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About this book

The book presents about 100 current examples of how energy and materials can be saved in manufacturing companies. They serve to show which measures can be used in modern companies to exploit the potential for resource efficiency. The book is aimed at practitioners in companies and consulting firms, but is also suitable for the university sector as a practical introduction to the topic of resource efficiency. The materials used account for almost 43 percent of the costs of an average industrial company in Germany. Personnel costs, on the other hand, are only 22 percent, while energy costs are as low as 2 percent. If a company wants to save costs, above all it must consider the use of materials and produce in a resource-efficient manner. This simultaneously relieves the environment and reduces dependence on scarce raw materials. The implementation of resource efficiency is not easy. There are indeed numerous starting points in production, often in process innovations or in product development. However, only a few companies publish their measures and savings potentials. In practice, this means that there are often no learning examples in practice, but some of them are explicitly listed in this work. As you can see, resource efficiency in production and products can also be seen as a success factor for many companies. In the project 100 Pioneers in Efficient Resource Management, committed companies from
Baden-Wuerttemberg are showing their solutions. The project was carried out by a competent team from the Pforzheim University and the State Agency for Environmental Technology. Leading trade associations in Baden-Württemberg have supported it.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Part I

Frontmatter

Resource efficiency in industrial society

In the history of mankind to date, the cases where natural energy and material resources were apparently unlimited and cheap have always been the exception. If there was any abundance at all, it was at most regional and temporary. The provision of resources was almost always associated with enormous technical, economic and ecological effort. The economical use of resources is therefore as much a part of human history as the search for them. Resource efficiency was, for example, a major issue after the First World War, both in the USA and in Europe (Schmidt & Görlach 2010).

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Approaches to operational resource efficiency

For many companies, even the last question is difficult to answer, since cost accounting and controlling are rarely geared to resource efficiency in the sense used here and other operational principles take priority. It is even more difficult to answer the other questions, which often go beyond the actual scope of the company. The intersection between possible approaches in a manufacturing company's value chain and resource efficiency/conservation therefore needs to be outlined at this point.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Methods and Instruments

Conducting an in-depth analysis and having a detailed understanding of manufacturing procedures help to increase a company's internal resource efficiency. A variety of methods and instruments are used to do this in practice that stem, for example, from production planning, process control, environmental or energy management or lean management. The instruments range from simple checklists to sophisticated software tools. The VDI Centre for Resource Efficiency has made a list of methods and instruments available on their homepage that can be used to increase corporate resource efficiency. This list is aligned with VDI Standard 4801 “Resource Efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME)” and is always up to date.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

The Environmental Technology Roadmap and how it relates to resource efficiency

Environmental technology is of great importance to industry in Baden-Württemberg. In order to capture the most promising future trends for this sector, the State Agency, Umwelttechnik BW, developed an Environmental Technology Roadmap in collaboration with Fraunhofer IAO (Institute for Industrial Engineering) and INEC, the Institute for Industrial Ecology, at Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences in 2017. Qualitative development trends in the lead markets air, water and circular economy were determined for the next 15 years in a multi-stage process involving expert interviews and Delphi surveys. Market segments were defined within the lead markets and the emerging trends subsequently identified. The trends were differentiated according to the time frame in which they are expected to run their course, from shortterm developments up to a 15 year span and whether they are technology or market trends. The trends can be displayed graphically and in relation to each other by means of an app.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Lean production and resource efficiency

Lean production is a term that is mentioned repeatedly in many of the 100 Companies Project case studies, especially in the manufacturing industry. Companies that already had experience with lean production were particularly open to resource efficiency measures. And vice versa: companies that had participated in resource efficiency projects were then interested in tackling the topic of lean production. There is in fact a large overlap between lean production and resource efficiency, both in objectives and methods for their implementation in company operations.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Efficiency, resources and the rebound effect

Efficiency is a term that is used in many different ways both in technology and business. It is especially relevant when something is in short supply and needs to be used as profitably or beneficially as possible. Efficiency can be understood as the numerical ratio of benefit to cost. This is, for example, how the Association of German Engineers (VDI) has defined it, as "the ratio of a specific benefit or result to the expenditure required for it" in VDI-Standard 4800 on resource efficiency. Efficiency is therefore a relative quantity. It always relates to a single unit of a quantity, e.g. the same quantity of raw material or energy. The inverse ratio, cost to benefit, would then be an intensity: how much energy or raw material is needed per unit of benefit?

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

The 100 Companies Project

The 100 Companies for Resource Efficiency initiative took place within the framework of Baden-Württemberg's Alliance for Greater Resource Efficiency (see declaration on page 78). In November 2013, the state government, represented by Environment Minister, Franz Untersteller, agreed on a joint approach with the state’s leading representatives of trade associations and chambers of industry and commerce to promote resource efficiency (Fig. 42).

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Evaluation of the case studies

Companies in Baden-Württemberg could apply for admission to the 100 Companies for Resource Efficiency initiative by submitting their practical examples from 2014 to 2017. A jury of experts selected the case studies from the applications that were received. The decisive selection criteria were the level of savings, the innovative content of the measure and its transferability. A total of 106 practical examples were selected by the jury. There are 103 case studies presented in this book. In three cases, it was not possible to draw up a case study description.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource efficiency and climate protection

Examples have been selected in the 100 Companies for Resource Efficiency Project where both energy and non-energy resources are saved. In addition to the actual raw materials, emissions of approx. 350,000 t of carbon dioxide (CO2) are saved each year. This value is very substantial and shows how important resource efficiency is for climate protection.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Part II – Best practice cases from producing companies

Frontmatter

Mining and quarrying

Processing of unsaleable pre-screen material by dry washing

The company Eduard Merkle has been operating the Michelreibershalde quarry since 1925. Since then, half of the deposit found there has already been mined. With current production, the deposit will last only 40 to 50 years more. To improve usage management, Eduard Merkle therefore initiated a process of change.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Wet classification instead of disposal via landfills

Around 80 million t of construction waste, road works and similar types of mineral waste have to be disposed of in Germany each year. Statistics show a recycling rate of 72% for construction waste, i.e. about a quarter of the waste produced, or more than 20 million t, must be disposed of by landfill or similar means. A mass flow of fine material must be discharged in the recycling plants. So far, these soils and soil-like materials can only be used for subordinate purposes. It is not unusual for this bulk material to have to be disposed of in landfills. Mineral construction waste represents by far the greatest mass flow of waste.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Food industry

Very well stirred

Alfred Ritter GmbH & Co. KG is one of the most successful family-run confectionery companies of our time thanks to its wellknown chocolate brand RITTER SPORT. RITTER SPORT's range of 100 g bars alone comprises a total of 28 varieties. In addition to these, there are minis, large bars and choco cubes, some of which have their own varieties, as well as recipes specially developed for seasonal occasions. During production, the company distinguishes between solid chocolate bars, such as the whole hazelnuts bar, in which the chocolate mass and the ingredients can be poured into the moulds together in one process and filled chocolate bars which first require a chocolate shell that is filled with the appropriate filling in the next step. For each variety, the chocolate mass and ingredients or fillings are exactly matched to each other: the queen of nuts, the macadamia, is combined with Alpine milk chocolate with its characteristic honey and caramel note, the whole hazelnuts bar with dark or milk chocolate or a pink grapefruit filling in white chocolate specially developed for the summer.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

MFCA for higher resource efficiency in apple cider vinegar production

Friedrich Feldmann GmbH & Co. KG produces both fermented vinegar and apple cider vinegar and supplies many trading companies. Small profit margins in the food trade lead to relatively high cost pressure on manufacturers. At the same time, both consumers and companies are becoming increasingly conscious of the sustainable use of natural resources. The combination of these two factors means that resource conservation is of great importance for the company, both from a cost perspective and with regard to the environmental balance of its products.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Whey as energy source for the first energy neutral cheese dairy

A cheese dairy produces large quantities of whey, which has limited suitability as food and animal feed. Although whey contains some very valuable ingredients, it is now considered a waste product simply because of the daily quantities produced and lack of demand.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Textile industry

Recot2® – spinning process for recycled cotton

Cotton is one of the most intensively cultivated agricultural products in the world. Owing to the climatic requirements of a cotton plant, it is usually cultivated (up to approx. 80%) in very hot and dry areas. It is irrigated artificially in order to achieve an optimal harvest. Even today, it is becoming apparent that water shortages will be one of the biggest problems worldwide in the future, especially in regions where cotton is currently cultivated. Water is already scarce in these regions and climate change will exacerbate the situation. Another problem is the heavy use of pesticides in cotton cultivation, which are major pollutants affecting humans and nature.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Material flow cost accounting in variant production

Junker-Filter GmbH is well known on the filter market as a company capable of developing special solutions for complex filtration challenges and implementing specific solutions in cooperation with large-scale plant manufacturers. Historically, this has resulted in an enormous range in quality as well as of design variants. In addition, Junker-Filter GmbH has accumulated an enormous portfolio of technical textiles for filtration due to the many different fields of application.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Filtered, energetic resource efficiency

Junker-Filter GmbH is known on the filter market as a company capable of developing special solutions for complex filtration challenges and implementing specific solutions in cooperation with large-scale plant manufacturers. Historically, this has resulted in an enormous variety of qualities as well as design variants. In addition, Junker-Filter GmbH has accumulated an enormous portfolio of technical textiles for filtration due to the many different fields of application.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource efficiency through employee competence

The company LAKO, Laupheimer Kokosweberei, produces car carpets for OEM and Tier 1 customers, tuning companies and car dealerships. With its second mainstay of doormats for entrance areas it has achieved a good market position with hardware stores, garden centres, buying groups and discounters.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

SMART-TEX

SATEMA - Corporate Fashion GmbH is a company specialised in garment decoration and assembly which competes globally with textile companies in Asia, North Africa and Eastern Europe. SATEMA has extensive technological expertise in automated garment assembly and in the fields of embroidery, printing and finishing. The machinery consists of embroidery, sewing and printing centres at various levels of technological maturity. The key features of SATEMA that differentiate them in international competition are their speed of reaction and, at the same time, very high degree of individualisation of the end products.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Efficiency has its price – savings through higher purchase price

SWU Special Yarns specialises in the production of industrial yarns and threads at its Waldkirch site. In the last 100 years the textile industry has changed dramatically. Between 1995 and 2006, the number of employees, especially in the spinning mills, fell by 64% and sales dropped by 20%. Global competitive pressure is enormous. SWU Special Yarns was able to remain competitive in this environment, even as a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME), because their production processes have been continuously optimised for a long time. In order to counter the increasing cost pressure in the textile industry, SWU Special Yarns wanted to find further possibilities to save production costs while maintaining the same high quality.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Wood industry

Heat recovery concept for drying bark mulch as fuel

Finkbeiner KG has been operating a sawmill and planing mill at its Steinbis site for many years, where approx. 180,000 solid cubic metres of wood are processed per year. This corresponds to about 30 truckloads per day. A combined heat and power plant was commissioned in 2015. The combined heat and power plant (CHP) is fed with chips from the sawmill and supplies up to 1.4 MW of electrical power. The electricity produced is fed into the grid.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource efficiency for existing windows in listed buildings

Holzmanufaktur Rottweil designs and implements solutions for the preservation of historical buildings. Their special field of expertise includes the repair and energetic improvement of windows. The range of services includes complete repair, replacement of panes, the production of an interior window or top sash up to and including a customised technical design appropriate to historical buildings.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource-saving production of wooden stepladders

The production and sale of high quality wooden stepladders for professional tradesmen have been an essential part of the product portfolio of KRÄMER GmbH for many years. In recent decades, production volumes in this area have increased significantly and production has been completely redesigned and automated using specially developed customised machines. Today, approx. 30,000 wooden stepladders are produced in a length range of one to four metres. However, as production increased, the number of rejects generated in the area of beam cutting increased disproportionately to up to approx. 30% of the purchased wood. Therefore, a primary goal was to significantly reduce the volume of rejects.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Paper industry

Membrane bioreactor for wastewater reduction in the paper industry

Environmental protection and sustainability are not just buzzwords for Köhler Pappen, but an integral part of their business activities. 95% of the company's cardboard is made by processing waste paper. High demands are placed on the water cycle and water treatment process due to the wide variety of paper used, but especially the heavily dyed cardboard.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

New printing technology applied to cardboard

August Faller GmbH & Co. KG produces folding cartons for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry at its site in Waldkirch. These are subject to strict safety and quality requirements. With conventional printing presses, a large amount of waste paper is produced during make-ready, and the sheets required to run the press in. Faller was therefore looking for more efficient solutions for the make-ready process during small runs, which are frequently commissioned due to the trend towards individualised medicine.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Mirror, mirror on the wall

Gaster Wellpappe GmbH & Co. KG specialises in the production and processing of corrugated board. The company produces packaging made of corrugated board at its Pfaffengrund plant in Heidelberg. The product portfolio ranges from simple spacers for pickled vegetables, to sets of cardboard dividers and inserts for combined packaging, to finished folding cartons that the customer can assemble in a single motion.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Chemical industry

Every gram counts – Demand-driven production at DRACHOLIN

For over 75 years, DRACHOLIN has been a specialist in the production of interior and facade paints, ready-mixed and dry plasters as well as plasters for fireplaces and other special applications. In this increasingly demanding segment of the building materials industry, DRACHOLIN has always been known for its outstanding quality in plasters and paints. As a sought-after supplier for predominantly regional companies in the construction industry, the products are characterised by their durability and colour fastness.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Clean more with less: VOC-compliant container cleaning

In paint production, the raw materials such as binders, pigments and solvents are homogeneously mixed in large stainless steel containers, so-called batching tanks, and finally ground to the required grain size. At the end of a process, the batching tanks must be cleaned until residue-free, so that they can then be reused for another process.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

New hydrogen network reduces CO2 emissions

Among other products made at its plant in Rheinfelden, Evonik manufactures AEROSIL®, which is used in many everyday products such as toothpaste, paints and coatings, and LED lamps. AEROSIL® improves the properties of these products and in many cases makes them more energy-efficient, e.g. as a component of heat-insulating refrigerator doors. AEROSIL® is a white powder and chemically speaking a kind of sand that is produced in a combustion process. This fumed silica is produced from hydrogen, the chemical compound chlorosilane and dehumidified air. Previously, Evonik produced the hydrogen needed for this process using natural gas in the so-called steam reforming process. However, this gives rise to specific CO2 emissions.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Using waste condensate as a material and for energy – a contribution to sustainability

FUCHS SCHMIERSTOFFE GMBH produces lubricants and related specialised products in four plants across Germany. A new building was to be built at the Mannheim site with 1,200 m² of usable area for 10 to 15 additional test bays for the mechanical testing of lubricants with particular attention given to the future sustainable operation of the building. Measures such as building insulation, LED lighting and ventilation systems with maximum heat recovery were included in the planning.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Environmentally friendly coating using foil coating technology

Since its foundation 100 years ago, Wörwag has been developing and producing highquality coatings for industrial applications. The company has many years of expertise in the coating of surfaces and is heavily involved with the environmental aspects of painting. The coating of industrial products is considered a comparatively inefficient process. The enormous energy consumption for coating processes is still an important factor in production in the automotive industry today.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Phenol recovery from wastewater

LANXESS produces a chemical at its site in Mannheim that is used to make branched polycarbonates. Polycarbonates are used, for example, in the manufacture of water bottles, twin-wall sheets and profiles, as well as in the manufacture of cast parts, composite materials, coatings and laminations.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Cube it Simple – Packaging alternative for flooring installation products

Uzin Utz AG from Ulm specialises in the manufacture of chemical building product systems for the laying of all types of floor coverings. The company has defined the efficient use of resources as a key objective of its sustainability strategy. To achieve this goal, the company is constantly looking for ways to increase resource efficiency.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Reduced raw material losses and more precision through automated dosing

The Printing Inks Division of Zeller+Gmelin GmbH & Co. KG specialises in the production of UV-curing inks and coatings for the packaging and label printing market segment. A large portion is used for printing food packaging.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Pharmaceutical industry

Light without shadow – Feedback through software-controlled lighting

Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co. KG is a research-oriented pharmaceutical company with its largest research and development site operating in Biberach an der Riß. There are many starting points for reducing energy consumption at industrial sites. Over the past 15 years, Boehringer Ingelheim has implemented a great number of technical measures that have reduced energy requirements per square metre of floor space at the Biberach site by more than 30%. By far the greatest savings were achieved in the area of building technology and systems engineering, especially through adapting the mode of operation of the ventilation, heating, cooling and electrical systems.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Continuous Manufacturing Technology – a new process flow in sustainable drug production

Pfizer, one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, adopted a globally applicable sustainability plan in 2009. Among other things, this plan includes a binding target for CO2 emissions, water consumption and waste prevention. The Freiburg plant has a pioneering role within the Pfizer Group. In line with their long-term strategy, sustainable technologies have been implemented consistently since the late 1990s. These include geothermal heating and cooling of buildings, photovoltaics, the use of biomass for energy generation and numerous innovative technologies such as adiabatic cooling of laboratory areas and a pilot plant for drying process air using solar energy. The overall concept is rounded off by appropriate building technology with online monitoring of energy flows.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Optimisation of the wastewater treatment plant

At its site in Ulm, Teva produces and packages liquid (syrups, suspensions), semi-solid (ointments, gels, emulsions and dry syrups) and solid (tablets, capsules) pharmaceuticals. During the production process, wastewater is produced that is polluted to varying degrees and must be pre-treated in the company's own wastewater treatment plant before it can be fed into the municipal wastewater treatment system.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Rubber and plastics industry

Thin-wall technology in technical plastic injection moulding

Hans Fleig GmbH specialises in the design and manufacture of injection moulding tools. The company’s core competencies include technical plastic injection moulding for partners operating globally in the automotive, electronics and food industries as well as medical technology.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Closed material cycle

For over 50 years Joma-Polytec GmbH has offered its customers a broad product portfolio of technical plastic parts and sophisticated solutions in the fields of plastics technology, extrusion and hydromechanical pump technology. The manufactured products are predominantly used in the construction, automotive and medical industries.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Rubber mats made from recycled used tyres

matteco GmbH was founded to implement a process developed in Switzerland for the production of rubber mats from used tyre powder on an industrial scale for the first time for the German market. On the one hand the process is intended to promote the production and sale of high-quality rubber mats at commercial market prices, while on the other also to meet the increasing ecological and environmentally related demands in this market segment.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Energy and resource efficiency through multiple use of high-quality raw materials

puren gmbh in Überlingen is a pioneer in rigid polyurethane foam technology. The company produces structural insulation and functional materials made of rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam and rigid polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam for a range of industries and applications.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Manufacture of glass and ceramics

Resource efficiency in premium design thanks to newly developed, innovative material

The collaboration with the international design star and architect, Philippe Starck, gave rise to the desire for particularly delicate and precisely crafted shapes for the new washbasin models in the Cape Cod bathroom range. These are available in three formal versions: circular, square and trioval. The round and square version feature the tap platform on a raised dome integrated into the basin, which must be worked very precisely in order to guarantee the tap's fit.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Non-metallic mineral product manufatcuring

Conservation of gravel resources – Concrete made with recycled aggregate

While a lot is being built in Baden-Württemberg, especially in the Stuttgart metropolitan area, several buildings are also being demolished. Construction waste is made from various materials – including mineral construction waste. It would be a waste to deposit this as landfill, especially since landfill areas are scarce. Appropriate processing of this material produces so-called recycled aggregate, which can be used in making concrete. This recycled aggregate partially replaces primary raw materials such as gravel and stone chips in concrete production. This is known as Resource-conserving concrete (R-concrete).

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Metal processing industry

An intelligent heat pump system keeps air clean and conserves resources

Albert Rechtenbacher GmbH, based in Bopfingen in the Ostalb region, is an expert in surface technology, including surface finishing and surface treatment. The range of services extends from piano paintwork to nanocoating, wet paint finishings for the automotive industry, soft-touch coatings used in medical technology to powder coating for steel and metal construction.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Regranulator for plastic waste

Brugger GmbH is based in the Black Forest region and specialises in the manufacture of magnet systems. The product portfolio includes bar magnets, flat pot magnets, organisation and decoration magnets.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Investigation and evaluation of optimisation measures with the help of material flow cost accounting

The internationally standardised method of material flow cost accounting (MFCA) can serve as an analysis and evaluation method for inefficiencies and for identifying potential points for improving efficiency in the production process. Material losses are always accompanied by a decrease in added value, since not just raw materials, but also energy and personnel were used to produce these materials. In addition, there is the possible (additional) strain on production capacities.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Sprue reduction in hot chamber die casting of magnesium alloys

C&C Bark GmbH has been manufacturing high-precision magnesium die-cast parts including machining and surface finishing for a wide variety of industries for five decades now. In magnesium die casting using the hot chamber process, the casting is cast with a sprue slug as an inherent part of the process. This slug is connected to the casting by the sprue. This sprue is cut off together with the slug during trimming and deburring and must be recycled. Depending on the size and geometry of the parts, the number of cavities and the design of the casting run, this may result in several times the final part weight of recirculating material, which must be energetically melted in the production process and later recycled as residual material.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Waste-free rolling and forming process for the production of high temperature resistant formed metal ring gaskets

One of ElringKlinger AG's core competencies is the manufacture of metal sealing elements for the automotive industry. A stamping and bending process is used as the standard procedure. This is also state of the art in the production of ring gaskets, which primarily seal the housing of exhaust gas turbochargers. The ring gaskets are exposed to the highest thermal loads and extremes of thermal fluctuation. The use of nickel-based alloys is unavoidable to ensure sealing at exhaust gas temperatures above 1,050 °C. With purchase prices of 50 to 500 Euro/kg, these alloys are among the most expensive metallic materials used within industry.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

From manual work to series production – resource optimisation by coupling two CNC processing centres to an automated access pallet warehouse

Erwin Wimmer GmbH in Abstatt specialises in high-quality contract manufacturing in the area of machine and tool construction. The company's fleet of machinery enables the complete manufacture of turned and milled parts for all requirements in mechanical engineering, shipbuilding as well as the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Optimisation of machine tools – new routes to resource efficiency

EZU-Metallwaren GmbH & Co. KG specialises in the manufacture of precision turned parts and the machining and processing of deepdrawn parts and blanks. EZU-Metallwaren's turned parts can be found in almost all industries, but their most important customers are in the automotive industry, which makes up 80% of their customer base. EZU-Metallwaren is just as well versed in steering systems, transmissions, airbags, tank and belt tensioning systems and in common rail and injection technology as they are in the construction of cams and auxiliary units. Approximately 500,000 precision turned parts and machined blanks are subjected to a full, complex, automated inspection (100% inspection) at EZUMetallwaren every day.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Oil purification reduces costs and resource consumption

fischer produces various fastening systems made of plastic and metal at its headquarters in Waldachtal. A key area in metal processing is the production of anchor bolts. They are produced by the cold forming of wires which are supplied in large coils. The cleaning of the forming machines causes considerable expense every year. Procurement and disposal of the oil are expensive. Cleaning is very labour-intensive and regularly causes production stoppages due to the associated downtimes of the machines. The aim of the interventions was therefore to minimise machine downtimes and reduce oil consumption.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Sustainable investment in shuttle technology

As early as the end of the 1970s, the fischer group of companies decided to establish the Global Distribution Center (GDC) at the central location in Waldachtal. The GDC serves as a supply warehouse for all fischer national companies and importers in over 100 countries and as a distribution warehouse for customers in Germany and France. Since its foundation, the demands placed on the GDC have undergone constant change. A trend towards smaller batch sizes and more variable ordering patterns can be seen, for example, in customer orders. The higher frequency in logistics requires a high degree of agility in order to be able to meet all customer requirements to the appropriate quality and in good time.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Optimisation of material efficiency in the production of wire race bearings

One of Franke GmbH's main products is a highly dynamic wire race bearing for an application in medical technology. Wire race bearings are based on a simple but ingenious principle. Individual wire bearing rings have a raceway that is precisely adapted to the diameter of the rolling elements. This means that the rolling process does not take place directly between the rolling body and the surrounding structure, but with low friction on the four open race rings. This design principle allows the surrounding structure to be freely designed with regard to geometry and material selection.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

MIA – Material and Information Flow Analysis

The core competence of the medium-sized company, Grieshaber GmbH & Co. KG, are precision machined parts made of non-ferrous metals and stainless steels. Their focus is on the processing of aluminium alloys in medium and large series as well as in the small series range for stainless steels. Flawless quality and the reliable fulfilment of customer requirements are essential in the production of precision parts. It is therefore necessary to continuously analyse and optimise one's own processes. In processes that have been established for many years, material and resource losses often occur that are taken for granted and the costs of which, including lost added value, are not known or are not investigated. Grieshaber therefore carried out an analysis of the material and information flow in order to reveal potential points for increasing resource efficiency.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource-efficient production of mechanical fasteners

As a result of constantly growing cost pressure and the increasingly stringent conditions regarding material and energy efficiency, the aim of current development projects at HEWI G. Winker GmbH & Co. KG is to manufacture innovative components in an environmentally friendly and resource-saving manner. Significant weight savings in automotive and mechanical engineering are possible with cold formed components, including those made of steel.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

High temperature waste heat recovery from hardening furnaces

The gear wheel engineering and gear systems specialist IMS Gear operates one of the world's most modern hardening workshops at its site in Donaueschingen. Here, different components are subjected to heat treatments in hardening furnaces in order to optimise material properties. Previously, the waste heat generated in the hardening furnaces was released unused into the room air and was thus lost. In addition to the furnaces, the hardening workshop operates four cleaning systems for cleaning parts. These have to be heated electrically, which requires around 1,000 MWh of electricity per year.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Profiled material efficiency

Protektor is specialized in production of plaster, facades and drywall profiles for modern building methods and offers the construction industry a wide range of innovative and practical solutions. These especially include products that meet stringent processing and application requirements, for example with regard to healthy living environments, sustainability and resource efficiency.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Integrated production control model for material and energy savings

Rieber manufactures Gastronorm containers, commercial kitchen components, food transport and distribution equipment, aircraft water and waste tanks, refrigerators, sinks, etc. The company's core competencies are the deep drawing, annealing and welding of stainless steel. With a share of approx. 50%, material costs count significantly to company´s total costs.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Increased resource efficiency with new laser processing machines from Trumpf

Roland Deeg GmbH specialises in the processing of sheet metal, with services ranging from laser cutting, bending, machining and welding through to assembly. Their customers come from the mechanical and plant engineering industry as well as the automotive industry. It is important to the company to look beyond contract manufacturing and to not only satisfy customer requests, but to develop solutions and improvements together with customers.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Re-use of machinery and equipment

The Bosch Group has set itself the objective to reduce its production-related CO2 emissions by at least 35% by 2020 relative to the base year 2007.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Hybrid component manufacturing – combining forging and metal 3D printing

Up to now, highly stressed components have been forged, heat-treated and then mechanically machined. However, when it comes to complex components, this is associated with very high investments of time and effort in mechanical machining and thus high costs. An illustration of these disadvantages is the production of a compressor wheel as installed in a conventional thermal flow machine for power generation. Up to now, the flow blades have been elaborately milled from the solid material. Owing to the high machining volume and the associated costly mechanical processing, the production of a compressor wheel becomes very expensive and very resource-intensive. Rosswag GmbH has therefore set itself the goal to optimise the process chain of the manufacturing processes and thus increasing efficiency in the manufacture of certain components.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Automatic press shutdown

Scheuermann + Heilig specialises in products and services relating to forming and assembly technology. The company continuously develops innovative solutions in spring, stamping, bending and assembly technology for its customers. Increasing energy efficiency is firmly anchored in corporate policy. There are multifaceted reasons for this. There are on the one hand economic reasons such as the reduction of energy costs and emissions and the safeguarding of competitive advantages. On the other hand, there are also reasons for energy efficiency with no immediate economic foundation, such as the improvement of working conditions, compliance with legal requirements and the protection of natural resources.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Implementation of a highly efficient heat treatment line

Schwäbische Härtetechnik Ulm GmbH & Co. KG (SHU) is Germany's largest contract heat treater on one site. It specialises in the heat and surface treatment of workpieces. SHU offers its customers many different processes and a wide range of systems. In addition to classic heat treatment, their portfolio also includes additional services, such as phosphating, bronzing or vibratory finishing.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Tolerance compensation elements, an example of resource efficiency through product development

At its site in Salach, Springfix Befestigungstechnik produces components that are mainly used in the automotive industry. Tolerance compensation elements (German: TAE) are an important product in this market. These elements are adjustable and by unscrewing them, it is possible to compensate for the tolerances of two attachment parts when assembling a motor vehicle. Gap dimensions can thereby be adjusted and tolerance fluctuations, e.g. between headlights and vehicle body, compensated for. The estimated worldwide annual demand for tolerance compensation elements is currently around 12 to 15 million units.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

The new tsf dipping room: making a production process more efficient, environmentally friendly and employee-friendly

tsf Tübinger Stahlfeinguss Franz Stadtler GmbH & Co. KG is a leading process specialist in the steel investment casting process and produces precision components for medical technology, the automotive industry, food technology and mechanical engineering. The goal of tsf is to meet the requirements of its customers in order to create the basis for a competitive customer product. In partnership with its customers, tsf accompanies every project from development and prototyping through to implementation in series production. tsf scrutinises every process and is working continuously on process efficiency in order to be able to offer competitive solutions. In energy- and raw material-intensive processes in particular, the focus is on increasing energy and raw material efficiency.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Avoiding losses in added value through integrated material efficiency

Wezel operates in a niche market with focus on the production of complex components of the highest precision, which are also manufactured in small series. The efficient use of materials is of increasing strategic importance for Wezel GmbH due to global competition. The goal to counter the growing competitive pressure from the Far East can be achieved by increasing the degree of automation in production and through the further development of existing production technologies and measuring procedures.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Increasing the efficiency of a re-cooling plant

Wieland-Werke AG in Ulm specialises in the manufacture of semi-finished copper and copper alloy products. The product range includes strips, sheets, rods, tubes and plain bearings which are used in a variety of industries. Their manufacture involves forming and heating processes, so Wieland-Werke uses re-cooling systems to remove the unusable residual heat produced during these processes. These have two cooling circuits. The water in the primary circuit cools the process down. The now warm water of the primary circuit transfers the absorbed energy to the cooling water of the secondary circuit by means of a heat exchanger. The re-cooling systems run in summer mode all year round, so that they can provide full cooling capacity on hot summer days. Individual components of the recooling systems could be adapted to the weather conditions of the respective season with the aid of a frequency converter.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Spiral welding process

The Pforzheim-based company, Witzenmann, specialises in the production of flexible metal elements. Boasting the world‘s broadest range of products in the industry, Witzenmann offers engineered solutions designed to decouple vibrations, compensate for thermal movement, aid installation and convey a wide range media.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Precision mechanics industry

Efficient production of safety screws thanks to sprue recycling

The company OBE has its headquarters in Ispringen in the northern Black Forest region of Germany and is one of the leading manufacturers of large quantities of precision mechanical metal parts. Through the technological development of spectacle hinges and micro safety screws in particular, OBE has established itself as a key supplier to the eyewear industry.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

REProMag – Resource-efficient production of magnets

Founded in 1904, OBE Ohnmacht & Baumgärtner GmbH & Co. KG, has its headquarters in Ispringen in the northern Black Forest and is one of the leading manufacturers of complex components manufactured by metal powder injection moulding. Since 1996 OBE has been producing tiny, highly complex metal components in series for the automotive, aerospace, telecommunications and precision engineering industries, which could not be produced by conventional methods at all, or only uneconomically. OBE is constantly setting new standards with this technology, e.g. with the development of special materials for metal injection moulding (MIM).

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Manufacture of measuring and control instruments

Reconditioning of water meters – from one-off measure to an integrated business concept

Lorenz GmbH & Co. KG is a multi-award-winning medium-sized company that specialises in water meters, including wireless water meters. The residential water meters essentially consist of a plastic meter and a hydraulic system made of brass through which the water flows. Although the availability of brass as the main raw material is not at risk for the foreseeable future, the price has been subject to strong fluctuations over the last ten years with a tendency toward exceptionally high price increases. As a result of this cost factor, the industry has seen a trend towards replacing brass with apparently cheaper, but less durable plastic that is also more energy-intensive to manufacture.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Software development

Sustainable office building – ecology + economy + employee friendliness

Vector Informatik is the world's leading supplier of tools, software components and services for the development of automotive electronics. The present company location in Stuttgart-Weilimdorf reached its capacity limits due to the company's rapid growth, so that expansion became vital. The new building was to incorporate not only offices, but also a canteen for the site and a large training area. A plot was acquired for the new building in the existing industrial park in the immediate vicinity of the present buildings. This new building was to be connected to parts of the existing buildings to form a modern and attractive campus, offering development opportunities for future company growth.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Electrical industry

Resource efficiency through lubricant recycling

ABB STOTZ-KONTAKT produces circuit breakers in its highly automated production facility in Heidelberg. During prefabrication, the "frame" component is manufactured for these devices, among other things. This component is for connecting the device when wiring an electrical system. In the punching and bending manufacturing process, steel strip material is processed in six steps: punching, bending, stamping, welding, calibrating and thread forming. In the final machining step, thread forming, not only are high demands placed on work efficiency and quality, particular attention is also paid to maintaining the longest possible service life for the thread forming tools.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource minimisation through partial automation

ANSMANN AG is a system supplier specialised in the development and production of individual, mobile power supplies. More than 20 years of experience have made ANSMANN experts in batteries, rechargeable battery packs, primary batteries, chargers and power supplies. At the request of the customer, ANSMANN develops all the components, hardware and software as well as the mechanics and also certifies the systems. ANSMANN supplies equipment manufacturers in the fields of drive systems, medical technology and garden tools, among others.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Energy-efficient production facility and its central energy supply

The ebm-papst Group has its headquarters in Mulfingen in the Hohenlohe district and specialises in the manufacture of electric motors and fans. At 900,000 units per year, their Hollenbach plant had reached its capacity limit for fan production.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

EEP and EEP2 – Energy efficiency at the Siemens Industrial Park in Karlsruhe and Siemens' Rastatt plant

The efficient use of resources and the reduction of environmental pollution, e.g. CO2 emissions, are among the greatest challenges of our time. Environmental protection, energy efficiency and optimised resource usage are also important topics when it comes to profitable and sustainable production operations. Siemens AG has made it their goal that their business operations should be climate-neutral by 2030. To achieve this goal, Siemens has launched the Energy Efficiency Program (EEP). The EEP identifies potential savings specific to buildings and production and is goal-oriented in implementing individual measures. Under EEP2, the continuation of the EEP programme, 100 million Euros will be made available across the group for the implementation of efficiency measures with the aim of reducing CO2 emissions by 80,000 t per year from 2015 to 2020.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Consistent, sustainable use of process heat

WERMA Signaltechnik is one of the world's leading manufacturers of optical and audible signalling devices. As a result of its successful corporate development, the company decided to expand its production capacity. When planning this new factory, the existing processes and procedures were first critically scrutinised as part of a productivity analysis and the possibilities for future optimisation were laid out. The increase in production space allows for the production of additional new and innovative products and establishes a basis for further increases in productivity.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Optimised energy and data transmission via slip rings

WIKA Mobile Control specialises in automation and network technology and manufactures components for network infrastructure, connection technology, mobile controllers and sensor systems. The products they manufacture are used in process control as well as in transport and machine building.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Etching agent recycling and copper recovery in an alkaline etching line

The Würth Elektronik Group headquartered in Niedernhall (Hohenlohe) comprises three business units. Business unit Würth Elektronik Circuit Board Technology (CBT) has established itself one of the leading printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturers in Germany. The product portfolio ranges from samples and prototypes to midsize series through to large volume orders. Electronic designers find all the conventional PCB technologies as well as many innovations and system solutions from a single source. More than 120 new PCB designs are passed through the production lines every day.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Machinery

Energy efficiency and cost savings through waste heat reduction in plastics processing

STIHL develops, manufactures and sells chainsaws and hand-held power tools. STIHL products are exposed to high mechanical and physical forces during use and must be ready for use under the most varied weather conditions. STIHL stands for top quality worldwide – both in products and individual components as well as in the production process. With innovations to improve functionality, product comfort, environmental protection and occupational and product safety, STIHL continually proves its competence as a global leader.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

The Development of a Cable Drive with Synthetic Cable Drums for Machines Used in Water Intake Systems

The Aqseptence Group GmbH in Karlsruhe is a globally recognised manufacturer of machines for the mechanical filtration of water in water intake systems. The Aqseptence Group GmbH designs, manufactures and installs systems and components for sewage treatment plants, power plants, desalination plants and pumping stations.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

From cutting to cold forming

Felss specialises in resource-efficient cold forming processes and manufactures, among other things, components for the automotive industry. These are characteristically made in large quantities with high demands on dimensional accuracy. Great material savings can be achieved with cold forming processes, compared to cutting procedures and lightweight construction principles can be implemented. This makes considerable monetary savings possible.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Integrated resource efficiency in factory planning and operation

Festo has set trends in automation technology for more than 60 years. One of the company‘s fundamental objectives, in keeping with sustainable development, is to lower the cost of production using fewer resources. Long-term thinking and responsible action are important principles in the holistic, entrepreneurial thinking of this family-run business, so it was possible to re-plan the site in which electronics, valves and valve terminals are produced from scratch.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Direct processing from fibre to fibre moulded part

For over 50 years, fibre moulded parts have been pressed and cut from prefabricated mats. These moulded parts are used as acoustic and/or thermal insulation, for example in the medical, furniture, textile and aviation industries. Moulded fibre parts can be used in a wide variety of flexible applications, for example as insulating cushions, seat cushions, floor insulation in vehicles, pads in bras and as moulded solid support parts made of wood fibres.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

New sensor-based control of cascade rinsing baths in coating technology

In 2013, John Deere set itself the ambitious target of reducing energy and water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 15% by the year 2018. In line with this, the Bruchsal campus created an energy concept based on an on-site central heating system connected to a photovoltaic system, which would reduce the annual CO2 emissions by over 7,000 t. Another fundamental approach to achieving the objectives was to systematically analyse and optimise all production processes.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource efficiency through addition – additive lightweight construction for industry 4.0

Jomatik supplies precisely fitting prototypes and production tools developed by engineers. Jomatik solutions offer the advantages of being fast, light and cost-effective, whether in automotive engineering, industrial production or medical technology. Additive laser sintering, colloquially known as 3D printing, has many advantages including fast development times for individual requirements, batch sizes between 1 and 1000, a variety of sintering materials and high precision in production and post-processing.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource and energy efficient product development with the help of bw!MFCA software

Keller Lufttechnik GmbH + Co. KG develops and produces filter systems and components for almost all industrial sectors. The use of different filter technologies and the comprehensive range of extractors enable the products to be used in a wide range of industrial applications. The ProFlap non-return valve, which serves to decouple a separator from the connected ductwork in dust extraction systems in the event of explosion, had to be recertified because test specifications were changed.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Free heat – Saving energy by using waste heat from compressed air stations

ALMiG Kompressoren GmbH based in Köngen is a leading supplier of intelligent compressed air systems. Their cost effectiveness and energy efficiency make these an important factor in the production and profit of every customer. Heat recovery offers potential energy savings that have been underestimated in this context up to now. While more and more customers appreciate the advantages of speedcontrolled screw compressors, only a few are giving thought to further synergy effects of their compressed air stations. The use of waste heat is an important starting point here, because the energy consumed during compressed air generation is converted entirely into heat energy. All too often this energy is released unused into the exhaust air, although it can be used for other purposes, e.g. as a supplement to building heating systems or for cold water preheating. About 72% of the heat generated in the air compressor is transferred to the oil of the oil cooler and is ideally suited for heat recovery.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Energy-efficient refurbishment of technical building services

Mayer & Cie. GmbH & Co. KG is the world's leading manufacturer of circular knitting machines. Their portfolio comprises 50 types of circular knitting machines which are used to produce fabrics for the automotive industry, home textiles, sportswear, nightwear or swimwear. The Albstadt site covers all the processes of a modern machine construction company, from development right up to the packaging of the machine.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource-saving packaging process: our demand is driving innovation!

At the end of each production process, the finished product must be packed effectively, efficiently and secured for transport. The technology at the end of the process chain needs to function correctly and reliably to ensure the smooth running of the entire process and avoid costly downtime. To this end, Mosca GmbH develops efficient strapping machines, high-quality strapping materials and complex systems for securing transported goods. Mosca is also a system provider that offers its customers a comprehensive and holistic service concept in addition to its pure machine portfolio and the high-quality strapping materials.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Robot-assisted automation increases flexibility

SFA GmbH & Co. KG from Aichstetten specialises in CNC milling/turning and custom machine construction. The special-purpose machines are developed and assembled entirely by SFA, from the design through to mechanics and electrics. They also offer the related software development and service. In order to be able to produce several different parts with the shortest possible changeover times practically simultaneously and to achieve the best possible customer satisfaction, SFA wanted a highly flexible, automated production cell.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Simply switch off specific systems – energy value stream analysis makes machine tools more efficient

As a globally operating technology group, Voith sees itself as responsible for handling resources and energy efficiently at all its locations around the world. The company combines ecological action with economic principles and thus not only makes a contribution to climate protection, but also creates measurable added economic value. Energy consumption is one of the most important regulating variables that they take into account. In the 2015/16 fiscal year, Voith consumed 452,294 MWh of energy at its sites worldwide and emitted 150,537 t of CO2-eq. The resulting energy costs amounted to 40.3 million Euros.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

A learning organisation reduces material losses

Wiedenmann GmbH is based in Rammingen and is a leading manufacturer of high-quality machines for lawn care, dirt removal and winter clearance services. The company buys steel and standard and purchased parts worth around 6.5 million Euros annually. About 5% of this purchased material has been lost up to now as production waste.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Automotive Industry

Resistance spot welding made easy

Resistance spot welding remains one of the most frequently used joining processes in the automotive industry. An in-depth examination of the process is therefore necessary in order to increase both its availability and process efficiency. The existing resistance spot welding technology has now been used for several generations of vehicles. Revision of this technology has become necessary due to requirements for increasing energy efficiency in production and reducing emission values. To this end, the technology was not only put through its paces also the goal was set that the new technology should achieve maximum performance. The main developmental goals were the simplification and standardisation of the gun design, weight reduction of the pincers themselves, modularity for the integration of various components and also cost reduction of the overall design.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Energy-efficient compressed air in a shipping container

The American automotive supplier Cooper Standard Automotive GmbH produces brake and fuel lines at its site in Schelklingen, Germany. Compressed air is an essential energy source for metalworking and bending automation and is used in correspondingly large volumes. Until 2016, the compressed air supply was provided on a contract basis by a compressor manufacturer. When the contract expired, the company took the opportunity to put the existing compressed air supply system to the test.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Innovative dry separation for spray coatings

Daimler AG manufactures transmissions, axles and other parts for commercial vehicles, mainly for heavy off-road use, at its site in Gaggenau. A high level of corrosion protection is required for this application in order to protect the units for their entire service life. The coating is the most important component when it comes to fulfilling these requirements. It became necessary to replace the paint shop in order to be able to continue to meet these requirements in the future and to comply with current and future environmental regulations.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Ignition current limiter replaces the backup battery concept

Many drivers have already noticed that the lighting briefly dims when starting a vehicle. Even the radio, navigation device or other electrical functions may fail for a short period of time. Technically, this phenomenon is due to the short-term high current consumption of the starter, which causes the battery voltage to drop.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

NANOSLIDE® process chain

Daimler AG is a pioneer in the field of emission-free drives, with a focus on increasing efficiency through hybridisation and on the ongoing optimisation of internal combustion engines. The greatest lever for reducing fuel consumption and emissions is currently the consistent increase in efficiency of combustion engines.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Systematic improvement in energy efficiency of ventilation systems

In many companies, ventilation technology is responsible for a significant proportion of the total energy requirement. Especially in companies that are not very energy intensive, the share can rise to well over 50%, e.g. for extensive building stock. Ventilation technology is therefore one of the key levers for improving energy efficiency in operation.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Less is more – optimising operating modes in the paint shop

Porsche has set itself the strategic goal of reducing the environmental impact of production by 45% by 2025 compared with 2014 levels. The reduction is assessed in terms of the environmental indicators waste, CO2, energy, VOC (volatile organic compounds) and water. In 2014 Porsche began implementing an internal resource efficiency strategy at its production sites for the longterm, sustainable conservation of resources. Porsche employees are now continuously developing their own solutions for establishing resource savings in production since the integration of this strategy became mandatory. The efficiency programs also serve as quality assurance measures, since the individual processes and procedures in production are being sustainably improved by the consistent search for optimisations.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Using dryer waste heat to save energy

Painting the vehicle bodies is the most energyintensive step in the manufacture of motor vehicles. In order to remove and separate the solvents escaping from the paints as volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, the spray booths require a high air flow rate and a complex exhaust air purification system. Both of these have a high demand for electrical energy. One can get an impression of the energy required to operate the exhaust air purification system in Porsche's paint shop by taking a closer look at the three process steps involved: absorption, desorption and condensation.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Resource efficiency under high pressure – servo drive presses

voestalpine Automotive Components Dettingen GmbH supplies all well-known automobile manufacturers with ready-to-install stamped and formed parts, assemblies as well as safety/impact protection components. voestalpine uses their mechanical and hydraulic press lines at their site in Dettingen/Erms to produce reinforcing parts and assemblies for bodywork and powertrain applications, from small reinforcing parts to B-pillars and floor parts. Their focus is on cold-formed structural parts and assemblies made of steel and aluminium that meet the automotive industry's demand for superior vehicle safety and lightweight construction.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Furniture industry

The perfect wave – Getting flax fibres and business processes into shape

GETA Interieur mbH manufactures interior components for railway vehicles, aircraft, buses and ships. Around 800 different table models for Intercity-Express (ICE) trains as well as various ceiling and floor coverings are developed and produced at the company headquarters in Wangen, catering to complex and extensive customer requirements.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Less is more – Optimisation by finite element method

Interstuhl operates with two strong brands: The Interstuhl brand includes all types of office and commercial seating, while the Bimos brand is the leading brand for the best industrial and laboratory chairs in Europe. Every day around 3,500 chairs are produced at the Meßstetten site and shipped all over the world. Interstuhl currently achieves an annual turnover of 130 million Euros with office seating and conference furniture, communication facilities, executive office furniture, regeneration furniture, as well as production, laboratory and clean room chairs that are first-class in both quality and design.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Medical technology

Reduction of carbide consumption through real-time control

ulrich medical specialises, among other things, in the development and manufacture of implants. The implants are machined out of titanium and other components are made of various stainless steels. The load profile of the cutter is often subject to fluctuations during machining and wear is high. As a result, the cutters have had to be changed frequently in the past. In addition, production was often interrupted due to cutter breakages. Since the cutters are made of expensive carbide, a high replacement rate is a considerable cost factor. In addition, carbide residues in the form of chips pose a major problem for the recycling economy. They lead to carbide inclusions in the new, recycled raw material, which in turn causes new cutter breakages and results in more carbide residues. The goal was therefore to prolong the service life of the cutters, while at the same time not lengthening the production time per implant.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Manufacture of other goods

Introduction of a cutting system for optimising the cutting of trampoline components

Eurotramp-Trampoline Kurt Hack GmbH has specialised in the production of high-quality trampolines for various applications for over 50 years. International competition for sports equipment and especially trampolines is fierce, with corresponding price pressure on German manufacturers. In recent financial years, raw materials (foams, tarpaulin materials, technical fabrics, steel products, etc.) have also become much more expensive.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

NOA! Noch Optimalere Abläufe! (Even greater process optimisation!)

The Wangen-based company, NOCH, has specialised in building model landscapes for over 100 years, chiefly in the model railway sector. Over time, NOCH's specialised manufacturing processes have become equally established in the advertising display sector. The products have very diverse requirements and are manufactured in the company’s own craft production facility. The manufacturing procedures are often highly specialised and are characterised by a relatively large proportion of manual work and small batch sizes.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Energy supply

Process waste heat from the refinery for district heating supply in Karlsruhe

MiRO requires heat for many processes. To use the heat energy efficiently, the feed product, e.g. crude oil, is at first preheated in heat exchangers with the aid of hot effluent product streams (gas oils) and then heated to operating temperature in process furnaces. Before the product can then be stored in a tank, it must be cooled by air or water coolers (final cooling). This generates waste heat with temperatures of up to 130 °C which could not be used in any profitable way in the refinery so far and was therefore released into the environment unused.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

OptiMa – Energy efficiency in the Mannheim combined heat and power (CHP) plant

The Mannheim CHP plant is operated by MVV Umwelt GmbH, a subsidiary of the Mannheim-based energy company, MVV. Around 700,000 t of waste from Mannheim, the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region and Karlsruhe are treated at this facility every year to generate approximately 320,000 MWh of electricity and 370,000 MWh of heat. The latter is supplied to industrial customers in the form of process steam.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Recycling industry

Development of systems and technology for aircraft engine and landing gear recycling in Baden-Württemberg

Decommissioned aircraft are a source of high quality components and materials. Some of these engine and landing gear components have a limited service life and must be replaced after a defined number of revolutions, operating hours and landings in aircraft maintenance hangars. Before the materials can be introduced into the secondary raw material cycle, the components must be rendered unusable through a documented process. The reason for this process is to prevent suspected unapproved parts and inferior imitations (bogus parts) from appearing on the world market. The materials in question accumulate continuously at aircraft maintenance hangars, so their documented dismantling and ultimate recycling can be scheduled.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Alternative fuel for the cement industry

The cement industry is one of the most energyintensive sectors. Most of the energy required for cement production is used for sintering the cement clinker. Traditionally, fossil fuels such as hard coal, lignite, petroleum coke and, to a lesser extent, heavy fuel oil are used as primary energy sources. However, changes in legal and economic conditions have led to an increase in the use of alternative fuels. The use of substitute or refuse derived fuels (RDF) thus keeps German cement production competitive and reduces the heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

Construction industry

Liquid soil from recycled material – stationary and mobile production

Excavated soil is produced in almost all civil engineering projects. This is usually transported to earth dumps where it is either integrated for recultivation purposes or left in a repository. However, landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce and thus more cost-intensive owing to planning and regulatory reasons. In addition, the centralisation of landfill sites has led to an increase in transport distances and thus also in the environmental and traffic impacts arising from the transportation.

Mario Schmidt, Hannes Spieth, Christian Haubach, Christian Kühne

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