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This book combines classic and recent studies investigating challenges to Emiratization – full employment of Emirati nationals who make up only about 10% of the total workforce – in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The book offers a comprehensive overview of the events leading to the country’s rapid growth and development, as well as important social and cultural issues arising as the country transitioned from an isolated traditional economy to an open globalized one, and explores the specific challenges of incorporating Emiratis in their own vibrant economy. This topic is of interest to scholars, policymakers, and those considering investing or seeking employment in the UAE since it emerged as a Western-friendly, politically stable, and prospering oil-producing country in a region plagued by political, social, and economic turmoil.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Sustainable Employment

Abstract
Rapid economic development and prosperity elevated the living standards of Emiratis and raised the profile of the country to an internationally competitive level. While enabling economic benefits, rapid development has been linked to domestic concerns that are being addressed by the country’s leadership in creative and innovative ways. Sustainable employment of country’s citizens is one such concern. As expatriate business people and workers flocked to the UAE to take advantage of the economic opportunities, a population imbalance occurred in which citizens of the UAE became the citizen minority . Even with abundant employment opportunities in its vibrant private sector and a minority citizen population representing less than 20 % of the total population, several interrelated factors serve as challenges to full Emirati employment, especially among young Emirati adults. This chapter discusses the relationship between socioeconomic development and unemployment among Emiratis, especially among educated young Emirati adults. The chapter concludes by describing Emiratization and explaining the role of Emiratization as a catalyst for sustainable Emirati employment.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 2. UAE Goes Global

Abstract
The inhabitants of the area now known as the UAE were successful business people, trades people, and administrators well-connected with their regional counterparts, long before the discovery of oil. The UAE transitioned from a traditional economy to the modern global economy in less than half a century, however, the rapid economic growth brought about socio-economic shifts including a demographic imbalance in which UAE nationals comprise less than 20 % of the total population and only about 10 % of the workforce. Diversification efforts were instituted from the early days of nationalization to allow the country to maintain a prosperous economy even after the oil revenues stop flowing. Federally funded public works and extensive infrastructure development provided the elements needed to create a safe and attractive work and living environment that attracts business people, tourists, and expatriate employees from counties around the globe. Film crews have used the UAE as backdrop for well-known productions. Sporting events, concerts, art shows, and other entertainment are held in world class venues around the country in addition to educational conferences, seminars, and training courses. Foreign investment-friendly economic policies combined with the establishment of free-zone areas have encouraged multinational companies of all sizes to set up regional hubs or headquarters in the UAE. Even though the UAE faces challenges, in a troubled region surrounded by counties experiencing economic turmoil and issues related to uneven distribution of wealth, the UAE stands as example of openness and prosperity.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 3. Economic Vision of the UAE

Abstract
When the rulers of the Trucial States combined resources to form the UAE, a union was conceptualized in which all citizens living in any of the seven emirates benefitted from the wealth generated by the country’s natural resources. The leadership invested in each of the emirates by establishing the physical and social infrastructure enabling each emirate to use its own unique resources to build its own local economy and eventually contribute back to the national GDP. This chapter gives an overview of the UAE economic vision then examines the subeconomies of each emirate illustrating the opportunities and challenges for economic grown in each. The emirate of Abu Dhabi , containing the capital city serves as the political center of the country. The emirate of Dubai is known for its commercial development. The emirate of Sharjah is known for cultivating Arab and Islamic culture. The emirate of Ajman is opening its commercial potential and expanding foreign investment potential. The emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, Fujairah, and Umm Al Quwain have begun efforts to expand tourist attractions specializing in ecotourism showcasing the geographic attributes of each region including mountains, coastlines, and unspoiled nature areas.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 4. Challenges to Full Emirati Employment

Abstract
This chapter explains the development of three distinct sectors in the UAE economy consisting of the private sector , the public sector , and the semi-government sector. During the rapid development phase the public sector and private sectors developed on two tracks with expatriate workers providing labor for the private sector and Emiratis preferring to work in the public sector. The semi-government sector emerged as governmental entities started toward privatization to expand operations and improve services using policies and procedures similar to the profit-seeking private sector companies. Early in the rapid growth phase Emiratis with basic education were easily absorbed into the public sector offering attractive salaries and providing desirable working conditions. However, as the economy began to mature and as the public sector grew saturated, the choicest public sector jobs became scarcer. Chapter 4 presents concerns about Emirati job satisfaction in the public and private sectors, especially with regard to Emirati women and concludes with linking the challenges mentioned in the chapter back to the concept of holistic sustainability.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 5. The Roles and Contributions of Women

Abstract
The roles and contributions of Emirati women have been acknowledged even before nationalization of the UAE. Women were considered the backbone of society, entrusted with managing families while men were away during pearling season or on trading expeditions. It was no wonder that the leadership of the UAE provided a clear pathway for Emirati women to gain access to education and contribute to society outside the home if they so desired. In recent years, the leadership of the country has gone to even greater lengths to incorporate Emirati women into the workforce by studying reasons for female nonparticipation in the workplace including difficulties maintaining an acceptable home and work life balance. To address the findings of labor market studies, policies to attract more Emirati women into the workforce were developed and implemented. This chapter describes the roles and contributions of Emirati women to the society and economy of the UAE and emphasizes the commitment of the UAE government to educate and provide economic opportunities to Emirati women.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 6. Wages, Salaries, and Expatriate Labor

Abstract
This chapter takes a look at the composition of the UAE labor market highlighting the proportion of jobs available in various sectors and at various salary levels. Much of the literature available on Emiratization and the UAE labor market reports obtaining a desired salary as a prime motivating factor in Emirati career decision-making. Yet, few studies have investigated the actual proportion of jobs that are available within the desired salary range and whether Emiratis are being adequately prepared to fill those positions. This chapter presents and discusses salary distributions by controlling for different factors using available data sets. The salary data directly and indirectly show that industries and occupations in the private sector, for which Emiratis are being educated and trained, may not be aligned with salary expectations of Emirati job seekers. Evidence presented suggests that a deceptively low number of jobs are actually suitable for Emiratis in terms of salaries and working conditions or in terms of preparation needed to obtain and maintain employment. The resulting intense competition for suitable jobs among jobseekers, Emirati and non-Emirati, supports the need to introduce Emiratization efforts to assure opportunities for young Emirati adult job seekers.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 7. Wage Remittances from the UAE

Abstract
This chapter discusses the role of migrant workers from a global perspective, emphasizing that all developed countries import migrant labor as a temporary solution for surplus jobs in the economy or a longer term solution to filling jobs that are below the expectations of the citizenry in terms of compensation or working conditions. Wages and salaries account for most of employers’ labor costs and a sizeable portion of the overall cost of operations especially in the service industries. In the modern global economy, citizen workers in most modernized countries compete with migrant workers who enter the country temporarily to work. Salary remittance patterns from the UAE back to the home countries of expatriate workers are examined in terms of the benefits to the economies of the home countries and the loss of GDP to the UAE economy . The chapter concludes with a brief comparison of cost of living estimates exemplifying the ability of expatriate workers, often provided with accommodation, transportation, food, and other benefits in the UAE reducing the overall cost of living. At the same time, the salary remittances uplift the quality of life of the family members left behind in the home country or the lives of the expatriate workers when they repatriate back to their home countries.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 8. Social Transitions Contributing to Emirati Unemployment

Abstract
This chapter discusses modern development and the widening generational gaps in Emirati society. Previous chapters have shown that the pre-oil economy extending into the dawn of civilization was based mostly on trade of a single commodity, pearls, and the supporting industries up to the collapse of the natural pearl market. While rapid development vastly improved the living standard of the Emirati people, the accompanying social transitions have brought challenges which will be explained in this chapter. To reshape and develop more productive attitudes, beliefs, and opinions about the modern workplace, policy makers must consider the Emirati society as a whole. This chapter points out measures that can be taken to reduce Emirati employment especially young Emirati adult unemployment. Postsecondary institutions may create initiatives to raise awareness about the skills necessary for success in the modern workplace among students and their families. Labor policy makers could work with private sector employers to improve working conditions for all employees that would ultimately attract more Emirati employees. Private sector work environments could be made more culturally appropriate by giving employees more personal space in mixed-gendered work areas. More flexible work schedules could be adopted in more companies to enable all employees to better balance work and family responsibilities.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 9. Education, the Work Force, and Emiratization

Abstract
After nationalization , Emiratis migrated from rural areas to cities settling into a more stationary lifestyle including sending their children to school. Recognizing the need for a highly educated and technologically sophisticated UAE national workforce, the government approved laws, and policies to guarantee equal educational opportunities to UAE national males and females and to encourage UAE nationals to develop themselves to their fullest potential. Education is mandatory up through the primary grades and free of charge to Emiratis up to the completion of high school. After graduation, UAE nationals who qualify academically are guaranteed access free of charge to up to 6 years of postsecondary education at any of the federally funded institutions. Scholarships are available to qualifying UAE nationals who wish to study abroad in specialty areas that are not available in the UAE. Few other countries encourage and subsidize postsecondary education to the extent of the UAE.
Georgia Daleure

Chapter 10. Emiratization Progress and Challenges

Abstract
As shown in the previous chapters, in the early years of nationalization , imported labor provided the skilled and unskilled labor needed to grow and prosper. Expatriate workers were attracted from their own countries by the salaries and working conditions offered in the UAE which were perceived as preferable to salaries and working conditions in their home countries. Expatriate workers remit substantial portions of their salaries to their own countries, thereby, removing the funds from the UAE local economy while supplementing the economic activities of their home countries. Expatriate workers are often provided in-kind supplements to salary that effectively reduce their cost of living including but not limited to free transport by company transport vehicle, free or low cost food prepared by company food service entities, free or low cost accommodation, reduced prices for retail products such as clothing, beauty products, or services that are provided by the employer to customers for sale. In the past half century, the basic infrastructure of the county has been established, two full generations have passed through secondary school in the educational system with more than a third progressing on to tertiary education , health care is available to all citizens, and the standard of living is among the highest in the world. Yet to achieve sustainable growth, the UAE must assure that young Emirati adults be able to find jobs that support the cost of living as it has evolved.
Georgia Daleure

Backmatter

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