According to Diekmann (2002), empirical research comprises broadly five main phases:
, the formulation and specification of the research problem,
, the planning and preparation of data collection,
, the collection of data itself,
, the analysis of data and finally the report of findings. As the first phase has already been executed in the previous sections, section 4 focuses on the phases two to four. How they are distributed among the sub-section will be depicted in the following paragraphs.