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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces different advanced composite materials used in construction of civil engineering infrastructures. It reflects the latest manufacturing processes and applications in the civil structures. This book also includes test cases and its validation with finite element method using computer software. Moreover, the book also deals with design methodology of advanced composite materials based on different applications. The comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research on the composite materials presented herein is of interest to scientists, researchers, students and engineers, and practitioners in general working in area of innovative composite materials and structures. This book is also helpful for Ph.D. research scholars for developing their fundamental understanding on advanced materials, and it is also appropriate for master and undergraduate level courses on composite materials.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Composite Behaviour of Thin Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels

Abstract
This chapter discusses the composite behaviour of thin wythe precast concrete sandwich panels comprising sustainable mixes, hybrid fibres and non-conductive shear connectors. Following a review of available high performance concretes, insulation and shear connector types, it focuses on the individual and collective load-deflection behaviour of insulation, single wythes, unconnected and connected wythes with short and long spans under flexural loading where both grid and pin fibre reinforced polymer shear connectors are used to assist in developing better composite action. It concludes that, depending on insulation thickness and stiffness and connector type, partial composite action can be achieved in enhancing the ultimate load capacity of precast concrete sandwich panels.
Roger P. West, Oliver Kinnane

Masonry-Infilled RC Frames Strengthened with Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix

Abstract
Fabric reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) has shown significant potential to reduce seismic vulnerabilities of unreinforced masonry infills, especially the out-of-plane collapse when cracked under the action of in-plane forces. Recent experimental and numerical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the direct application of the fabric to masonry substrate embedded in the mortar with adequate anchorage to the surrounding RC frame. Experimental studies are concerned with characterization of FRCM strengthened masonry and performance verification of strengthened specimens of masonry-infilled RC frames tested under bidirectional loading of slow cyclic drifts for in-plane loading and shake table-generated motions for out-of-plane loading. Numerical models were developed to simulate the observed behavior up to failure and used to develop fragility curves for evaluation and design purposes.
Durgesh C. Rai, Bhushan Raj Selvaraj, Lalit Sagar

Markov Chain Modelling of Evolution of Deflection in Ferrocement Flexural Members

Abstract
Service life design and health monitoring of structures are among the current research topics in structural engineering. Both these require prediction of state of the structure under different load levels. There is a need for developing methodologies that take into account different randomness in different basic variables in the prediction of the states of the structure. This requires a suitable stochastic model to be used for predicting the evolution of linear/nonlinear response (that determines the state) of the structure when subjected to different load levels. This Chapter presents results of some of the investigations related to application of Non Homogeneous Markov Chain model for modelling evolution of central deflection of ferrocement flexural members. In the Appendix simple Chebyshev bounds on deflection proposed by Steliga and Szynal (Int J Pure Appl Math 58:137–152, 2010) are computed and compared with the respective experimental values.
K. Balaji Rao

Pseudo-Ductility through Progressive Rupture of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tendons in Partially Prestressed Functionally-Graded Concrete Beam

Abstract
Corrosion of steel tendons/reinforcements has been a major concern in the prestressed concrete (PSC) and reinforced concrete (RC) beams used in bridge construction. In order to overcome this drawback, basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) tendons have been introduced to replace the steel tendons/reinforcements. However, the major limitation with such BFRP composites is their brittle failure without showing any yielding, i.e. lack of ductility. Most of the codes/standards recommend to design the beams prestressed/reinforced with the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) as an over-reinforced section to utilize the ductility of concrete in its nonlinear range giving adequate warning prior to the complete failure through extensive cracking and deformations. However, such over-reinforced section need not necessarily provide sufficient ductility to the structure. In contrast, the present study is focused on the FRP beam designed as an under-reinforced section with some techniques to avoid the sudden failure and introduce a type of pseudo-ductility based on the nonlinear behavior of the PSC beam. The beams are designed in such a way that progressive ruptures of the BFRP tendons occur, i.e. they rupture one after the other in succession, resulting in a progressive decrease in the stiffness of the beam, and thereby introducing additional nonlinearity. The ductility is defined in terms of the energy ratio, which is enhanced owing to the progressive rupture of the BFRP tendons. The present analytical investigation shows that the BFRP-prestressed concrete beam with multiple layers of the BFRP tendons, vertically distributed across the depth of the section, and/or partial prestressing applied result in a significant nonlinearity contributing to the additional inelastic energy, which improves the ductility significantly. Additionally, the functionally-graded concrete section proved effective in improving the ductility while maximizing the load-carrying capacity, by providing more depth to the cross-section to compensate the capacity lowered due to the partial prestressing and/or the tendons layered towards the neutral axis.
Ali Alraie, Nikhil Garg, Vasant Matsagar

Concrete Filled Unplasticized Poly-Vinyl Chloride (UPVC) Tubes as Column

Abstract
In present study, a stress–strain model for concrete subjected to compression and confined with unplasticised poly vinyl chloride (UPVC) tube is proposed. To develop this model, total eighteen specimens of concrete filled UPVC tubes (CFUT) having different geometrical properties were tested. To obtain the specimens, UPVC pipes of class 3, 4 and 5 (IS: IS: 4985-2000 (Reaffirmed 2005) “Unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies- specification. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India-2000 IS: 4985-2000 (Reaffirmed 2005) “Unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies- specification. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India) with nominal/working pressure of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MPa (87, 116 and 145 psi) having diameters of 160, 200 and 225 mm (6.3, 7.87 and 8.86 in.) were taken and cut into 800 mm (31.5 in.) length. Internal hydrostatic pressure test were conducted to obtain the confining pressure of UPVC tubes. M30 and M40 grades of concrete were designed as per IS: 10262-2009 (IS: 10262-2009. Concrete mix proportioning-guidelines. Bureau of Indian Standard. New Delhi, India) to fill the tubes. All the specimens were compressed by application of load on concrete core only, to obtain load–displacement variations and associated mode of deformation. All the specimens were failed by development of shear cracks and macrocracks with slight bulging. A finite element model is developed using proposed stress–strain variation of concrete confined with UPVC tubes to simulate the axial compression of CFUT specimens. On the basis of obtained results, effect of variation of diameter to thickness ratio (D/t) on the failure stress of confined concrete is obtained and discussed with an empirical relationship. Load capacities of different specimens obtained using the proposed Finite Element model and some models available in literature are presented, compared and discussed. It may be concluded that the proposed model is capable to estimate the load capacity and mode of deformation of concrete filled UPVC tubes (CFUT) subjected to axial compression.
P. K. Gupta, V. K. Verma

Study of the Composite Action of FRP Floor Beams and RC Slab Under Flexural Loading

Abstract
In this chapter, the effect of different types of connections on the flexural behavior of FRP-concrete composite slab is studied using finite element software ABAQUS. The connection between the FRP beams and RC slab is made using shear connectors and adhesive bonding. Web and flange elements of I-beams are connected with cohesive layer, because it is the weaker portion in the FRP I-beams and is highly prone to fail under three-point loading. Accuracy of the numerical model is verified by comparing the results with published experimental study. Further, the parametric study is performed on beams having different size and spacing of shear connectors. Along with, failure and service load of hybrid beams is determined for different geometric configuration of I-beams and width of RC slab. The flexural response of hybrid FRP-concrete beams obtained from finite element software shows good agreement with experimental testing. It is observed that shear connectors help in improving the strength of concrete-FRP hybrid beams. With increasing the length of shear connectors there is slight improvement in the strength of beam. As density of shear connectors decreases, consequently flexural stiffness of the beam (initial slope of load–deflection curve) decreases. It is also noted that strength and stiffness of the hybrid beam increases with increase in the length of the shear connectors. From the flexural study of the beams having different width-to-thickness (B/t) ratio, it is observed that some beams having different B/t ratio have same failure and service loads, due to the pre-mature failure of the web-flange junction of the I-beams. Hence, it is stated that addition of RC slab enhances the flexural stiffness, i.e., service load and also enhances the strength of web-flange junction. Addition of reinforced concrete slab over the FRP I-beams, reduces the chances of local buckling of the flange and web of the I-beam.
Himanshu Chawla, N. Chandramauli, S. B. Singh

Large Scale Waste Utilisation in Sustainable Composite Materials for Structural Applications

Abstract
Massive consumption of natural resources in composite materials for structural applications has resulted in an acute shortage of materials in the construction industry. In order to ensure sustainability, the reader is introduced to the concept of waste utilization in composite materials. Over the years, numerous wastes have been identified for large scale utilization in sustainable composite materials for structural applications. Utilization of waste primarily depends on the properties of waste and desired use in the composite matrix. The chapter demonstrates the potential of waste for large scale utilization in sustainable composite materials for structural applications through case studies. Processing of wastes to improve their large scale utilization in sustainable construction materials for structural application has also been discussed.
Sanchit Gupta, Sandeep Chaudhary

Stress Block Parameters of Confined Fibrous Recycled Self Compacting Concrete

Abstract
In present day construction, utilisation of sustainable materials and technologies has become inevitable. One such idea is the use of recycled aggregate for rapidly depleting natural aggregates. Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is normally used in problematic casting conditions where congestion of reinforcement is encountered. This is a technically and economically viable solution. With better performance in terms of strength and durability, it is fast becoming a good alternative method of making an Environmental friendly (Eco) concrete. Using steel fibers in concrete is known to enhance the performance of concrete in the hardened state. In order for designers to utilise Fibrous Recycled Cycled Aggregate Based Self Compacting Concrete (RASCC), it is important that the stress–strain relationship and the stress block parameters of such a novel material need to be investigated. This will enable to have a comprehensive outlook on the constitutive behaviour of this material. An analytical model is developed based on the results of experimentation and compared with the Euro Code provisions.
Pancharathi Rathish Kumar, M. L. V. Prasad, K. L. Radhika

Applications of Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Mortar (FRCM) in Structural Strengthening

Abstract
Over the past two decades, the use of advanced composite materials such as Fiber reinforced Polymers (FRP) and Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) has been widely adopted for the strengthening of critical infrastructural assets such as bridges, building, dams, and tunnels. This chapter presents a state-of-the-art review on the use of FRCM for strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures under different load combinations. Initially, the material characterisation of FRCM through the tensile and bond test are described. Then, a detailed overview on the overall behavior and failure mode of FRCM strengthened RC members under compression, shear, flexure, torsion and seismic loads are discussed. Moreover, few studies highlighting the FRCM strengthening of un-reinforced masonry structures are also discussed. In addition, few case studies where the use of FRCM strengthening is preferred over the other techniques are discussed and the key parameters are analysed.
M. Chellapandian, S. Suriya Prakash

Material Characterization of Hybrid FRP Bars

Abstract
Hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar has emerged as one of the most promising and affordable solutions to the brittle failure problems of ordinary FRP rebar in concrete structures. Hybrid FRP comprised of two or more fibers with a single or several matrix which leads to a desirable combination of performance and environmental attributes. In this study, two type of fibers namely carbon fiber and glass fiber embedded in epoxy resin were used for manufacturing of hybrid FRP bars by hand lay-up process. This chapter deals with history of FRP materials, need for hybrid FRP and experimental tests carried out for tensile strength properties of hybrid FRP bars.
Pankaj Munjal, S. B. Singh

Thermomechanical Elastic–Plastic Stability and Failure Analysis of FGM Plate

Abstract
A mathematical model based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the von Karman’s nonlinear kinematics for buckling, postbuckling and failure analysis of elastic–plastic Functionally Graded Material (FGM) plate under thermomechanical is presented. The FGM plate with continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed of multiple perfectly-bonded layers made of isotropic and homogeneous material having layer-wise constant composition. The thermoelastic properties of FGM are calculated using rule of mixtures and Tamura-Tomota-Ozawa model (TTO model). Whereas, the elastic–plastic material properties are evaluated in accordance with the TTO model, assuming the ceramic phase of FGM to be elastic and the metal phase to be elastic–plastic. Further, the elastic–plastic analysis of FGM is assumed to follow J2-plasticity with isotropic hardening. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of plasticity, material inhomogeneity, and thermomechanical loading conditions on the elastic–plastic buckling, postbuckling behavior, and the ultimate load capacity of FGM plate. The postbuckling response of FGM plate is found to be greatly affected by the plasticity consideration. FGM plate with elastic material properties exhibited a continuous increase in the postbuckling strength; whereas, the postbuckling strength of an elastic–plastic FGM plate decreases initially and finally, ultimate failure of the plate occurs.
Kanishk Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

Buckling of Laminated Composite Plate with Imperfections Subjected to In-Plane Pulse Loads

Abstract
In this article, the stability of a laminated composite plate when subjected to in-plane compressive pulse load is investigated in the finite element method framework. Convergence and validation studies are carried out using the current mathematical formulation and compared with the results from the existing literatures. The effects of loading duration, imperfection and ply orientation on the dynamic buckling behavior of the plate with irregular imperfection are studied in detail and the results are reported. It is observed that the plate having irregular imperfection of the order of 20% of the plate thickness has a lower non-linear dynamic buckling load than the plate with 15% irregular imperfection.
Vasanth Keshav, Shuvendu Narayan Patel, Rajesh Kumar

Parametric Instability Analysis of Functionally Graded CNT-Reinforced Composite (FG-CNTRC) Plate Subjected to Different Types of Non-uniform In-Plane Loading

Abstract
Carbon nanotube has attracted many researchers from last two decades due to its exceptional mechanical and multiuse properties. In this article, a semi-analytical study is performed to determine the dynamic instability of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite (FG-CNTRC) plate exposed to uniform and various non-uniform in-plane loadings. The efficient mechanical properties for the plate are estimated using rule of mixture where CNTs are distributed aligned and distributed across the plates’ thickness such as Uniformly distributed (UD) and Functionally Graded (FG-X and FG-O). Here, The FG-CNTRC plate is modeled by means of higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) and the stress distributions (σxx, σyy, τxy) within the plate because of non-uniform loadings are calculated using Airy’s stress method. Then, the Hamilton’s principle is applied to obtain the governing partial differential equations of the FG-CNTRC plate, and which is later solved with the help of Galerkin’s method to convert it to ordinary (Mathieu type) differential equations. Next, these Mathieu type equations are solved employing Bolotin’s method to trace the instability boundaries corresponding to period 2T. At last, the consequence of different parameters like volume fraction of CNT, types of non-uniform loading, static load factor, types of CNTs distribution on instability of the FG-CNTRC plate are examined.
Vishal Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Shuvendu Narayan Patel

Recent Advancements in the Application of Natural Fiber Based Composites in Structural Engineering—A Review

Abstract
In the last decade, natural fibers have established themselves as a possible alternative to synthetic fibers in composites materials due to properties that range from low cost, low density, biodegradability, carbon positive nature, i.e., absorbing more carbon dioxide than produced, easy processing, etc. This chapter presents an overview of recent developments on the use of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites in structural engineering applications primarily focusing on their use as flexure elements, as flexure and shear strengthening medium for existing reinforced cement concrete elements, and the response of such materials to dynamic loadings. Also, the various mechanical properties of the natural fiber-reinforced composites as obtained from the material characterization of the composite during the above-mentioned investigations, and those reported in the various literatures are discussed.
A. S. Mehra, S. B. Singh

Structural Response of FRP Truss Bridge

Abstract
This chapter focus on the current state of the steel truss bridges in construction and development of alternative truss bridge using FRP. A model of FRP truss bridge is fabricated at structural testing center of BITS Pilani. In order to overcome the deficiencies of steel bridges, a FRP truss bridge is proposed. The experimental response of the FRP truss bridge is predicted under static loading. Further, truss bridge is modelled using ABAQUS and it is observed that experimental and numerical responses are in good agreement with each other. From the numerical study, it is noted that without stiffening of the top chord, truss deflect in the lateral direction as well as top chord buckles before overall failure of the bridge. From this study, it is concluded that connection of the top chord with horizontal strut is more efficient than vertical strut. Top chords and struts of FRP truss bridges made by CFRP and the floor beams made by GFRP box section, are economical and efficient for heavy loading.
Himanshu Chawla, S. B. Singh

A Review of Natural Fiber Composites for Structural, Infrastructural and Ballistic Applications

Abstract
Natural fiber composites are becoming suitable alternative material to replace synthetic fibers like carbon, Kevlar and E-glass. Natural fibers are having the properties of biodegradability, renewability, and low density. Nowadays, researchers are showing interest in natural fibers to draw natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRC). NFRC is generally used in the construction sector for non loading members and researchers are evaluating the applications of NFRC in load-carrying members of the structural and infrastructural areas. The hybridization of natural fibers and synthetic fibers have good results over the plain natural fiber composites. The main problem with natural fibers is that properties are significantly influenced by the source of fiber, type of fiber, and fiber treatment. This chapter presents the review of natural fiber composites applications in structural, infrastructural, ballistic, and fire resistance wings.
P. Siva Sankar, S. B. Singh
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