorithms are deliberated for numerical data only, for the reason that of their similarity of measures. There is an enormous work carried on clustering categorical data with predefined similarity measure explicitly defined over categorical data. However, intricate problem with real world domain is that the feature in the data may depend on some hidden and transonic perspective, which is explicitly not in the given form of predictive features. So this poses a covenant with categorical data competently and proficiently. In this paper, a stratified immune based approach is proposed for clustering categorical data CAIS, is proposed with new similarity measure to minimize distance function. CAIS adopts an immunology based approach for effective discovery of clusters over categorical data. It selects frequently subsist nomadic feature as representative object and perform grouping into clusters with new affinity measure. CAIS is scaled to large number of attributes to minimize miscluster rate in the datasets. The extensive empirical analysis on CAIS shows that the proposed approach attains better mining efficiency on various categorical datasets and outperforms with Expectation Maximization (EM) in different settings.

G. Surya Narayana, D. Vasumathi, K. Prasanna

Multiclass SVM Classifier with Named Entity Recognition for Scheduling Workflows in Cloud

Present Internet based applications are generating huge data due to demands of various scenarios. This gives several challenges in analyzing data and performances of the cloud based systems. In order to represent the named entity recognition problem which is the challenging task for the cloud environment, we present a new model called as multi class SVM (Support Vector Machine) for workflow scheduling in cloud. This workflow scheduling provides a framework for scheduling the entity identification with multiclass SVM classifier. The algorithm for the scheduling of resources in cloud called as improved allocation, which continuously and vigorously reallocates multiple types of named entities to the cloud resources to fulfill the cost and performance requirements. Experimental results shown that the system can handle resources effectively, time and cost is optimized.

Jyothi Bellary, E. Keshava Reddy

Spatial Data Analysis Using Various Tree Classifiers Ensembled With AdaBoost Approach

The Spatial Data is growing very fast but the available statistical techniques are not sufficient to analyze. The existing Spatial Data Mining Techniques also has certain limitations. The size and complexity of the data sets are posing challenges to the research community. In order to overcome these it is required to do deep study on the suitability of the existing Machine Learning Techniques apart from that check for the suitability of hybrid machine learning techniques. In our paper Classifier Ensembling Technique called AdaBoost Approach was applied on the Spatial Data set for rigorous Analysis. The AdaBoost Technique combines multiple weak classifiers into a single Strong Classifier. It is used in conjunction with many machine learning classifier algorithms in order to boost up their performances. In this connection various Tree Classifier Techniques like J48, Random Forest, BF Tree, F Tree, REP Tree, Random Tree, Simple Cart etc., were considered and applied on the Spatial Data set considered and did the comparative study in terms of various performance metric values both in terms of Numerically and Visually and finally made effective conclusions out of that study. This paper also states that ensemble methods perform in better way than any individual classifier.

S. Palaniappan, T. V. Rajinikanth, A. Govardhan

Critical Analysis of Congestion Control for the Future Networks

The Internet has always done a remarkable job at surprising people. Technology oscillates, and some envisioned architectures of the future fail while others thrive. From the origination of peer-to-peer computing, it became easier task for communication and information transfer. But there exists still few hysterical issues like congestion, and security. Congestion occurs when one part of subnet becomes overloaded. The means of moderating the traffic in the networks is referred as congestion control. This paper critically analyses various issues behind congestion in various networks and various techniques to avoid and prevent from congestion and to efficiently control the congestion in the networks. This paper essentially focuses on the future networks posing various challenges and exposed issues regarding congestion control.

G. N. Vivekananda, P. Chenna Reddy

Trends in Image and Speech Processing, VLSI and Embedded Systems, Communications Technology

Frontmatter

An Intelligent Frame Work System for Finger Touch Association on Planar Surfaces

In this work an intelligent projection framework system (IPS) is proposed, which empowers uncovered finger touch association on normal planar surfaces (e.g., dividers, tables), with one and only standard camera and one projector. The test of uncovered finger touch recognition is recouping the touching data just from the 2-D picture caught by the camera. In our system, the graphical client interface (GUI) catch is anticipated at first glance and is twisted by the finger when clicking it, and there is a huge positive relationship between the button’s distortion and the finger’s stature to the surface. Hence, we propose a novel, quick, and strong calculation, which exploits the catch’s mutilation to identify the touch activity. The current consoles utilized keys construct console for writing in light of the PC. These consoles are chipping away at the mechanical push standard. In any case, for the little gadgets like cellular telephones and tablets it is difficult to convey enormous console with them. The touch screen based consoles accessible in such gadgets are extremely badly designed to compose in light of the fact that the measure of individual’s finger is enormous and the extent of the keys on the touch screen is little. So writing chip away at the little gadgets is not helpful and on PC our fingers get torment in the wake of doing long time writing work as a result of mechanical vibration of the keys.

S. Asif Hussain, M. N. Giri Prasad, Chandrashekar Ramaiah

Robust Invisible Watermarking for Image Authentication

This paper proposes implementation of digital image watermarking using 3-level discrete wavelet transform. In this experimentation, digital image watermarking algorithm uses discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for decomposing cover image and watermark image. A defined algorithm does not change any information of the cover image. Information obtained from low frequency DWT coefficient of cover image and the watermark image is being used in order to get watermark embedding. Watermark extraction has been simply done by wavelet decomposition of watermarked image and cover image.

Priyanka R. Kulkarni, Altaaf O. Mulani, P. B. Mane

Automatic Digital Modulation Recognition System Using Feature Extraction

Automatic modulation recognition is the vital part in the advanced communication system used for both military and civil applications. In this paper a new methodology is proposed for distinguishing five digital modulation schemes (ASK-2, ASK-4, FSK, BPSK and QPSK). The algorithm extracts the features from the received signal and they are tested against preset thresholds to determine the modulation type of received signal. The simulations are done using MATLAB 2013 and results show that the system has an average recognition rate of 99.6 % at SNR as low as 4 dB.

H. L. Punith Kumar, Lakshmi Shrinivasan

A Secure Route Discovery Protocol for AODV Based Mobile Adhoc Networks Using Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) consists of numerous number of nodes, neighbor nodes are connected by means of radio links. Each node is constrained with limited power, bandwidth and scalability. Many researchers lay their effort to develop various techniques for providing a secure route in MANET. As a result, an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) technique is used to develop a secure shortest algorithm for routing the packet from source node to destination node, since ECC is famous due to its shorter key length and less computational overhead for encryption and decryption operation. ECC is more suitable for power constrained devices. But ECC based secure routing protocol requires a large number of Route Request (RREQ) packet in Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol and consumes more power. In order to reduce the number of RREQ packet and power consumption, a proposed secure energy efficient routing protocol is implemented. Finally, discuss the improvement of the proposed approach with the existing systems using GloMoSim software tool.

P. Vijayakumar, R. Rajashree, P. Sandhya

An IoT Based Remote Monitoring of Landfill Sites Using Raspberry Pi2

Now a day’s global warming is increasing due to the emission of green house gases from landfill site and industries. The main green house gases are Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Carbon Monoxide etc [1]. The long term exposure to these gases causes lung and heart diseases to the people who are living near to the land fill sites and industries. It is also harmful to animals and plant life. In this paper we describe an IoT based remote monitoring system for measuring the concentration of green house gases emitting from landfills and industries [6]. This proposed system measure the concentration of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide using semiconductor gas sensors and also measures humidity, temperature, pressure etc. The data from the sensors are processed by using Raspberry Pi2 and sensor values are uploaded to the internet using IoT technology. This system will send alert message to relevant authorities and peoples when concentrations of harm full gases reaches permissible levels using GSM Modem/internet SMS gateway. This system has given access to everyone who wish to know the concentration of gases emitted from landfill site or industrial area by sending a request message to the system.

K. Tharun Kumar Reddy, P. Ajay Kumar Reddy, P. Siva Nagendra Reddy, G. N. Kodanda Ramaiah

Design of Common Source Amplifier Using Amorphous Silicon TFT

Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) are now being used for a variety of applications. Their success in displays, ease of fabrication and low cost production has attracted the attention of researchers and academics all over the world. They have found applications in memory, sensors, flexible electronics etc. In this work an Amorphous Silicon Based TFT has been designed and simulated which in turn is used in the design of Common Source amplifier. It has been found that though the gain achieved by TFTs is low compared to Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFETs), they can still be used in the design of circuits where low cost and less fabrication time is a major criteria. The design and simulation of the device is carried out using Silvaco ATLAS, and that of the circuit is carried out using Silvaco gateway.

G. Srikanth, B. S. Kariyappa, B. V. Uma

Design of Ultra Low Power Asynchronous Domino Logic Pipeline Using Critical Data Path

This paper presents Design of ultra low-power asynchronous domino logic pipeline method, which targets to introduce design of latch-free pipe-line targeting to latch-free pipeline. To construct data paths, both dual rail and single rail domino gates are used. Dual-rail domino gates are mainly used to construct critical data paths. Hence the handshake signals are reduced greatly, using critical data path. This pipeline offers low power consumption and high throughput. A 16 × 16 array style multiplier is used for evaluating the proposed pipeline method. Asynchronous static pipeline method is compared with the proposed pipeline method, it saves up to 83.0 and 16.4 % of power.

K. Nirmala, P. Prasanth Babu, K. Prasanth, D. Maruthi Kumar

Contrast Based Color Plane Selection for Binarization of Historical Document Images

This paper primarily focuses on establishing that the document image processing and natural image processing domains are mutually dependent, which many researchers have not experimented. For a given color image, the contrast-per-pixel (CPP) for each color channel is computed and the channel that exhibits highest CPP value is binarized. To evaluate the proposed method, the color image is also converted to a grayscale image using a weighted color-to-grayscale conversion and then binarized. Otsu Algorithm is preferred for binarization. Images from DIBCO and H-DIBCO datasets were used for evaluating the proposed algorithm. The resultant binary images were appraised based on precision metrics which shows that the highest CPP exhibits better performance. Experimentally, the extracted color channels performed marginally better than the weighted color-to-grayscale converted image, which clearly indicates that image binarization depends on natural image processing.

M. E. Paramasivam, R. S. Sabeenian

Signature Wavelet Identification of Sounds of Musical Instruments Using RLS Algorithm

Filter bank theory is used to identify the approximation and detail coefficients of the wavelet filter that are used to identify the scaling and wavelet function of the wavelet. If the filter bank coefficients of the sounds of musical instruments are calculated then it is possible to identify the signature wavelet of the sound signal, which can be used to reconstruct the original signal with negligible error. The filter bank coefficients can be identified with adaptive algorithms viz. LMS, NLMS and RLS. Among the three algorithms, RLS algorithm perform better in all regard and the algorithm converges very fast i.e. number of iterations are less. Hence an algorithm based on RLS algorithm is developed to find out scaling and wavelet functions of the sounds of musical instruments with better accuracy and speed of convergence.

Raghavendra Sharma, V. Prem Pyara

Study on Influence of Hip Trajectory on the Balance of a Biped Robot

Balancing of a biped robot plays an important role, as it has to walk on two feet while moving from one place to another to execute the task assigned to it. The present research paper is mainly focusing on the study of influence of hip trajectory on the balance of an 18-DOF biped robot in single support phase (SSP) while walking on the flat floor. Two different types of trajectories, namely straight line and particle swarm-based cubic polynomial are considered for the hip joint. The gaits for the lower and upper limbs of the robot are generated by using the concept of inverse kinematics after considering the said options for the hip trajectory. The balance of the robot is determined by calculating the Dynamic Balance Margin (DBM) of the generated gait. Further, the two developed approaches are tested for their capability to generate dynamically balanced gaits in computer simulations.

Ravi Kumar Mandava, Pandu R. Vundavilli

A Novel Technique for Edge Detection Using Gabor Transform and K-Means with FCM Algorithms

In this paper, a technique has been proposed for detecting edge in medical images throughput from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging devices. The proposed technique is Gabor wavelet transform along with two clustering methods i.e. Fuzzy c-means with k-means which is used to adorn the edge information while suppressing noise.

D. Maruthi Kumar, K. Prashanth, Praneel Kumar Peruru, P. Charishma Kumar Reddy

Trends in Renewable Energy and Control Systems, Power Systems, Power Electronics, Power Quality and FACTS

Frontmatter

Prims Aided Floyd Warshall Algorithm for Shortest Path Identification in Microgrid

Reconfiguration of microgrid results in dynamic variation in topology of the network. Due to this, the conventional protection scheme is no longer applicable in microgrid. Hence the microgrid network demands an adaptive protection scheme, which is a key challenge to protection engineers. It is critical for the protection engineers to know the current topology of the microgrid before a suitable relay coordination technique is deployed on it. This paper proposes a Prims aided Floyd Warshall algorithm, where the Prims algorithm identifies the current topology of the network at any instant of time. In the event of fault occurrence, the output of Prims algorithm is a list of active nodes: utility grid, loads, Distributed Generators (DG) and critical circuit breakers in the network. This list aids the Floyd Warshall algorithm in identifying the shortest path from the node closer to the fault to the utility grid (in grid connected mode) or point of common coupling (in islanded mode). The algorithm ensures minimum portion of network disconnection for fault isolation. The proposed algorithm is tested and validated on an IEEE 21-bus microgrid network in islanded mode and an IEEE 69-bus distribution network with DG included at certain nodes in grid connected mode.

O. V. Gnana Swathika, S. Hemamalini

A Comparative Study of Decoupler Design Techniques for TITO Control Processes

In industrial control, the performance of multiple input and multiple output processes is constrained by an interaction in the plant dynamics. The interaction between the variables is abridged to the minimum degree by opting appropriate control configuration and designing the controller for each loop autonomously. Conversely, when interaction is modest, the controller often used with decoupler elements. This paper presents a comparative study of decoupler design for minimization of interaction among the controllers. The decoupler is designed and incorporated in control loop amid controller and process. This decomposes the MIMO system into multiple single loops and each loop controller is designed by using any existing SISO tuning method. This approach is straightforward, simple to know and implemented in practice. A case study is incorporated to validate the effectiveness of projected approach.

R. Hanuma Naik, D. V. Ashok Kumar, K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

An Adaptive Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for OPF for Non-smooth Fuel Cost Functions with Facts Device

This paper presents a Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Differential Perturbed Velocity with adaptive acceleration coefficient (APSO-DV) to reduce generator fuel cost in Optimal Power Flow control with a powerful Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) device such as Unified power Flow Controller. The APSO-DV algorithm employs a strongly coupled differential operator acquired from differential evolution with adaptive acceleration coefficient in velocity update function of particle swarm Optimization. The strategic location of UPFC is found using Fuzzy approach by taking voltage magnitudes and voltage stability index (L-Index) as input parameters where L-Index is a real number which gives fair and consistent results for stability among different methods of voltage stability analysis. The feasibility of the proposed method has been tested on IEEE-30 bus system with three different objective functions that reflects fuel cost minimization, fuel cost with valve point effects and total system power loss. The test result shows the effectiveness of robustness of the proposed approach and provides superior results compared with the existing results.

A. Immanuel, Ch. Chengaiah

Finite Set Model Predictive Current Control of Three Phase Neutral Point Clamped Inverter with Reduced Leg Count

In this paper current control of two leg three phase Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter feeding a resistance and inductance (RL) load using Model Predictive Control (MPC) method is presented. In this method decoupled currents are predicted using discretized load current equations obtained from application of Kirchhoffs voltage law. A cost function which is dependent on decoupled predicted currents and reference currents is evaluated for all the possible nine switching states of two leg NPC inverter. Switching state which gives minimum cost function is applied in the next sampling instant to the two-leg NPC inverter. The inverter and load are modeled using Simulink. MPC algorithm is coded in embedded MATLAB function. Simulation results confirm capability of algorithm to track reference and step change in reference currents.

Eedara Aswani Kumar, K. Chandra Sekhar, R. Srinivasa Rao

Coordination of Energy Storage Devices in Hybrid Power Systems

Energy storage becomes a vital and potent factor in the economic development with extensive use of electricity. It hard to succeed the ever growing demand of electrical energy with the use of conventional available electrical network. Although new technologies based on solar, wind etc. have been introduced to feed this very purpose but their uncertainty nature make its application inflexible with limited infrastructure. Past studies have come out with the idea of energy storage to balance the supply and demand of electricity and cope up load challenges. The design of self-reliant future energy network can be achieved by the use of Energy Storage Devices (ESD) that have potential to toil for load balancing, continuous energy supply, conquering fluctuation and creating reserve for emergency. This paper deals with the coordination among different energy storage devices in the hybrid power system environment. The solar-photo voltaic and wind power plant are considered as renewable energy resources. The simulation is performed in MATLAB-Simulink environment. The results are discussed in detail.

Aayush Sharma, K. Jamuna

Design of Closed Loop Controller for DC-DC Converter by Using K-Factor Method Used For Renewable Energy Applications

Renewable Energy resources are an important aspect of sustainability. The world’s energy needs will reduce by one-third by 2050 if individuals and corporations save energy and depend on renewable energy sources. We need to control energy from renewable sources by interfacing particular type of converter which is suitable for the renewable source. If we consider solar application, the output of solar panel (i.e. input to converter) depends upon solar radiation. The energy from renewable sources are fluctuating because of nature. So, they give output also fluctuating. But for our applications there should not be any voltage variations even when load changes which is possible with the help of closed loop control of Converter. The control design can be done with the help of K factor method. This paper describes closed loop control design and operation of dc-dc converter (buck, boost and buck-boost model) used for renewable applications.

K. M. Ravi Eswar, D. Elangovan

Application of Bio-Inspired MPPT Techniques for Photovoltaic System

The need of photovoltaic generation system is getting elevated day by day since it has no involved fuel cost, eco-friendly and it has less maintenance. In case of partial shaded condition there are many peaks thus we use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method to get maximum power. The proposed bioinspired technique has the ability to track maximum power point under any environmental condition i.e. high change in insolation and partially shaded condition. This paper reflects the implementation of MPPT method for photovoltaic system by making use of particle swarm optimisation (pso) technique. Simulation results have been provided to prove correctness of proposed model and results were compared with Hill Climbing method.

Jagadish Kumar Patra, Soumya Bhanu Mohanty, H.M. Tania, D. Elangovan, G. Arunkumar

Active Power Loss Minimization in Radial Distributed Micro Grid Incorporating Distribution Generators

Now-a-days, Micro grid is getting more and more attractive due to its relative advantages. In this paper, the integration of distribution Generation (DG) into the radial distribution network is taken for analysis. Normal load flow analysis cannot be applied to the radial distribution network since the R/X ratio is very high. Hence Forward/Backward sweep load flow analysis is implemented to IEEE 33 bus system. Different distributed energy sources are introduced in different location with same ratings. The results prove that the introduction of DGs considerably reduces the active power loss in the test system and improves the voltage profile.

S. Angalaeswari, K. Jamuna

Loop Interaction and It’s Influence in Multivariable Process Control

The principal problem encountered in controlling of multivariable processes is the interaction amid the loops because of non-zero diagonal elements present in the system. The modest interaction between the control loops may lead the system unstable. In order to achieve the desired performance and guarantee robust stability margin, it is important to know which output is driving by which input. Hence the pairing is formed; consequently the controller is designed for resultant ‘n’ independent loops. Thus improves the set point tracking and disturbance rejection property of a control system. This paper deals with loop interaction measurement, control configuration selection and thereby controller is designed based on reduced apparent process models. The case study is included to illustrate the efficacy of proposed method.

R. Hanuma Naik, D. V. Ashok Kumar, K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

Four Level Boost Converter for Linear Loads

In renewable energy systems, the output voltage obtained will be of low level. In order to bring the voltage to nominal level, we need a step up DC-DC converter. Conventional boost converters has disadvantages like switch voltage stress, diode reverse recovery losses and high duty cycle losses. This paper presents a Multilevel DC-DC Boost Converter. To obtain 4 level output voltage, required number of switches, inductors, diodes and capacitors are one, one, seven and seven respectively. This converter has the ability to maintain equal voltage magnitudes in all the 4 output levels and also has a command over the input current. In this paper, a four level boost converter was simulated and implemented in hardware for an input and output specifications of 20 volts and 220 volts respectively.

H.M. Tania, Jagadish Kumar Patra, Vinson John, D. Elangovan, G. Arunkumar

Field Failure Rate Reduction Through ESS with MATLAB Based GUI

The increased vulnerability of the components to various electrical, thermal, mechanical, chemical and electromagnetic stresses poses a big threat in attaining the reliability required for various mission critical applications. Stress screening is a process in which imposed vibration, thermal and electrical stresses are applied for sufficient periods of time to precipitate defects and early life failure characteristics. In this paper, different stress screens are selected and their relative screen strengths are evaluated. The resulting average failure rate in field is calculated and presented for different components of PCB of different quality grades. A comparison of field failure rate without stress screening and with random vibration and temperature cycling stress screenings are carried out by using MATLAB based Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool.

K. Susanna, Swarna Bai Arniker, K. Sita Rama Rao, M. Anka Rao

A Novel Space Vector Approach Using Shoot Through State for Three Level Z Source Inverter

This paper presents a novel approach of space vector pulse width modulation techniques (SVPWM) used for two and three level Z Source Inverter (ZSI). The ZSI is a single stage converter and capable of doing buck and boost operation. Boost facility is obtained by adding extra state named as shoot through state and additionally DC bus utilization can be improved by proper placing of shoot through states in all the sectors. The voltage unbalance is reduced by proper use of pivot vectors. It has been observed that the proposed SVPWM offers better results in comparison to standard sine PWM techniques. Simulated results are presented for validating the analysis.

B. M. Manjunatha, D. V. Ashok Kumar, M. Vijaya Kumar

Impact of Distribution Generation on Losses of Distribution System

The paper put forward a Load Flow algorithm for radial distribution system to evaluate the losses which is the basic requirement of many power system operation, planning and control problem. The Backward Forward Sweep method is utilized with amendment in the line data handling. The proposed method utilizes BIBC and BCBV matrices to estimate the line flow and voltage drop to reduce the memory requirements. The Distributed Generations (DGs) are incorporated into the Distribution load flow program to study the impact of penetrations of DG for Distribution system. A program is written in MATLAB R2012. This is used to test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm on IEEE 33 bus system with and without DG. The result demonstrates the capability and simplicity of the algorithm.

K. Kirubarani, A. Peer Fathima

Performance Analysis of Shunt and Hybrid Active Power Filter Using Different Control Strategies for Power Quality Improvement

This paper includes assay and correlation of three phase shunt active to extricate its reference currents with distinct control strategies to evaluate their dynamic performance under different load conditions for both Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) and Hybrid Shunt Active Power Filter (HSAPF). The instantaneous active and reactive power (p-q) theory and synchronous reference frame theory (SRF) are compared. Extensive simulations are carried out for p-q and d-q theory’s for both shunt APF and hybrid shunt APF with PI controller. The compensation capability of Hybrid shunt APF is greater than SAPF for harmonics, reactive power compensation and dynamic performances capability. Performances comparison is analyzed using Matlab/Simulink. Simulation outcome is given to compare and validate the control techniques for SAPF and HSAPF during load changing condition.

S. Shamshul Haq, D. Lenine, S. V. N. L. Lalitha

A Unique Tuning of PID Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimizer for Modern Multilevel Inverter Fed Micro-grid System

Elimination of harmonics in high level inverter is an optimized problem which is interprets by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. The derived objective function is used for the tuning of PID controller to minimize the harmonic content in output voltage. The classical tuning of PID controller usually produces a high overshoot, imperative heuristics approaches are employed to improve the capability of classical techniques. This controller predicts the switching angles and optimum modulation index essentials for an improved output voltage and prevents the sudden variations of the asymmetrical 15-level modern multilevel inverter with fever switches. Here, this model has several inputs such as grid voltage, difference voltage, controlled target voltage. By means of these parameters, this proposed controller makes the better tuning values for enhanced quality voltage at grid, fast steady state response. In this process, the proposed methodology provides a pure sinusoidal current is in-phase with the grid voltage, then interfacing to the grid by PSO-PID controller. A simulink model is designed to validate the performance evaluation of this proposed work using Matlab/Simulink platform and results are conferred.

P. Hemachandu, V. C. Veera Reddy, N. Kusuma, D. Mohan Reddy, P. Divya Prasad

Optimal Operation of an Integrated Power Distribution System Fed with Renewable Energy Sources, Diesel Generation and Battery Storage

Recent developments in the electric utility industry is to encourage the entry of renewable energy sources for power generation in the distribution system. Wind energy systems, Photovoltaic systems, diesel engines and gas turbines are considered as Distributed Generators (DG). An Integrated Power Distribution System (IPDS) is a distribution system independent of grid that includes diesel generators, Wind Park, Solar Photovoltaic and batteries etc. This IPDS is considered for voltage stability analysis in the literature with Solar and Wind energy sources. However, it appears that no attempt has been made to reduce the losses using with integration of renewable energy sources. Further, optimal scheduling for integration of Distributed Generators (DG) is not considered in the literature so far. The main objective of this paper is to reduce the diesel consumption and losses by utilizing the energy from renewable energy sources and battery storage. The optimal scheduling of the distributed generators in IPDS is also considered. IEEE 14 Bus system is analyzed with Wind, Solar, Battery, Diesel generation and Static Var Compensator (SVC) using Power System Analysis Toolbox in MATLAB.

D. Ravi Kumar, K. C. Archana, G. S. Raju

Mitigation of Power Quality Problems in Distribution System Using D-STATCOM

Now-a-days, the most important discussing topic in the world of power systems is maintenance of power quality. After generating voltage, the engineers in the substations are struggling for transmitting as well as distributing of power to the receiving end, since different loads at the ends of distribution are very sensitive to the fluctuations in the voltage, interruptions of voltage and harmonics. This paper shows the improvement of Voltage Sag and THD using LCL Passive Filter along with the Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) which works with the principle of Voltage Source Converter (VSC).

N. Visali, Kamarthi Sridevi, N. Sreenivasulu

Location of IPFC Under Contingency Condition in Power System

The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is the latest generation of flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) device specifically used for the control of power flows in multi transmission system. If the load on the power system is heavily increased, then the system is at high risk because of line outages and consequent voltage instability problem. The power loss and voltage drop are reliable indicators of voltage security of power networks. Here we analyze the voltages, line apparent power flows and total power losses in the system. This paper also proposes an algorithm for optimal location of the IPFC so as to enhance voltage stability and to maintain the line flows within the limit under the over loaded line outage contingency in a power system network. The over loaded lines (outages) are ranked based on Severity Index. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested for IEEE-30 bus system with the help of MATLab software.

B. V. Rami Reddy, P. Sujatha, Y. V. Siva Reddy
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Globales Erdungssystem in urbanen Kabelnetzen

Bedingt durch die Altersstruktur vieler Kabelverteilnetze mit der damit verbundenen verminderten Isolationsfestigkeit oder durch fortschreitenden Kabelausbau ist es immer häufiger erforderlich, anstelle der Resonanz-Sternpunktserdung alternative Konzepte für die Sternpunktsbehandlung umzusetzen. Die damit verbundenen Fehlerortungskonzepte bzw. die Erhöhung der Restströme im Erdschlussfall führen jedoch aufgrund der hohen Fehlerströme zu neuen Anforderungen an die Erdungs- und Fehlerstromrückleitungs-Systeme. Lesen Sie hier über die Auswirkung von leitfähigen Strukturen auf die Stromaufteilung sowie die Potentialverhältnisse in urbanen Kabelnetzen bei stromstarken Erdschlüssen. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

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