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2018 | Book

10th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin

Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards and Sustainable Preservation

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About this book

This book addresses physical, chemical, and biological methods for the preservation of ancient artifacts. Advanced materials are required to preserve the Mediterranean belt's historic, artistic and archaeological relics against weathering, pollution, natural risks and anthropogenic hazards.
Based upon the 10th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, this book provides a forum for international engineers, architects, archaeologists, conservators, geologists, art historians and scientists in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology to discuss principles, methods, and solutions for the preservation of global historical artifacts.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Opening Speeches

Frontmatter
1. Welcome Speech

Ladies and Gentlemen,My dear colleagues and friends,In my capacity as the Coordinator of the Organizing Committee of the 10th International Symposium on the, it is my great pleasure to welcome you to Athens.

Maria Koui
2. Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards and Sustainable Preservation

The International Symposium on Monument Conservation in the Mediterranean Basin opens today at the National Technical University of Athens. The closeness to the Acropolis and the impressive Parthenon, the most famous monument of the classic antiquity, convey a strong emotion to the participants host in conference really in Greece, the cradle of the classicism and the source of the ancient learning which pervaded the Occident. I thank the academic authorities of the Athens University for the appreciated support to develop our interdisciplinary program started almost 30 years ago with the establishment of the International Group IGCMM (Figs. 2.1 and 2.2).

Fulvio Zezza

Plenary Lectures

Frontmatter
3. The Monument Stone: An Eternal Link of Past Civilizations

The use of the stone in monument reflects purposes, ideologies, and symbolisms referable to different traditions, thus determining the intrinsic value both historical and cultural, of each monument. The stone sends a message which exceeds the threshold of emotion conveyed by the significance of the monument; its use belongs to the history of civilizations of the Mediterranean area, one after another influenced through the appealing and the assimilation. The research has clarified the architectural devising of the past, its influence on the artistic language as well as the relationship with ancient tradition. Nevertheless, some fundamental problems concerning the use tendencies in different historical periods, above all as regards ornamental stones, are still extant. The reading of the stone and marble employment is complex; their selection criteria depend on the symbolic significance suggested by political and religious circumstances.For the stones used as building material, a close relationship between the material employed and the geology of the sites reinforces the concept of the constructions as product of local stone resources; it seems even truer as far as possible remote is the epoch of the monument. For the marble, the history is too complex. A reading of an historic route out of Rome regarding the reuse of the ancient marbles is offered by two historic cities, Venice and Constantinople, which makes explicit this recovery culture in different chronological and geographical contexts. The two historic cities, where the reuse of Roman marble elements as spolia was conditioned by different ideological finalities and economic disposals, boast, after Rome, the highest quantity of the most precious marbles of antiquity. In time, the power of expression, soaked in spiritual and emotional harmonies, has contributed to the innovation of styles and traditions, which has never confined cultural values to a secondary role. The artist’s creativity, arisen from the authentic emotion of rediscovering the same marble elements each time, places the suggestions and the experiences in a wider horizon, again leading to the progress of man and to the very source of human feeling. From this point of view, the same Roman marbles, each time rediscovered and shared, send us a cultural message: monument stones are an eternal link of past civilizations.

Fulvio Zezza
4. War as Cause of Genesis and Obliteration of Monuments (The Case of the Athenian Acropolis)

The Persian sea invasion at the coasts of Attica in the 490 b.C, the victory of Miltiades in the marshy battlefield of Marathon, the return of the Persian army under Xerxes ten years later, resulting the burning of the city of Athens and the Acropolis in revenge for the destruction of Sardis, are well known history. The victorious naval battle of Salamis by the allied Greek fleet, brought about a major overturning of the situation, followed by the devastation of the Persian army at Plataea in the summer of 479 BC. From this point onward Athens developed into a hegemonic power among the Greeks.The abundant spoils of war and the financial contributions that the Athenians imposed to their allies, made it possible for the city of Athens to be rebuilt and to thrive. Acropolis from a local stronghold and refuge, right after the end of the Persian wars started evolving to a major Hellenic religious center, a place of art and culture. The older temples destroyed by the Persians, were replaced by new expensive magnificent monuments in white marble of fine proportions, optical refinements and various embellishments, all applied in a renovative architectonic synthesis of everlasting beauty.On the other hand, war again is to blame for the destruction of these monuments, a process that took place centuries later, as the power of the Roman Empire in decline, permitted to the various barbarian tribes to raid the Roman provinces, including Athens, pillaging its treasures. After the fall of Constantinople (1454), the Acropolis, center of the Duchy of Athens (1205-1456), passed peacefully from the last Florentine Duce, Francesco II Acciajuoli to the Turks.Two centuries later, the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1683-1695 proved to be disastrous for all the classical buildings of the Acropolis, which still retained most of their original structure intact, despite the medieval architectural additions, due to its change of use. In 1687, the Venetians occupied Athens and sieged the Athenian Acropolis. The heavy exploding bombs who were lanced by the Venetian cannons, broke the roof tiles and penetrated in the interior of the ancient monuments, destroying them, since the Turks kept there their ammunitions.The acts of this irrational disaster, which brought no permanent benefits to Venice, are reviewed here, drawing on data found in various historical records and previous researches done in the Venetian archives, with a contemporary critical view based on new observations made at the monuments in Athens and in Venice.

Demosthenes Giraud
5. Philosophical Approaches for Conservation and Upgrade of the Cultural Heritage

The paper deals with the design procedures for the refurbishment, seismic upgrade, and reuse of historical buildings defined ordinary since they have an intermediate relevance within the cultural heritage of a country. The procedures include the basic knowledge, the assessment methods, the design works, and the use of innovative composite materials aimed at defining appropriate cost-effective technologies and methods for the structural and seismic retrofitting. The research is carried out with reference to two emblematic study cases concerning (i) the reuse of the old tuna factory Florio in the island of Favignana and (ii) the reuse of the complex of San Benedetto Novello in Perugia as a center for artistic and cultural activities. The old tuna factory of Favignana was restored and repaired in 2010. Nowadays it is used as a museum. In this paper, the design criteria adopted for the repair and upgrade of tuff vaults with a cement-based composite material are described. The complex of San Benedetto includes architectural elements attributed to Galeazzo Alessi and is nowadays partially occupied by offices. The study provides for the evaluation of the structure safety considering both the global and local level with reference to the performance levels expected at the different limit states. The works for seismic improvement have been designed respecting the peculiarities of the ecclesiastical complex and allowing the performances required by the new functions. Special focus is given to the use of innovative restoring and strengthening technologies allowing for works characterized by cost effectiveness and contained invasiveness.

Enzo Siviero, Fabrizio Comodini, Francesco Focacci
6. IR Thermography as a Non-destructive Tool for Materials Characterisation and Structural Assessment of Buildings and Historic Structures

Thermographic approaches, passive and active, are widely used due to the outstanding advantages that they offer in a number of applications and particularly for the assessment of materials. Nonetheless, there are limitations; depending upon the approach used, as well as on the materials’ thermal, optical and physical properties, proper assessment (detection and/or quantification) is feasible. In this work, different applications employing thermographic testing, concerning the assessment of various building materials and historic structures, are presented. The following applications are included: determination of emissivity values (building and structural materials), study of moisture in porous materials, impact assessment on consolidated stone, evaluation of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble and evaluation of the state of conservation of mosaics. Results presented show that thermography approaches can be used successfully for the structural integrity assessment of the tested materials and/or structures.

Nicolas P. Avdelidis
7. Sustainable Reconstruction for Historical Cities in Syria: Urbicide

Today, we are faced with a slithering Third World War, or something similar to a global civil war: permanent, unconventional, asymmetrical, local and mobile, but with major consequences and reverberations. We are witnessing a substantial change in the form of war, or of perpetual non-peace, which sees a progressive increase in the involvement of civilians, both victims and targets, compared to the past. The consequence is that, differently from the past, cities have become the preferred battlefields, and their destruction, via ground or air, has become a primary strategic goal. If someone destroys, others have to rebuild and put back in place; unless they give up and simply make room for resignation, as Adorno says: “After the catastrophes that have happened, and in view of the catastrophes to come, it would be cynical to say that a plan for a better world is manifested in history and unites it. No universal history leads from savagery to humanitarianism, but there is one leading from the slingshot to the megaton bomb” [1].

Benno Albrecht

Thematic Area I: Technologies for Damage Rehabilitation and Sustainable Preservation

Frontmatter
8. Restoration and Consolidation of Sections of the Castle of Naupactos and the Enhancement of the Archaeological Site

The strategic location of Naupactos, at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf in central Greece, was a nodal point in the regional defense system throughout the centuries. Due to this enviable geographical and strategic location, the city was the apple of discord among the powerful agents of every age since antiquity. Its imposing castle rises on the western foot of Mount Rigani on a hilltop 200 m high above sea level, dominating the broader area and controlling the sea passage. It is one of the most representative monuments of defensive architecture in Greece. It has the shape of an amphitheater: the higher part encircles the hilltop, while two branches extend eastward and westward following the natural slopes and descend toward the sea where they join a small fortified port.The project “Restoration and consolidation of sections of the Castle of Naupactos and the enhancement of the archaeological site” was implemented by the Ministry of Culture and Sports, primarily by its subdivision the 22nd Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities and after November 2014 by the Ephorate of Aitoloakarnania and Leukada. It was included in Priority Axis “03 Improvement of the Entrepreneur Environment” of the Regional Operational Program “Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship” 2007–2013 and lasted for 22 months. During this period in addition to the permanent personnel, 13 more people were employed under contract labor. The study had been prepared in 2013 by E. Katsouli. The project included works on sections of the Castle of Naupactos and specifically outside and inside of the west seaport’s fortifications of the first defensive zone, outside the east seaport’s fortifications of the first defensive zone and of part of the second defensive zone at the area of Megalomata and inside the fourth defensive zone at a retaining wall of the yard of the church of Profitis Ilias.

Eleni Katsouli, Olympia Vikatou
9. Investigating the Thermal Properties of Earth-Based Materials: The Case of Adobes

Earth-based materials have been receiving a growing interest in recent years due to their “rediscovery” as eco-friendly building materials with great potential to increase energy efficiency. Despite this interest, however, there is a lack of reliable scientific research data regarding the thermal properties of earth-based materials, which would allow a deeper understanding of their environmental performance. This work reviews current approaches on the thermal properties of adobes, and their variation with density, through a comparative study of the literature and experimental results. The literature data presented in this paper have been taken from national earth construction-related standards and normative documents, technical documents, and scientific research studies. The experimental research includes measurements of the thermal properties of six adobe test samples produced in the lab using different types and proportions of fiber additives. Through this study it is demonstrated that adobes may need further improvements in terms of thermal insulation capacity to meet the current Cyprus thermal building regulations. A deeper understanding and further research on the dynamic thermal characteristics of earth-based materials, however, are needed in order to achieve a more accurate evaluation of the thermal performance of earthen buildings. Research results further indicate that the thermal properties of earth-based materials are highly correlated to their density. By altering density accordingly, the heat storage and insulating capacity of adobes can be “manipulated” in order to achieve compliance with national thermal regulations.

Eleni Malaktou, Ioannis Ioannou, Maria Philokyprou
10. Long-Term and Sustainable Approach to Preserve Ancient Mosaic Heritage: The Case Study of Mosaic Pavement Located at the “Sanctuary of Pan,” Pnyka (Athens)

In the historical center of Athens, surviving mosaic pavements, dating back to the Roman times, can be found in several archeological sites. The awareness of their increasing damage has resulted in a great effort to preserve them. In this sense, this paper intends to propose an innovative and user-friendly procedure. This is based on nondestructive techniques investigation, which could be included in a long-term and sustainable approach to preserve the ancient mosaic heritage. As a case study, a mosaic pavement dated back to the Roman period, located on the ancient hill of Pnyka, was investigated by means of infrared thermography (IR thermo) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technique. Both techniques assessed the deterioration state and the conservation treatment previously applied on the aforementioned structure substrate. Moreover, samples from the substrate mortar were analyzed in the laboratory by means of advanced methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG). The results derived from this study verify that nondestructive testing techniques are very suitable for the inspection of mosaic pavements, providing useful information concerned with the structural integrity of the mosaic, revealing, also, its preservation state. In addition, supplementary analysis of mortar samples aims to the characterization of the constituent materials and the better understanding of decay factors.

Ekaterini Ftikou, Panagiotis Theodorakeas, Eleni Cheilakou, Maria Koui
11. Why Does the Addition of Nano-alumina Improve the Performance of Acrylic Coatings Employed in Cultural Heritage Conservation?

The addition of a small quantity of alumina nano-powder in Paraloid B72 increases the protective performance of the coating when applied on various metal substrates. This work aims to investigate the mechanism that lies behind. Digital picture analysis of the agglomerates, contact angle measurements and surface free energy calculations, water uptake measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used in order to address the posed question. The addition of about 2% nano-alumina in Paraloid B72 coatings achieves maximum nano-dispersion of the particles, minimum rate of water uptake, more hydrophobic surface after brief exposure to UVB radiation and a complex EIS spectrum with two time constants. All of the above contribute to the desired effect.

Michail Delagrammatikas, Olga Papadopoulou, Panayota Vassiliou
12. Development of Mud-Based Grouts for the Consolidation of Earth-Block Masonry

Grouting is an old and widely used irreversible technique for consolidating historic masonries. On the other hand, earth structures concern a great part of European monumental heritage, closely related to the wider historic, socio-economic and environmental characteristics of each region. Up to date there is no policy for their retrofitting, maintenance and upgrading, since the tradition of constructing earth masonry has vanished and there is lack of relevant regulations. As a result, earth-block houses have been abandoned and destroyed due to damages from earthquakes, ageing or unsuitable interventions (use of concrete members, cement-based mortars), while many villages with earth houses have been marginalized and abandoned. After the analysis of building materials from earth-block structures situated in Northern Greece, three series of mud-based grout trial mixtures were laboratory manufactured based on different types of clay. In each series, the proportion of clay was gradually substituted by other binders (hydrated lime, natural pozzolan, white cement) or combination of them. The fresh (fluidity, penetrability, volume stability) and hardened (dynamic modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, compressive strength) state properties of all mixtures were tested and comparatively evaluated. From the evaluation of the results, it was concluded that the restoration and strengthening of mud-brick structures could be achieved by using compatible and locally available raw materials.

Ioanna Papayianni, Vasiliki Pachta
13. Assessing the Usage of Calcium and Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles as Consolidant for Dolostones

Dolostone has been abundantly used in the construction of monuments during archaeological periods in Anatolia. Several of those monuments have some decay problems to be assessed and need conservation treatments to be developed. In the study, it was aimed to prepare a nanodispersive solution from the dolostone itself and follow its carbonation mineral phases in order to obtain a compatible consolidation treatment for dolostone. A mixture of calcium and magnesium hydroxide nanodispersive solution in ethyl alcohol was prepared by using Midyatdolostone, starting with its thermal decomposition. The decomposition products, lime (CaO) and periclase (MgO), were slaked to obtain a mixture of portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and brucite (Mg(OH)2) which were then dispersed in ethanol. A number of petri dishes each containing around 20 ml of nanodispersive solution were prepared and put in a chamber with 85–90% RH and high CO2 concentration around 2500 ppm at room temperature for carbonation. The carbonation process of nanodispersive solution was followed at the end of 3rd, 7th, 17th, 21st and 28th days by using XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX in order to identify mineral phases. At the end of the 3rd day, portlandite and brucite were completely carbonated to calcite (CaCO3) and nesquehonite (Mg(CO3)2.3H2O), respectively. Dolomite formation was observed to develop in association with nesquehonite and calcite in the following days. Those phases were monitored clearly by XRD and SEM-EDX.

Fulya Karahan Dağ, Emine N. Caner-Saltik, Ayşe Tavukçuoğlu
14. European Project Nano-Cathedral: Nanomaterials for Conservation of European Architectural Heritage: Pisa, the Experience of a Mediterranean Cathedral

The European Nano-Cathedral Project started in June 2015, as a part of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research program (Nano-Cathedral (June 1, 2015 to May 31, 2018) nanomaterials for conservation of European architectural heritage developed by research on characteristic lithotypes. Project funded by the European program H2020, Grant Agreement Number 646178. http://www.nanocathedral.eu/ . Accessed November 28, 2017). The project aims at developing new materials, technologies, and procedures for the conservation of deteriorated stone in monumental buildings, cathedrals, and high-value contemporary architecture, with a particular emphasis on the preservation of the original building materials and on the development of a tailor-made approach to tackle the specific issues related to the different lithotypes. Five different cathedrals have been selected as representative of both different exposure conditions and stone types: the Cathedral of Pisa in Italy; the Cathedral of Santa María in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; the Sint-Baafs Cathedral of Ghent, Belgium; the Cathedral of St. Peter and Mary in Cologne, Germany; and St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, Austria. Moreover, the Oslo Opera House was included as an example of a contemporary building coated with white Carrara marble. The European Nano-Cathedral Project has been included in the stone surface restoration campaign of the Cathedral of Pisa. The application of new nanotechnologies in this field will allow the further development of new products thus responding to the needs of compatibility, environmental sustainability, efficiency, and effectiveness in protecting, over time, our monumental artistic heritage.

Andrea Lazzeri, Maria Beatrice Coltelli, Rosanna Bevilacqua, Sara Chirico, Ada Rovazzani, Giulia Severini, Anton Sutter, Marco Bartolini, Lucia Conti, Luciana Festa, Marcella Ioele, Angelica Pujia, Giancarlo Sidoti
15. Degradation Laws of Mechanical Properties of Corroded Steel Bar of Existing Structures on Coastal Areas

As it is widely known, the effect of seismic actions on the existing structures, which are located on coastal areas, maintains a pending issue, given the harsh degradation of reinforced concrete, due to corrosion factor. Although corrosion phenomenon of steel reinforcement is time dependent; nevertheless, this type of issues is not mentioned in the existing technical standards. Consequently, the demanded terms and conditions to predict the remaining mechanical performance, with the use of degradation laws concerning the remaining strength and ductility of the steel rebars, are not available yet to the engineers who are responsible for the rehabilitation (before and after seismic phenomena).For this reason, in the present study, an effort was made to document the prediction laws of the mechanical properties on strength (remaining yield strength) and ductility (the remaining strain recorded at the ultimate strength).The prediction results of the mechanical properties (strength and ductility) of the steel reinforcement concern structures located in areas directly exposed to the sea (1000 m, XS1 exposure class according to EN 206 regulation), that are affected by marine atmosphere attack conditions (pitting corrosion).

Charis Apostolopoulos, Argyro Drakakaki, Maria Basdeki, Alkiviadis Apostolopoulos
16. Conservation of Vernacular Dwellings. Matters of Authenticity and Sustainability

Vernacular architecture has been growing over time, in response to actual needs, with the means available at each place. All forms of vernacular architecture intend to meet specific needs, accommodating the values, economies, and ways of life of the cultures that produce them. The use of traditional local materials and available resources, as well as the incorporation of many bioclimatic features in the design of traditional settlements, gives them a sustainable identity. The architecture of traditional settlements has been a living and invaluable testimony to the historic memory of each place. The rehabilitation of traditional dwellings is an environmentally friendly approach as this process involves the reuse of an existing non-renewable building stock. The value of vernacular architecture has always been connected with the material age, including the traces that time has left. According to the Nara Document, the meaning of authenticity has been recently expanded and includes not only material and form but also traditions and techniques and other intangible values that constitute very important aspects of vernacular architecture. In this framework, this paper discusses how authenticity and sustainability are involved in the process of conservation of vernacular architecture. With a view to enrich the methodology of conserving vernacular architecture, taking into account not only its aesthetic and historic values but also its sustainable features, the present study considers the vernacular architecture of Cyprus as an appropriate case study for an in-depth investigation. The remarks presented herein are derived from two extended multidisciplinary research programs that examine the bioclimatic design elements of urban and rural settlements in Cyprus. The main aim of this research work is to suggest new conservation and refurbished strategies of vernacular architecture with respect not only to the bioclimatic features of traditional dwellings but also to their aesthetic values and their authenticity (materiality and conception).

Maria Philokyprou
17. The Effect of Fly Ash on the Corrosion Performance of AISI 316L Stainless Steel Reinforced Concrete for Application to Restoration Works of Ancient Monuments

The accelerated corrosion performance of AISI type 316L stainless steel in solutions simulating concrete exposed to acid rain with the use of fly ash as corrosion inhibitor was studied by means of cyclic polarization. Fly ash was added to concrete simulating solutions at proportions of 0–25 wt%. Although 316L showed susceptibility to localized corrosion, the positive effect of fly ash on the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization behavior of 316L is clearly manifested. Fly ash content of 20 wt% in the electrolyte led to the highest corrosion resistance.

Sofia Tsouli, Angeliki G. Lekatou, Spyridon Kleftakis
18. Unusual Design Influences a Building’s Biocolonization Pattern and Complicates Remediation

The Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) opened its doors for the first time to the public on September 21, 2004. Designed by Douglas Cardinal, the building stands out from other museums on the National Mall in Washington, DC, because of its curvilinear shape and the yellow golden color of its stone, which are intended to recall cliff dwellings of the American Southwest. Biocolonization on the stonework, a consequence of both the building’s design and the stone’s porosity and facture, has resulted in five cleaning campaigns over the 13 years since the building’s inauguration. Such frequent cleaning, three times with the same biocide, is expensive and potentially self-defeating. Microorganisms tend to become resistant to biocides, and/or new organisms may develop that are even more aggressive. Since a pristine building is preferred by its stakeholders, alternative approaches are being explored to prevent biocolonization. Any alteration of the building’s architecture has been rejected, and pressurized water washing is considered inadvisable as an alternative to biocidal cleaning. Good results reported for inhibition of biocolonization by zinc strips led to their testing on a Kasota limestone block, which proved very effective, and in February 2012 zinc strips were installed in two locations on the NMAI building. After several years the blocks showed localized reduction of biocolonization, but the strips have not yet been proven successful in reducing biocolonization on the building’s façade. Installation of zinc sheets to cover top surfaces of capstones is in the process of implementation in two test areas. The nonuniform flow of water over the irregular surfaces on the façade below, however, is likely to result in incomplete inhibition of biocolonization by the zinc. Moreover, randomly projecting blocks scattered across the facade cannot be protected by zinc strips without interfering with the building’s appearance. Alternative biocides and methods of inhibition are also being considered. These include incorporation of zinc compounds in hydraulic lime parging on capstones, a technique that might be used on window sills and capstones that are not visible from the ground; it should inhibit biocolonization on these surfaces and possibly on the façade below them.

Carol A. Grissom, Jane Sledge, A. Elena Charola
19. The Application of a Modified Sol-Gel Silica Coating for the Protection of Corroded Roman Soda-Lime-Silica Glass: An Experimental and Analytical Study

A new approach for consolidation of deteriorated and de-vitrificated surface of soda-lime-silica glass artifacts was studied. Soda-lime-silica glass samples were collected from Beit Ras archaeological site/northern Jordan (Middle East). Consolidant solution of sol-gel dispersion was prepared to act as consolidant coating material for the desired artifacts. The consolidant material was prepared from ethanol/TEOS/H2O (HCl as a catalyst) using the mapping for the ternary phase diagram (TPD) with a 3% Paraloid B-72 in acetone as a fixed copolymer.A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the prepared sol-gel silica coating. Experiments included aging, refractive index, corrosion, weight loss, and density tests. Treated soda-lime-silica glass artifacts were scrutinized utilizing scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescent (XRF). The results of laboratory experiments revealed or afforded that the adapted colloidal sol-gel camouflage the glass artifact surface and intensify it. No changes in the soda-lime-silica glass mineralogical composition were taped. The treated glass artifacts were cataloged to be corrosion resistant, which in turn led to the decrease of surface devitrification process, decreasing the weight loss, the changes in the refractive indices, and density values of the glass artifacts. As a result, the prepared sol-gel silica was listed to be effective in the inhibition of soda-lime artifact corrosion process.

Abeer Al Bawab, Reema Al-Omari, Ramadan Abd-Allah, Ayat Bozeya, Rund A. Abu-Zurayk, Fadwa Odeh
20. Exploring Nano-Materials for Consolidation of Cultural Heritage Using NMR as a Noninvasive Technique

Societies are committed to preserve testimonies of life and history, which represent tangible link between the past and the present. As a consequence of development, urbanization, climate change, and tourist impact, there is a risk of irreversible damage to many cultural heritage sites and objects. This requires a twofold approach both on the conservation side and on the sustainability of the fruition. The two aspects are closely cross-linked.Nanotechnology and new methods for historic materials conservation are of vast importance nowadays. In this research, development of methods for compatible stone consolidation treatments targeted to the control of decay mechanisms and development of standard methods to verify the efficiency of the consolidation treatments is proposed. The project aimed to identify the most appropriate consolidation methods involving nanotechnology, their application techniques, and efficiency assessment using noninvasive NMR techniques. We propose the development of new methods that can lead to better damage assessment, diagnosis, and monitoring methods including nondestructive techniques (NDT) analyses such as solid and dynamic NMR techniques.

Fadwa Odeh, Suhair Bani Atta, Laila Al Atawi, Ayat Bozeya, Abeer Al Bawab
21. The Drums of Parthenon’s North Colonnade: The Process of Structural Intervention and Results

The Acropolis monuments are globally recognized as a cultural heritage and a value belonging not only to Greece but also to humanity. From 2000 the most recent phase of restoration in their history began (by Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA)), introducing new prototype methods, accepted all over the world.Especially the restoration of Parthenon’s North Colonnade is an enormous work plan to be carried out (extended area of intervention, great number of the members to be restored, and high degree of the existed damages). Moreover, the structural stability is among the most important challenges confronted by experts working in this sector.The complexity of this effort (a combination of scientific research and immediate application on the field) makes the attribution of the restoration project as a whole difficult, unless it is divided into parts of similar members.Therefore, in the present paper some characteristic examples of the procedure followed for the structural intervention of the drums are presented. The restored drums are classified to their corresponding columns (fourth to eleventh) with codes representing their original position. They are characterized by a double number symbol. The first number indicates the column on which they belong (the columns counting starts from East to West; therefore the eight columns of the North’s Colonnade Restoration program have codes 4 to 11) and the second number their exact position on the specific column (the drums counting starts from the lowest drum – settled on the stylobate). For example, the drum 5.8 belongs to the fifth column and it stands in the eighth row.Each member’s report includes a short story of its restoration; the steps’ sequence for the intervention, pictures, and sketches; and the methodology chosen for its structural study, focusing on the particularities of the member and the realization on the field [1, 2].

Marilena Mentzini

Thematic Area II: Methodologies for Characterization

Frontmatter
22. Non-invasive Identification of the Pigments and Their Application on Theophilos Hatzimihail’s Easel Paintings

Theophilos Hatzimihail (1870–1934, Greek: Θεόφιλος Χατζημιχαήλ or Θεόφιλος Κεφαλάς), known simply as Theophilos, was a major folk painter of Neo-Hellenic Art. The main subjects of his works are Greek characters and the illustration of Greek traditional folklife and history. The objective of the present research work is the characterization of the pigments and their application on easel paintings of Theophilos Hatzimihail using a combined analytical methodology. For this purpose, four easel paintings (1927–1931) were studied, which are part of a large collection belonging to the Theophilos Museum in Varia, island of Lesvos, Greece. In-situ measurements were performed with the use of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and VIS-NIR fiber optics diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) non-invasive techniques at multiple spots of various color impressions for the determination of the chemical elemental composition and the reflectance spectral characteristics of the pigments. Furthermore, limited, micro-samples (flakes) from the surfaces were collected and studied via the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) non-destructive technique in the laboratory, in order to acquire detailed information on the molecular structure of the pigments and the binding media of the paintings as well as to assess the accuracy of analytical information that the combined non-invasive methodology of XRF and FORS techniques provide. The experimental results led to reliable conclusions concerning the identification of the pigments, the organic binding media, and the technique applied for the creation of the paintings. The results demonstrated the use of the following pigments: ultramarine, green earth with the form of celadonite and glauconite, minium, various earth pigments with the form of hematite and/or goethite (caput mortuum, ochres), lithopone, and/or zinc white, lead white, and white earths. Mixtures of these pigments are responsible for several color impressions and hues. Among the aforementioned pigments were used in the ground layer of the paintings. As for the binding media, the presence of organic materials is indicated, namely, oils possibly combined with resins (oil painting) as well as egg (tempera) or milk. The conclusions of this research work confirmed the applicability and efficiency of the combined use of XRF and FORS spectroscopic techniques as a non-invasive methodology for the identification of the pigments and their application used in works of art, while the FTIR non-destructive spectroscopic technique constitutes a valuable tool in order to identify the binding media.

Amani-Christiana Saint, Vasiliki Dritsa, Eleni Cheilakou, Evangelia Valavani, Christina Margariti, Katerina Efthimiou, Maria Koui
23. The Combined Use of Non-invasive Methods for the Identification of Pigments and the Weathering Damage on Marble Figurines and Statues

The present research work aims at the investigation of the combined use of Non Destructive Testing techniques for the integrated characterization of marble artifacts with existing traces of polychromy, concerning the identification of pigments, the chemical composition of their structural materials as well as the assessment of the initial distribution of polychromy of the artifacts and their preservation state. Fiber Optics Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (FODRS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques have been widely applied in order to characterize the structural materials and pigments on polychrome monuments. Additionally, a non-invasive analysis of the weathering damages and degradation evolution was performed in order to assess the preservation state of the artifacts, via Digital Image Processing, performed on the pictorial images of the artifacts, using the Integrated Computerized Analysis for Weathering (ICAW) technique.

Amani-Christiana Saint, Eleni Cheilakou, Vasiliki Dritsa, Maria Koui, Katerina Kostanti, Alexandra Christopoulou, Fulvio Zezza
24. The P-Wave Ultrasonic Velocity and Infrared Thermometer Nondestructive Techniques for Estimating the Surface Weathering and the Depth of the Consolidation Liquid on Historical Monuments

The ultrasonic velocity is considered as a nondestructive technique, which is used for estimating the physical and mechanical characteristics of rock surfaces. The P-wave velocity is also an appropriate method for evaluating the surface weathering degree of historical monuments. In this chapter, the Pundit Lab ultrasonic nondestructive digital device was used. This method enables the determination of the surface condition of the monuments, without adding extra contact material, between the transducers and the surface, which could cause irreversible damage on the monuments. The principle of this method is based on the ultrasonic wave velocities, related to the intact rock properties. In this framework, the ultrasonic velocities were performed in situ, at the Ancient Roman Forum (or Agora) of Thessaloniki. More specifically, the measurements were carried out on the travertine surfaces, at the “cryptoporticus” semi-subterranean corridor and on the marble surfaces of the portal, located southward of the Ancient Forum. Furthermore, the infrared thermometer was used on the same surfaces, for recording the fluctuation of the temperature in wet and dry conditions. These values were correlated with the ultrasonic values for assessing in detail the damages on the stone surfaces. These measurements are depicted on maps, which show the weathering degree of these surfaces (depending on the P-wave velocity values) and the variation of the temperature values. A further investigation was carried out in the Laboratory of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, proving the ability of ultrasonic velocity as a method to estimate the depth of the damaged part of a stone surface and determine the permeation of the consolidation liquid.

Lamprini Dimitraki, Kyriaki Devlioti, Basile Christaras, Nikolas Arampelos, Maria Chatziangelou
25. Characterization of Pigments in Wall Paintings of Macedonian Tombs Using Noninvasive and Nondestructive Techniques

The goal of the study is the identification of pigments and other materials contained in wall paintings of three Macedonian tombs which date back to the fourth to third century BC: the tomb I of Dion, the tomb IV of Dion, and the tomb A (Heuzey). The investigation is carried out in two phases. First, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is used for in situ measurements. In the second phase, 12 microsamples which were removed from damaged areas of the wall paintings are investigated using optical microscopy, micro-Raman, and micro-FTIR spectroscopy.The following pigments are identified: red ochre, yellow ochre, Egyptian blue, and carbon black. Moreover, the dominant presence of calcite is revealed, while gypsum is identified in the preparation layers of only two samples. Finally, an organic material (probably egg yolk) is detected in three samples by FTIR. Based on these findings, an interpretation of the possible (fresco/secco) painting technique(s) which could have been applied in the Macedonian paintings is provided, in light of previously published reports.

Alexandros Konstanta, Georgia Theofanidou, Vasileios Tsinaridis, Ioannis Karapanagiotis
26. Documentation Method for Conservation of Industrial Heritage: Mediterranean Region Watermill Example

Watermills are examples of industrial and cultural heritage used for production that work with the principle of generation of energy using hydraulic power. This paper presents an individual research on traditional watermills in Turkey. As a result of the research in different water sub-basins, it was observed that they are nonregistered. In order to achieve effective conservation, creating inventories for the identified watermills was aimed. Accordingly, “watermill inventory” model was developed by creating two different forms about settlement and structure details, according to the principles stated in “Turkey Cultural Inventory Project Guide” for the purpose of starting the certification process. These forms were used for documenting (11) watermills that were identified in the Mediterranean region.

Gülferah Çorapçıoğlu
27. The Role of Nano-Al2O3 in Traditional Binders

This research study attempts to investigate and explain the role of nano-alumina (NA) in traditional binders, such as clay, lime, and pozzolan. Three different modified binding systems with NA, lime-pozzolan as a hydraulic system that was cured in humid conditions and clay and lime-clay systems that were cured in aerial conditions, were studied on their physico-mechanical properties and their mineralogical composition. Nano-particles of 1.5% by mass of binder were added in each system in a defined quantity of water and ultrasonication. Results indicated different behaviors of NA in each binder system, as clay was the most favored system, while lime-pozzolan did not respond in the same way. In lime-clay system, capillarity and carbonation were slightly improved.

Eirini-Chrysanthi Tsardaka, Lorena Skevi, Maria Stefanidou
28. Rare Objects as Painting Substrates: The Example of a Seventeenth-Century Portable Icon

Representing St. Athanasios of Alexandria, and found buried a century ago in Northern Greece, the portable icon under study displays a rare substrate; its panel is a unique example of a wooden instrument in secondhand use. In particular, a threshing board, a common in the Mediterranean basin agricultural instrument, was used as the panel of the icon. Optical and UV microscopy, X-ray radiography, SEM-EDS microscopy, and μ-FTIR spectroscopy were employed to determine the state of preservation and to identify the applied materials and pigments. The stratigraphy of the painting includes the wooden substrate, a textile support of cotton fibers, and the ground layers which consist of anhydrite, gypsum, and rabbit skin glue. The gilding consists of a gold and silver alloy foil, applied with the use of bole. A simple palette of red, brown, white, and black colors was used for the painting layers. Ochre, minium, calcite, lead white, and bone black are the identified pigments. The identification of egg yolk implies the use of egg tempera technique. The remaining traces of varnish were identified as of plant origin, most probably mastic. All of the icon’s characteristics – the materials and pigments and the stratigraphy (e.g., mastic varnish, cotton textile support, bole, repousse halo, and egg tempera technique) – are typical of the seventeenth century.

Lamprini Malletzidou, Evangelia Ougiarou, Triantafyllia T. Zorba, Vaios Ganitis, Angelos Sofianidis, Telemachos-Gregory Stamkopoulos, Ioannis Karapanagiotis, Eleni Pavlidou, Konstantinos M. Paraskevopoulos
29. Reassessment of Conservation Materials of Ancient Stone: The Example of Dodona Theater, Epirus, Greece

The aim of this study is the reassessment of the filling mortars used to complete broken stone members of the ancient theater of Dodona Sanctuary, Epirus, Greece, during the recent major restoration works. The restoration works from 2007 are implemented under the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), under the supervision and control of the Scientific Committee of Dodona and the Ephorate of Antiquities of Ioannina.The reassessment of the mortars was allowed through the synthesis and laboratorial testing of new samples using different recipes and proportions of the raw materials. To achieve compatibility and accuracy of the laboratorial tests, both old mortar recipes and new testing samples were prepared using exactly the same methods and the same preparation procedure.Specific physical properties were tested, such as bending stress, compression stress, water absorption, and the calculation of open voids, porosity, and bulk density. The comparison of these characteristics leads to the classification of the samples. The experimental investigation of mortars shows that the already used mortar composition has minor physical properties compared to the new samples. The overall evaluation of the experimental mortars and their classification depends on the desired physical property.

Artemios Oikonomou, Georgios Smiris
30. Characterization and Properties of Silicate and Nanocomposite Coatings for the Protection of Dolomite Marble Against Weathering

Moisture presence, salt precipitation and crystallization, temperature and ultraviolet radiation are main environmental factors of deterioration of the building materials of historic monuments. The presence of moisture in a material is due to rising and falling damp. Many commercial stone consolidation and water-repellent products contain tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Synthesis of composite and nanocomposite coatings is an important method to improve the protective properties of these products. In this work composite coatings by adding silica nanoparticles to TEOS-based commercial products were synthesized. TEOS-based commercial products were RC-70 and RC-90. The type of silica nanoparticles used was Aerosil 200. As substrate dolomite marble specimens were used. The protective properties of the coatings were examined by water capillary absorption tests, salt spray tests and ultraviolet radiation tests. Coating characterization, the study of the morphologies of the surfaces and the investigation of the coatings behaviour in weathering conditions, was carried out by SEM, AFM, gravimetric measurements, optical observation and measurements of colour variation, contact angle and porosity. The protective properties of the coatings depended on the type of the polymeric material and the addition of silica nanoparticles. All coatings used protected marble against salt weathering and ultraviolet radiation. Polymeric coatings decreased porosity, surface roughness, water absorption, salt crystallizationSalt crystallization and the height of the capillary rise and increased contact angle values. Exposure in ultraviolet radiation conditions decreased in all cases contact angle values. Better protective properties were observed in the case of RC-90 in comparison to RC-70. This can be attributed to the increased elasticity of the structure of RC-90, due to the presence of the methylphenyl component. The addition of silica nanoparticles decreased porosity and improved the protective behaviour of the coatings against salt weathering and ultraviolet radiation.

Panagiotis Spathis, Konstantinos Triantafyllidis, Charikleia Prochaska, Ioannis Karapanagiotis, Eleni Pavlidou, Maria Stefanidou
31. Silver Corrosion in a Museum Collection Storage Facility: A Preliminary Study

The impact of indoor atmospheric corrosion on Ag-based cultural heritage objects stored in the basement of the Egyptian Museum was assessed in the framework of a 2-year pilot study. In this project, temperature and relative humidity data logging and sterling silver coupons, as microclimate indicators, have been employed. The environmental conditions, the indoor sources of atmospheric pollutants, and the aerosol species from Cairo city, as well as the transportation of species by the winds, are responsible for silver tarnishing and deposition of both inorganic particulates and organic carbon. Sulfides and chlorides are the main corrosive agents detected on the coupon surfaces. Different corrosion patterns were reported for each monitored location of the museum. These preliminary results contribute to the investigation of silver corrosion and provide useful guidelines for future actions regarding metal artifacts safekeeping and environmental control.

Venice Gouda, Emma Angelini, Sabrina Grassini, Marco Parvis, Panayota Vassiliou, Olga Papadopoulou
32. Non-destructive Investigation of Salt Efflorescence on Roman Tomb After Relocation in Ancient Corinth, Greece

The relocation of excavated monuments raises serious conservation and ethical problems. Although in situ preservation is usually preferred, in some cases, the relocation of finds is inevitable for various reasons. Tomb 313, a roman monument found near Corinth in 2012 during the construction of a major motorway, has been relocated to a new position in the premises of the archaeological site of Ancient Corinth since it was impossible to be preserved in the excavation site. The tomb was decorated with wall paintings, depicting garlands, fruits and three figures, two men and a woman, found in excellent state of preservation. Although the tomb has been externally insulated during the excavation and transport, its state of preservation decreased radically after the relocation. The microclimate of the tomb retained high relative humidity, but gradually the wall paintings were cover by salt efflorescence. In order to estimate the risk and the actions needed to prevent damage, it was necessary to execute rapidly diagnostic techniques. For this reason, mapping and evaluation, in situ non-destructive testing was performed on the monument by means of IR thermography along with examination of soluble salts samples by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results obtained by the IRT monitoring suggest the existence of high moisture accumulation on the salt-infected side of the tomb. The IRT examination of the wall paintings showed that moisture penetration is probably transporting salts from the immediate environment. Salt analysis showed that the origin of the salts is probably the concrete slabs that have been used for the reinforcement of the monument during transport. Due to the high relative humidity environment, gypsum salts were transported to the surface of the wall paintings and crystallized as efflorescence without the generation of damage. The results also suggested the future actions for the preservation of the wall paintings and the exhibition of the monument. IRT monitoring is a fast and reliable diagnostic technique that can provide a solid basis for salt weathering investigations.

Ekaterini Ftikou, Petros Prokos, Alexis Stefanis
33. Correlating the Effectiveness of Commercial Graffiti Removers with Their Analytically Investigated Components

The need for removing graffiti, as it would be expected, brought a whole range of products under the moniker graffiti removers from suppliers of conservation materials. The fact that often the graffitied surfaces are ancient marbles or sometimes parts of fortification walls contribute to additional complication to the entire issue because of the often poor condition of the surface of the monuments and the difficult accessibility.We faced the need for identifying the chemical substances existing in various graffiti removers, which are typically supplied by several conservation material vendors and for testing their effectiveness on the various types of colored spray paints on variable types of surfaces with infrared spectroscopy.Five different products were tested on different types of surfaces and colors, and their effectiveness on removing the graffiti was documented. Mock-up samples were constructed of marble. They were accordingly spray-painted with the most usual colors encountered in graffiti (black, blue, red, and yellow), which were also analyzed through FTIR. The surfaces were then cleaned with five different graffiti-removing products. The effectiveness of cleaning was visually evaluated and then colorimetry-measured to assess the effectiveness of each remover. The effectiveness of the investigated commercial products was generally summarized.

Panayota Pitsiri, Stamatis C. Boyatzis, Nikolaos-Alexis Stefanis, Georgios Batis
34. Restoration and Rehabilitation of the Roman Nymphaeum in Amman: “Nymphaeum Archeological Park”

This paper presents a case study for an ideal management practice with applied methods to the revival of urban heritage as an approach for sustainable heritage preservation. It demonstrates a practical example of restoration and rehabilitation for the Roman Nymphaeum in Amman, which is considered as the biggest monument of its kind in the region. The Nymphaeum was suffering from different deterioration factors and conditions that affected its state of conservation and was considered a visual pollution in the downtown region of Amman. However, through a joint project with the Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research at the University of Jordan, Department of Antiquities and Greater Amman Municipality, and a generous support from the US Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP) in supporting the preservation efforts of the monument, it was possible to waive and preserve large areas of the site, which needed urgent solutions of restoration and conservation and to regenerate its role within the current archeological context.The project involved two phases, in order to ensure a coherent and well-organized structure and implementation of the project.The first phase aimed to set up conservation and restoration plan, in order to safeguard the monument and overcome all the deterioration forms and factors affecting the stability and durability of the architectural and ornamental elements of the monument.On the other hand, the second phase focused on implementing the site management and rehabilitation plan to prepare the site for receiving the tourists and to create a new attraction in the downtown of Amman. Concurrently, there was a focus on a new model in the downtown area for the revival of urban heritage called “The Nymphaeum Archeological Park.” This new concept and brand will also commemorate the concept of open air museum.Upon these bases, the project established a new comprehensive methodology for cultural heritage preservation in Jordan based on incorporating all aspects of documentation, management, capacity building, conservation, rehabilitation, and presentation of the monument to the public. This approach will close the cycle of the project to ensure proper sustainability of the project results and enhance the durability and stability of archeological sites in Jordan.

Abeer Al Bawab, Nizar Al Adarbeh, Mohammad El Khalili, Ayat Bozeya
35. The Study of Pentelic Marble in Pure Form and in Polluted Monuments by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

A genuine physicochemical method of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has become a versatile research tool in the rehabilitation technologies of monuments. A spectroscopic technique in order to study the effects of aging, adverse weather, and pollution on the monuments is presented. Topical applications in the conservation of monuments and prime research in order to study the effects of aging are impressive illustrations of the high evolution of the technique. FT-IR spectroscopy has established itself as a powerful method for the rapid identification and differentiation of materials used by the artists or contractor-architects to describe and present the monuments as historic structures. It has become one of the best nondestructive techniques in the progress of basic research in sciences, in artwork, and in weather and natural effects on marbles for the various defects and the identification of pigments. At a molecular level, the method has advanced the vibrational problem of the chemical bonds of the molecules and the assignment of bond frequencies to chemical characteristic group frequencies, as vOH, vCO, vNH2, v P O 2 − $$ v{\mathrm{PO}}_2^{-} $$ , vO2-,vC-C, vC-S, and vS-S, stretching frequencies resulting from inorganic or organic colors as well as from proteins and DNA and the microorganisms on the surface of the monuments. The present work sets out to give a review of current examples on the analytical potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and its application on Pentelic marble.

Theophile Theophanides, Jane Anastassopoulou, Lorenzo Lazzarini, Vasiliki Dritsa, Panagiotis Papandreopoulos, Maria Koui
36. Kinetics of Dissolution of Monument Building Materials

Built heritage consists to a large part of calcitic minerals (marble, limestone) which are prone to dissolution over a wide pH range. Indeed, chemical is solution is among the most significant factors contributing to the deterioration and damage of the built cultural heritage. Carbon dioxide dissolved in atmospheric water contributes to the development of acid conditions on the surface of the calcitic materials which accelerate dissolution of calcite crystals. These effects are enhanced in the case of polluted atmosphere which contributes to more aggressive environment for the dissolution process. The measurement of parameters that determine the kinetics of dissolution is very important for the understanding of dissolution mechanism and hence the design of efficient strategy for the prevention of it. As a result, precise and reproducible methods are necessary for drawing reliable mechanistic information. In the present work, the dissolution kinetics were investigated at conditions of constant driving force for the dissolution process. The methodology used to measure the rates of dissolution of calcitic marblesCalcitic marbles (>98% calcite) and sandstone was both accurate and highly reproducible. The rates of crystal dissolution measured were correlated with the corresponding solution undersaturation. The dissolution kinetics measurements showed that calcitic limestone at pH 8.25 had a lower dissolution rate constant in comparison with the respective value for Pentelic marble, a calcitic material (ca. 98% calcite). The mechanism was the same, i.e., surface diffusion controlled at alkaline pH values. The prevention of dissolution strategy therefore shall depend either on the alteration of fluid dynamics at the acid pH values or on the modification of the surfaces at the alkaline domain. The latter can be achieved by the addition of substances with functional groups, which may interact with the surface of the calcite crystals. Several inorganic ions (fluoride and sulfate) and one organic environmentally friendly compound, polycarboxymethyl inulin (CMI) (MW 15000), have been tested, and their effect on the rates of dissolution was discussed.

Dimitra G. Kanellopoulou, Petros G. Koutsoukos
37. Variable Weathering Response of Architectural Marlstones Against NaCl Crystallization

Based on the case of ancient theatre of Zea, in Greece, this work aims to study the geological and microstructural parameters of marls used in stone monumentsStone monuments , which control their durability and variable weathering response against salt damage and swelling phenomena. The ancient theatre of Zea is located very close to the coast of Piraeus, in Athens, Greece, and it is heavily exposed to marine aerosols and salt crystallization. Representative samples from different architectural parts were studied by means of petrographic examination (PM, SEM/EDX) and mineralogical analysis (XRD), clay contentClay content (DTA/TG), microstructure (open porosity, water absorption coefficient, pore size distribution), strength properties (compressive and three-point bending strength) and salt (Cl−) content. Moreover, weathering profiles and salt deposition on building stones were studied in SEM. For each category, transport phenomena and salt damage were experimentally approached and interpreted in an attempt to correlate their durability, weathering patterns and degradation rate with those patterns observed on the site. The results indicated the key role of clay content on the location of precipitated halite (NaCl) crystals as well as the effect of the mechanical properties on crack damage prevention.

Anastasia Michalopoulou, Demitrios Sioulas, Maria Amenta, Vasillis Kilikoglou, Ioannis Karatasios
38. Mechanical Model for Bridge “Guglie” Through Dynamic Identification Procedure

In this paper, preliminary results of a study aimed at the structural characterization of the “Guglie” bridge, located in the historical city of Venice (Italy), are presented. The study is based on theoretical and numerical modeling and on experimental investigations. The mechanical characterization of the bridge is obtained by means of expeditious and nondestructive testing procedure based on vibration measurements of seismic noise. The use of nondestructive testing approaches is well suited for the monitoring of historical and cultural heritage.A high-sensitivity digital tromograph, consisting of triaxial high-sensitivity velocimetric sensors, has been used for vibration measurements on the bridge and on the soil. The tromographic acquisitions have been analyzed, considering their spectral representation, in order to take information on the dynamical behavior and mechanical characteristics of the bridge. The results obtained by the experimentation have been used for dynamic identification of the bridge. In this way, the bridge mechanical characterization has been carried on, and a FE model has been calibrated.The idea is to perform a realistic model for evaluating vulnerability and for designing possible interventions of reconstruction and reinforcement of the bridge.

Anna Manzato, Sebastiano Trevisani, Antonella Cecchi
39. Nondestructive Investigation of Paintings on Canvas by Infrared Thermography, Air-Coupled Ultrasound, and X-Ray Radiography

In this paper, shortwave infrared (SWIR), mid-wave infrared (MWIR) thermography, air-coupled ultrasound (ACU), and X-ray radiography results were combined to retrieve the differences between a painting on the canvas sample constructed following the art master rules and an imitation far from it. Advanced image processing techniques including pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT), and partial least square thermography (PLST) were applied to the MWIR images in order to highlight the shapes of subsurface features. Interestingly, additional defects were also discovered since the samples were handmade. Finally, a comprehensive and comparative study of these techniques was conducted to summarize their advantages and disadvantages.

Hai Zhang, Stefano Sfarra, Ahmad Osman, Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo, Panagiotis Theodorakeas, Nicolas P. Avdelidis, Maria Koui, Domenica Paoletti, Xavier P. V. Maldague

Thematic Area III: Historical and Structural Aspects of Monuments

Frontmatter
40. The Religious Architecture in the Island of Santorini from the Thirteenth Century up to the Twentieth Century

The interesting history of Santorini after the Byzantine era and the diverse religious activities that took place in its grounds endowed the island with a unique ecclesiastical architecture. The Venetian era (thirteenth to sixteenth century) bonds Santorini to the Duchy of Naxos and leaves a legacy of a few but important samples of churches. Venetocracy is succeeded by the Ottoman era, a turbulent period, during which both catholic and orthodox Christians, despite the Ottoman’s prohibitions, express their power and spirituality with both impressive and humble temples. The idea of the Modern Greek state’s revival emerges after the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca in 1774 and is vividly expressed through the construction of imposing orthodox churches. These activities take place at the same time with those of the missionary orders which import a radiant religious architecture in the heart of the island. The aim of this paper is the study and documentation of Santorini’s ecclesiastical architecture and construction evolution by means of (a) the division of the long period between 1207 and the twentieth century in the Venetian, the Ottoman, and the Modern Greek period, (b) the in situ visit and documentation of the existent churches of the island, (c) the gathering of written resources (pictures, drawings), and (d) the historical documentation of each church under study. All the religious buildings have been analyzed in terms of their architecture. The results of this study offer a panorama of Santorini’s religious architecture, which vividly imprints the island’s religious and social history.

Katerina Ritzouli
41. New Seismic Micro-Reinforcement Applied to the Conservation of a Gothic Stone Monument in the Abbey of St. Maria della Strada, Matrice, Italy

The tomb of Berardo d’ Aquino in the Benedictine abbey church of St. Maria della Strada in Matrice (fourteenth century) with its precious stone sculptures is one of the best examples of gothic sculpture of Southern Italy. Severely damaged by the earthquake that struck Molise region in 2002, the monument has required complex consolidation works necessitated by serious problems of instability. The paper presents the innovative micro-reinforcement realized as conservation solution to ensure the stability of the stone monument.

Donatella Cavezzali, Dora Catalano
42. The Byzantine Fortress of Chlerinos (Florina) in NW Greece

The paper deals with the relatively unknown Byzantine fortress of Chlerinos (Chlerenon) situated at Florina, NW Greece. The aim of this study is to bring to the fore, document, promote and contextualize the history of this significant area in convergence with the rich archaeological heritage of the wider area of Florina. Furthermore, the present research aims at giving the perspective for a future archaeological research and at the same time at setting the basis for the creation of both an archaeological and a natural park which covers specific parameters. As such, the study is based on three distinctive axes: the historical and archaeological data of the hill understood as testimony of the past, a mid-scale survey which takes place for the first time and locates the limited architectural remains and the design of a primary master plan focusing on the survey findings and the future archaeological research points.

Aineias Oikonomou, Panagiotis Georgopoulos
43. Study of the Building Materials and Techniques of Mixed-Type Structures from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century

At the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, urban centres were enlarged in Greece, and new large-scale constructions (public buildings, residences, etc.) were built. The paper concerns the systematic analysis of the building materials and constructional techniques of five historic buildings, dated at this period and situated in the regions of Thessaloniki, Florina and the islands of Chios and Rhodes. The architectural style of the buildings varied, concerning Neoclassicism, Eclecticism, Art Nouveau and Art Deco, while in all cases the regional aspects regarding the available raw material and the traditional constructional techniques were maintained. The study included on site surveys of the structural system, mapping of pathology, analysis of building materials as well as analysis of the bearing system of the structures. From the evaluation of the results, it was concluded that there were many similarities, regarding the building materials used and the constructional techniques applied. In general, local materials were used for the construction of masonries, while the decoration of the facades and of the internal walls was based on handmade mortars (renders, plasters), applied with specific techniques.

Vasiliki Pachta, Ioanna Papayianni
44. Historical and Structural Aspects of the Mudéjar Architecture of the Spanish City of Guadalajara

The Mudéjar is not comparable to other Western architectural styles, such as Romanesque and Gothic or Renaissance and Baroque, and this is because the Mudéjar is the cultural manifestation of a plural society, so it cannot be understood as the survival of some forms or an Islamic art within a Christian culture. Is the result of that cultural plurality under Christian rule?

Antonio Miguel Trallero Sanz
45. Architectures and Earthquakes: Resistant Solutions for the Protection of the Traditional Construction in Abruzzo

The traditional building construction in Abruzzo has been strongly characterized by the presence of earthquake-resistant systems because of the many earth tremors that happened throughout the centuries. Between the fifteenth and the twentieth century, the region was characterized by very strong earthquakes which modified the historical and figurative features of the buildings and submitted them to a technical and empirical analysis, studied through the seismicity of the areas and the possibility of resources or the possibility building yard.Today, little remains of this reality, not so much because of the lack of technical and building expertise that has produced it, but because of the renovation culture almost always misunderstood, and radically different from that one of the past, which proceeded in a timely fashion, replacing the irreparable damages and reinforcing the inefficient parts but without ever changing the substance of the factory.

Clara Verazzo
46. The Course of Building Materials in Historic Buildings and Monuments

The architecture of the past has always been a source of knowledge on various aspects of sustainable architecture. In the last decades, there has been a growing interest concerning the environmental impact of building materials, which is linked with a vast variety of parameters, both quantitative and qualitative. This paper looks into the way in which materials and components were selected and incorporated in historic buildings and constructions in various parts of Greece, in the beginning and at the end of their life cycle. The two hypotheses that are made and put to the test involve two basic sustainability parameters of building materials: the use of local and/or natural materials and their reuse and/or recycling.In the beginning of a building’s life cycle, materials were mainly selected based on resources, locality and transportation. It is acknowledged that the use of local and/or natural materials was mainly due to the lack of transportation means and economic resources. Nevertheless, it was those local and natural materials that gave historic buildings and constructions their distinct character and beauty. At the end of the life cycle of a building or a construction, materials and components were either reused, autonomously or after small or significant processing, in new constructions or rejected to the environment. Once again, similar to the beginning of their life cycle, materials were repaired, reused and recycled mainly due to the lack of economic resources and technical means.This paper tries to address the issues of material use in historic buildings and constructions through the scope of the environmental impact. Its main aim is to denote the past practices that concerned the beginning and end of the life cycle and learn from them. The analysis is based on the theory of the environmental impact at the first and the last stages of the materials’ life cycle, in combination with the presentation of relative selected examples.

Aineias Oikonomou, Flora Bougiatioti, Panagiotis Georgopoulos
47. Post-Byzantine Monumental Pictorial Art: Painting Materials and Techniques in the Church of the Transfiguration of our Savior in Klimatia (Epirus, NW Greece)

This work focuses on a small post-Byzantine church that is devoted to the Transfiguration of Our Savior and located at the outskirts of the Klimatia village (a few kilometers NW from the town of Ioannina, Epirus territory, Greece). Its internal walls are decorated with splendid wall paintings which have been executed in 1568 by the famous painter Frangos Kontaris. In the frame of major conservation works that took place recently in the church, several wall painting and plaster samples were collected and subjected to compositional and morphological analysis. Samples were exhaustively examined by means of various analytical techniques such as optical polarizing microscopy, SEM-EDX, and XRD, in order to identify both the materials (focusing on inorganics) and techniques employed in the manufacturing of the substrates (plasters) and the superimposed paint layers. In a parallel way, the layers of accumulations/efflorescence which cover part of the paintings were also studied. In this paper the analytical results are presented and evaluated in the light of the data obtained by recent archaeometric studies of several other post-Byzantine Greek monumental paintings. Moreover, the authors attempt a correlation between the herein examined Frangos Kontaris paintings and the apparently related, unsigned ones embellishing the Filanthropinon and Eleousa monasteries’ churches; the latter were recently studied by applying a similar methodological approach.

Georgios P. Mastrotheodoros, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos, Konstantinos G. Beltsios
48. Critical Issues in Fire Protection of Cultural Resources

The aim of this paper is to emphasize some critical issues used in the fire design of the cultural resources. Cultural heritage includes historic buildings and sites, museums, libraries, places of worship, etc. Among the so-called passive measures, a significant role plays the design and provision of compartmentation and the fire resistance of compartment boundaries.The determination of fire resistance is to expose a prototype construction element or system to standardized heating conditions, simulating as far as possible the use of them in a building. Many countries have national standard fire resistance tests, although the last years’ attempts have been made to harmonize these in one international standard ISO-834. As the duration of every real fire is almost impossible to be precisely predicted, the construction elements in buildings may have less or longer resistance depending on the severity of the fire. Designing fire protection systems in historic buildings requires imagination and innovation to minimize the intrusion on authenticity.

Kyriakos Papaioannou
49. Issues of Structures Management of Modern Cultural Heritage: The Case of Xenia 2 Motel

There is a plethora of architectural achievements of modern Greek architects of great renown, which have been characterized as monuments of modern cultural heritage and are made of reinforced concrete. Such monuments are prominent examples of postwar modern Greek architecture and constitute important landmarks of our cultural heritage. For this reason, since their mechanical performance is significantly degraded, such structures are in need of immediate restoration.In the effort to manage the problems arising, it is essential to minimize material loss through prevention and the use of the least invasive repair techniques. However, the challenges that arise are special in comparison to the abovementioned principles of intervention in reinforced concrete structures, given the fact that architectural elements are constantly exposed to environmental phenomena. In such cases, extended techniques are used for the repair and the restoration of the components which have been damaged, due to corrosion factor. The basic aim of intervention to buildings of high architectural importance is the reassurance of their anti-seismic sufficiency, with as much as possible subtle addition of new load-bearing elements to the existing load-bearing system of the structure, with the purpose of their restoration and maintenance. However, it emerges that the best approach in order to succeed the maintenance of monuments of modern cultural heritage is through prevention. Consequently, there is a need of continuous monitoring to employ techniques capable of detecting the presence of factors that can lead to reinforcement corrosion.A typical case of a structure made of béton armé (reinforced concrete) is Xenia 2 Motel (1966), designed by the notable architect of modernism in Greece, Aris Konstantinidis (1913–1993). Unfortunately, this building has presented extended environmental degradation as it is abandoned by the state and the local authorities. The degree of the corrosion damage, which is owed to environmental phenomena (concrete carbonation), makes difficult the process of implementation of effective technical interventions with the aim of leaving unchanged the original geometry. However, the subtle addition of new load-bearing elements in conjunction with the use of appropriate materials (repairing mortars or even resins) could give solutions with due respect to Intervention Standards. The present situation of this historical building could trigger a discussion on the application of the classic or dynamic (exact reconstruction, based on their initial geometry and position) restoration and conservation process of more Xenia Hotels around Greece.

Apostolos Linos Apostolopoulos, Argyro Drakakaki, Konstantinos Koulouris, George Konstantopoulos, Charis Apostolopoulos
50. Study on Painting Technique of Mediaeval Mural Painting: Case Study in Sopocani Monastery, Serbia

This paper deals with technical study of mediaeval mural painting in Serbia. The object of the study is Sopocani monastery, focusing in its naos, the biggest space in the monastery church. In accord with the fact that the naos is a part of the oldest construction and one of the best-preserved parts in the church, this study aims to reveal practical devices of painters from the thirteenth century. Research was done by two different methods: accurate documentation and structural research using 3D scanners and analytical research of material used in gold leaf decoration. The survey by 3D scanning revealed the quality of original construction compared to the later extended structure and the unique devices of thirteenth-century painters, who might have been be fully aware of mural paintings being watched from the ground level. Secondary, the analysis on gold leaf decoration disclosed the existence of a red mordant layer under the gold leaf. We can presume that painters made variety of gold leaf decorations, arranging the colour of mordant layer by adjusting composition and combination of pigments. Material analysis also revealed the possibility of silver chloride being used as a painting material in mediaeval Serbian kingdom (1217–1346).

Midori Hidaka, Junichi Miyata
51. A Comparative Analysis of Masonry Chimneys: Typical Damages and Preservation Strategies

During the industrial revolution, the diffusion of furnaces for different productive activities implied a spread use of masonry chimneys for disposal of the emitted combustion smoke. Their presence became a symbol of the manufactory growth in Western countries and contributed to characterize the skyline of areas, as the churches bell towers in the past. A large number of these structures are now listed as protected buildings by the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage, and this implies that they have to be repaired and maintained in a good and safe state of conservation, also when the factories in which are inserted are completely disused or demolished. In the paper, a series of recurrent damages observed on different disused Italian chimneys is reported, particularly in Lombardy region. Some general remarks will be given, based on the experience made on some masonry chimney in Northern Italy, with the aim to define a correct preliminary approach to the structural analysis and to their conservation.

Paola Condoleo, Giuliana Cardani
52. Preliminary Methodological Indications for the Restoration of Ancient Buildings: The Protocol Implemented in the So-Called Dépendence of the Villa of the Sette Bassi in Rome

When planning the proper restoration of an ancient building, it is essential to carry out an in-depth historical and topographical study and a thorough architectural analysis, as well as drafting a comprehensive map of cracks and fissures. The so-called Dépendence of the Villa of the Sette Bassi, in Rome, is in a terrible state of repair and is currently the subject of a study of this kind, in preparation for conservative restoration. The procedure, which is proposed as a standard protocol for preliminary investigations prior to restoration, is presented here.

Carla Maria Amici, Alessandra Ten
53. Thermal Bath Complex in Vrnjačka Banja

The process of the formation of spas and their development in Serbia often depended only on enthusiasm, persistence and activities of the common people, since turbulent historical events frequently interrupted development processes of the state.The first initiatives in the Vrnjačka Banja development came through as a result of PavleMutavdžić’s endeavours (1816/1817–1888/1889), a man who was the founder of the Vrnjci Medicinal Mineral Hot Water Founding Society in 1868. In the twentieth century, the spa would be the most popular one in Serbia.Vrnjačka Banja was developing gradually. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, the use of mineral water was rather primitive. The process of a spa settlement formation started when the Society began to buy land in order to build fountains with faucets for hot and cold water, wooden baths and, later on, some small hot mineral water baths (1883). Gradually, around the water source, a park was being landscaped, and in 1895 it got its proper lighting. In the years to follow, paths were built and benches set up. From 1897 to 1910, the works on providing enough potable water were conducted; water supply system and mineral water catchment were built. Due to extensive water catchment works, in 1924 and 1925, the Hot Bath from 1883 and the Entertainment Pavilion (Kursalon) from 1891 were demolished, as they were near the Hot Water Spring in the centre of the park. A linear composition of the Vrnjačka Banja settlement, established in the early twentieth century as a result of the natural configuration, with the park formed in the centre, around the bath and the Hot Water Spring – the core of the spa resort – has been preserved in its original line up to the present day.For quite a long time, there was a need to erect a monumental building that would house all the health resort facilities. Some new information about the Thermal Bath Complex construction has recently been discovered in the archival material in the form of blueprints dating from 1930, signed by an architect, Vladimir Dević (1886–unknown), who worked at the Architectural Department of the Ministry of Construction of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. An imposing creation, the building of the new Thermal Bath, broke out of the frames of academism, taking only a dome that would, as a form, just accentuate the open-air vestibules. The façades were made free of any historical detail and much lighter, with large and frequently placed openings, revealing the author’s tendency towards modern streams in architecture. This monumental complex has often been a motif on picture postcards.After the works on extending the Thermal Bath, done according to a design of an architect, Prof.MiloradPantović (1910–1986) in the 1950s, and upon introducing modern therapeutic programmes, some architectural elements have been either removed or altered. So today, conservators are faced with questions of interpreting the heritage values and the valorisation criteria with regard to two architectural design approaches of the two architects from two different historical, social and cultural contexts.

Gordana Mitrovic

Thematic Area IV: Natural and Anthropogenic Damage Hazards

Frontmatter
54. Rock Characteristics and Weathering of Rock-Cut Monuments in Lycia (Turkey)

The rock-cut architecture of the Lycian culture in Turkey was created around 500 BC to 400 AC. The remains are a testament to their building heritage. The Lycian builders created monumental sarcophagi and tomb facades with unique forms and aesthetic styles in the ancient Mediterranean world. Most of these magnificent monuments are cut into different limestone formations. They are located in an area along the southern coast of Turkey, known as Lycia after its creators.The rocks as well as the monuments are affected by weathering and disasters, such as the dissolution and precipitation of calcite, biological growth, and earthquakes. To characterize the weathering forms and processes, onsite investigations were done on several rock-cut monuments at four outstanding Lycian sites showing distinct geological characteristics. The investigated sites are Xanthus, Telmessos, Tlos, and Myra. The tombs are built into massive, thickly bedded light gray limestone. The limestones show a wide variety of rock fabrics.Onsite field investigations included quantitative mapping of damage phenomena, surface hardness measurements utilizing a Schmidt pendulum hammer, water absorption using Karsten test pipes, and closer observations using a digital microscope. Four different limestone fabrics were characterized by petrographic analysis of thin sections and with the cathodoluminescence microscope. These were collected from outcrop exposures near the monuments.Petrophysical measurements of the porosity and density were performed in the laboratory. Physical ultrasonic velocity measurements and microhardness measurements using an Equotip 3 device were done under dry- and water-saturated conditions.Weathering due to solution/precipitation is the main threat to the monuments and is strongly connected to the type of limestone. Another key factoris the site-specific climatic condition.

Wanja Wedekind, Christian J. Gross, Rubén López-Doncel
55. Analysis and Documentation of the Colombo Gallery in Thessaloniki. Restoring Authenticity from Natural and Anthropogenic Damages

The Colombo Gallery is one of the iconic buildings of the modern history of Thessaloniki, as part of a group of monumental commercial buildings which expressed the spirit of urbanity and Europeanization of the beginnings of twentieth century. The building is located in the center of Thessaloniki, on Egnatia St. The centre of Thessaloniki and its surrounding area were re-designed by the French architect Ernest Hebrard, after the 1917 fire, by the French architect Ernest Hebrard.The Colombo Gallery erected in 1931, designed by the architect-engineer Jacques Mosse. The characteristic typology has references in European samples corresponding buildings erected in many cities over the past decades. The morphology of the building is also typical for the era and among the general context of the eclectic architecture. The structure of the building follows the technology and habits of the interwar period, applying the new techniques of reinforced concrete with accuracy and efficiency.The earthquake of Thessaloniki in 1978 will not affect the building, but the coming years will be a series of changes, involving mainly the ground floor shops with combinations and changes in use, to accommodate dining and entertainment. In addition, the building today was identified with several changes made without the approval of the relevant services. The building displays natural damages, mainly due to lack of maintenance, but without significantly destroying the building.The main target of the project is to restore the gallery, in order to recover the authentic form and typology (eliminating incompatible interventions). In addition, the purpose is to record the pathology for the conservation proposal. Apart from the conservation and restoration work, a critical factor for the future of the gallery is the reuse study and consideration of alternative scenarios for the revival.

Sofoklis Kotsopoulos, Eirini Tzirini
56. UV-C as an Efficient Means to Combat Biofilm Formation in Cultural Heritage Monument. Biodiversity and Impact on Prehistoric Pigments?

Caves are considered oligotrophic habitats exhibiting constant temperature and relative humidity throughout the year. While darkness inhibits photosynthetic microorganism growth, introducing artificial lights to promote touristic activity can induce algae and cyanobacteria proliferation. Besides the aesthetic problem, microorganisms are responsible of physical and chemical degradation of limestone wall with possibly a degradation of prehistoric painting of cultural value. In our studies, we identified lampenflora with new-generation sequencing (NGS) in five French show caves and also on a 180, 000 years old contaminated bear bones (Ursus deningeroides). Afterward, we attempted to find an ecological and efficient method to eradicate photosynthetic biofilms. Our previous works showed the good efficiency of UV-C against biofilms. To ensure the safety of UV-C treatment, pigments used for prehistoric parietal painting were strongly irradiated around 4800 kJ m−2. Afterward, we treated all biofilms in La Glacière show cave. Following the treatment, irradiated biofilm color evolution was monitored. Results of sequencing showed that biofilms were mainly composed of bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria, chlorophyceae, and diatoms. Multicellular mosses were also present in each biofilm. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography, infrared spectroscopy, and colorimetric measurement showed no change in pigment color nor in their chemical structure. Finally, UV-C treatment results showed that biofilms were completely eradicated with no algae proliferation observed after 21 months. Moreover, a complete bleaching is obtained with UV-C, which is not always the case with chemical conventional methods. In conclusion, the use of UV-C could be considered as an environmentally friendly good alternative to chemical products. Moreover, microorganisms are killed by radiation, while no change in pigment color nor in their chemical structure has been observed.

Stéphane Pfendler, Faisl Bousta, Laurence Alaoui-Sossé, Abderrahim Khatyr, Lotfi Aleya, Badr Alaoui-Sossé
57. Ancient Chemical Technology: Texts from Greco-Roman Literature: An Interdisciplinary Approach

In this communication we tried to analyze texts from ancient Greco-Roman literature with technological interest whose translations in international bibliography are obscure and often incomprehensible. Based on Meteorologia of Aristotle, we assume that reverse osmosis desalination of seawater was known in antiquity. Researching texts of Pausanias (water of Styx) and Geber (recipe of nitric acid, aqua forte), we suppose that the preparation of mineral acids and aqua regia was possible during the Hellenistic period. Manuscripts of chemical devices are discussed and explained (alembic, Cleopatra’s Chrysopoiia, dry distillation of mineral sulfur). Finally, materials (binders or pigments) for corrosion protection of metals such as pitch, bitumen, and cerussa are also critically discussed and explained on the basis of Pausanias and Pliny’s writings.

Dimitrios Yfantis

Thematic Area V: Digital Techniques for Cultural Heritage

Frontmatter
58. The Use of Ontologies for Creating Semantic Links Between Cultural Artifacts and Their Digital Resources

The paper aims at presenting the use of ontological techniques for creating a common semantic denominator for linking subject-oriented metadata of cultural artifacts to diverse digital resources falling into the same semantic spectrum. This will result in both linked data, where the parameters abide, and an enriched information output for the user. Semantic metadata can be derived either by the artifacts’ types, meaning, symbolism, depiction, referrals, and tagging and/or implied by any string of meanings that the human mind perceives as related to the artifact. The same holds for the semantic nature of digital resources. Semantic metadata of any digital resource can designate type, subject, place, time period, references, relations, and tagging. The linking of those using ontology techniques is explored through structure and graphic representations of relevant examples. This paper contributes in providing an innovative way of linking subject-oriented metadata to cultural objects and to digital resources available on the Web. In addition, it provides another use and enhancement of an ontology environment focusing in the cultural sector.

Daphne Kyriaki-Manessi, Evgenia Vassilakaki, Ioannis Triantafyllou, Georgios Giannakopoulos, Angeliki Antoniou
59. Caves as Cultural Heritage: 3D Documentation of Dikteon Andron in Crete

The significant role that caves play in the preservation of cultural heritage and archaeology has been long recognised. This paper describes the use of 3D digital surveying for the geometric documentation and modelling of the Dikteon Andron Cave in Crete. As it stands today, the cave consists of five chambers with an upper and lower section. The difficult environmental conditions of caves and the presence of a complex geometry (free-form shapes) require dedicated geomatic techniques which involve proper field procedures to collect data and good processing techniques to obtain the maximum content of information. The approach used to implement a 3D geometric documentation of the entire volume of the cavity of the upper cave and the external part of the cave using a number of appropriate sensors and techniques, such as terrestrial laser scanning and conventional surveying, is described. The results of this study demonstrate the important advantages of geomatics technologies in bringing “visual protection” of cultural heritage objects, such as caves that are unstable in the geological timescale.

Eleni Vouklari, Dimitra Papanikolaou, Vassilios Pagounis, Vaggelis Zacharis, Maria Tsakiri, Orthodoxia Arabatzi
60. 3D Modeling and “Relief-Printing” for a More Inclusive Fruition of Cultural Heritage

Nowadays a significant portion of the general public cannot fully experience an archaeological exhibition due to the presence of several sensory barriers. In this work, I will focus on how technology can help to overcome one of these barriers: blindness. This goal can be achieved (by) creating touchable copies of finds where depicted decorations or inscriptions can be perceived through tactile experience. The process to build such (enriched) copies is structured in several steps: it starts from photogrammetry and ends with 3D printing. The aim of this process is not only to create a copy but also to provide a deeper understanding of the object and widen our experience of how we look at and read inscriptions. This is why the realization of such copies may be useful for a wider public, for example, children that will be afforded the chance to touch the ancient objects, thus understanding them better. Some relevant issues that affect the quality of the results are to be considered and require further analysis, such as the choice of the object, with respect to the complexity of decoration, and the adequate material for printing. The process has been tested on a figured vessel preserved in the Archaeological Museum of Paestum’s storage. The produced copy with decoration in relief has been evaluated and approved by two members of the Italian Union of the Blind and Partially Sighted People (a blind woman and a visually impaired man).

Matteo Lombardi
61. Digital Color Restoration of Vandalized Monument’s Frescoes

The subject of this paper is the application of virtual color reconstruction on vandalized frescoes and the documentation of their previous conservation status, using three-dimensional scanning technology and close-range photogrammetry. The church of St. John, located in the olive grove of the Technological Educational Institution of Piraeus, was chosen for this study, mainly because its interior has suffered vandalism the last few years and great parts of wall frescoes have been destroyed. We have, as a source material, a laser scanner point cloud of the interior space of the church of St. John and after the completion of the typical workflow, the application of the digital intervention followed. Our approach is a result of a multidisciplinary research, based on the code of ethics and practice of conservation of cultural heritage. The digital color restoration of frescoes was implemented in accordance with the principles of visual compensation approaches. The extensive losses on the frescoes’ painting layer led us to use the color restoration techniques of chromatic abstraction, neutral color, and mimetic color. However, for the current needs of digital color inpaint, we define a new technique. This study helped us experiment in this interdisciplinary field and explore the benefits of digital technologies in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The resulted high-resolution three-dimensional colored virtual reconstruction of the lost frescoes provides a faithful and excellent opportunity for both scholars and audience to examine and appraise a lost piece of cultural heritage.

Dimitrios Makris, Melina Aikaterini Vlachou, Leonidas Karampinis
62. A Novel Information System for the Automatic Reconstruction of Highly Fragmented Objects with Application to the Reassembly of Prehistoric Wall Paintings and Vessels

This paper presents a set of novel methodologies and the corresponding information system, which has been developed for processing 2D and 3D representations of fragmented archaeological finds, by means of which automated virtual and, eventually, actual reconstruction of the finds may be accomplished. The aforementioned system has been designed in order to provide ensembles of potentially matching fragments, together with a corresponding matching probability. One of the main novelties of the presented methodologies and the associated information systems is the use of many mathematical criteria, properly ordered, leading to fragmented pieces’ matching. These criteria employ notions and theorems of Differential Geometry, Calculus of Variations, and Algebra. The systems have been tested to the reassembly of parts of important archaeological finds, such as segments of wall paintings of the Minoan and the Mycenaean era. On the basis of these methodologies, parts of prehistoric wall paintings have been spotted for the first time, while the information systems’ matching proposals have been confirmed by scholars.

Dimitris Arabadjis, Solomon Zannos, Constantin Papaodysseus, Fotios Giannopoulos, Michalis Exarhos, Panagiota Tsakalidou, Evangelos Fotopoulos, Dimitrios Kanellopoulos
63. Advanced Geometric Guides Were Used for the Drawing of Celebrated Late Bronze Age Wall Paintings

The present paper analyzes the contours of the painted figures encountered in celebrated prehistoric frescoes, and it establishes that advanced geometric guides were used in the drawing of these wall paintings. Namely, analysis of the frescoes that decorated the edifice “Xeste 3” in the prehistoric settlement of Akrotiri, Thera showed that the artist or group of artists had used five geometric archetypes and five corresponding well-constructed stencils (four hyperbolae and one Archimedes’ spiral). The same analysis indicated that the distinctive Mycenaean fresco “Lady of Mycenae” has been generated using four geometric prototypes (two linear spirals and two hyperbolae), of the same classes with the ones of Akrotiri, but with different parameters. The methodology considers the longer segments of the prototype geometric shapes, which can be optimally matched with a small fitting error, to the contour of an already drawn figure. Equivalently, the method introduced by the authors determines both the class and the exact functional form of the minimum number of geometric prototypes that can generate the considered set of figures’ contours.

Panagiota Tsakalidou, Dimitris Arabadjis, Constantin Papaodysseus, Michalis Exarhos, Panayiotis Rousopoulos, Fotios Giannopoulos, Evangelos Fotopoulos, Michail Panagopoulos
64. A Novel Approach and the Related Information System for the Identification of the Writer of Historical Documents

In this paper two complementary methodologies are introduced for classifying historical documents according to their writer. Historical documents’ writer identification is crucial for dating the written context, which in turn is of fundamental importance in the sciences of history and archaeology. To achieve this goal, first a kind of “platonic” or ideal prototype is computed for the letters of each document separately. On a complementary approach, exhaustive pairwise comparisons of the specific realizations of each alphabet symbol are employed so as to evaluate statistical hypotheses in connection with the writer of different documents. Finally, criteria of statistical nature are introduced to reject the hypothesis that two documents are made by the same writer. In this way, the number of distinct writers that created a given ensemble of documents is determined. Eventually, maximum likelihood considerations are employed to classify all documents of the ensemble to these writers. The method has been applied to 49 ancient Attica inscriptionsAttica inscriptions and to 23 Byzantine codices. Both methods classified the 49 inscriptions in 10 different writers and the 23 codices in 4 different hands in full accordance with the experts’ opinions.

Fotios Giannopoulos, Dimitris Arabadjis, Kyveli Kampouri, Panagiota Tsakalidou, Constantin Papaodysseus, Michail Panagopoulos
65. From Space to Ground. Digital Techniques for the Investigation of Monuments and Sites

The scope of this work is to present an integrated methodological multi-scale and multi-temporal approach for the study of ancient monuments in their environmental context. The presented work showcases the interdisciplinary research experience gained during the last years by the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Lab (ERATOSTHENES Research Centre) of the Cyprus University of Technology. The developed capabilities of the Eratosthenes Research Centre derived from the successful implementation of various national and European research projects within the wider area of architectural heritage study and protection. In this framework geospatial tools, earth observation and in situ monitoring and measurements were merged and further investigated. The case study concerns Paphos town in Cyprus and particularly the archaeological site of Nea Paphos and the Hellenistic necropolis “Tombs of the Kings”, a UNESCO World Heritage site.The study encompasses a variety of technological tools to approach the area of interest, moving from a landscape level to isolated monument scale. For the landscape approach, novel, earth observation (macro scale) and aerial image (semi-macro scale) processing techniques have been employed, while in a monument level, the study extents from the geometric documentation of a tomb to the image processing for the mapping of surface weathering features, as well as to the seismic performance of single monuments (micro scale). The overall results demonstrate that such geospatial data linked to the individual characteristics of each monument can assist towards the implementation of various directives and conventions, while offering an integrated understanding of the monuments state of preservation, seen not as an isolated unit, but as part of their natural and anthropogenic context, which inevitably affects their viability in time and place.

Vasiliki Lysandrou, Athos Agapiou, Nicholas Kyriakides, Diofantos Hadjimitsis

Thematic Area VI: Planning and Cultural Heritage Management

Frontmatter
66. The Preservation of Rupestrian Churches. Research and Experiences in Italy

The area of Mottola gravine, in the province of Taranto, is marked by a dense network of rural churches, today threatened by abandonment and oblivion. In most cases they are buildings completely carved into the rock that the local historiography leads back to the high middle age and the second Byzantine domination of the territory. On the basis of accurate measurements, this paper intends to bring new elements of knowledge. The objective is to activate the protection and safeguarding measures; to stop the obsolescence and degradation, with restoration of surfaces and structures where necessary; and, congruently, to explore the possibility of systematising the churches recovering, for the purpose of religious tourism, but not only the tracks of the pilgrims and the stairways access to the various gravines. All this keeping in mind the sum of the values at stake and the issues related to accessibility and modern use.

Lucia Serafini, Angela Di Giorgio
67. Managing the Historic Settlements of the Peloponnese, Greece: A GIS Approach

The purpose of this paper is to examine the contemporary needs for the sustainable management of the historic settlements of the Peloponnese, in Southern Greece, as well as the ways in which the capabilities and functions offered by geographical information systems (GIS) can be implemented for optimum results. This is achieved, firstly, by addressing some theoretical and methodological issues, concerning the management of historic settlements, based on their special characteristics and international conventions and, secondly, by examining the potential of GIS to tackle different management issues, like the preservation of their architectural identity, the management of different protection zones and the protection of the surrounding natural environment. In the last part, there will be a presentation of some preliminary results, regarding the practical application of GIS in the management of the historic settlement of Leontari, focusing on the protection of the monuments, its sustainable expansion and the preservation of its vernacular character.

Emmanouil Papadakis
68. Restoring an Ancient Landmark-Theoretical and Structural Issues: The Case Study of Sulla’s Trophy in Orchomenos, Boeotia, Greece

This article refers to the restoration of an ancient landmark, a roman trophy, erected near Orchomenos from Lucius Cornelius Sulla. The monument follows the form of the archetypal wooden trophies, but it is made of marble. The main issue of the project was the problem of the elevation of ground level through the centuries. Considering as an opportunity to restore this historic landmark, it has been decided to be reconstructed in its original location but according to the contemporary ground level, leaving its foundations as found as evidence of the ancient structure. The restoration of the existing ancient material will provide in the most satisfactory way the connection of a landmark with its environment. A landscape study will recreate the ancient scenery of the battlefield, a real opportunity for modern visitors to have an educational walk. As a result of this project, the trophy will regain its value as a landmark of a battle of crucial importance for history of western civilization.

Maria Magnisali, Themistoklis Bilis
69. Restoring Roman Structural Masses: The Case Study of NE versura of Nikopolis’ Theatre-Theoretical and Structural Issues

The aim of this article is the presentation of the varied benefits that can be derived from the investigation of remaining parts of one Roman theatre of large scale: the Roman theatre of Nikopolis. The case study of presentation is the NE versura of that imposing building. The focal point of this process of restoration study is the thorough examination of the available material that is constituted mainly by heavy structural masses. Examining the features of those structural masses, it would be able to obtain information relating to their position in the construction. As a matter of fact, these strong inconsistency structural masses are valuable document of this devastated Roman building. The restoration of this material will reintroduce some of the monument’s lost magnitude that is now hard even to be imagined, having lost its large scale and luxurious coatings and being covered from its own dispersed material. This project has the ambition to become the starting point for the restoration of a larger area of the theatre as also for other monuments with the same type of construction.

Themistoklis Bilis, Maria Magnisali
70. Make Minoans Great Again? Towards the Elaboration of an Assessment Tool for a Tentative Revival of Their Past

Although highly criticized by many, the pioneering restoration work conducted at Knossos in the early twentieth century continues to attract large crowds of tourists and shape public perception about the Minoans, the civilization which blossomed between circa 3000 and 1200 BC on the island of Crete. This iconic example raises crucial questions about the balance between conservation and presentation strategies and the way to assess their relevance scientifically. Proceeding from these questions and the acknowledged gap in research-based preservation policies of Bronze Age sites in Crete, the goal of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, it seeks to provide decision makers with a methodological tool applicable to Minoan sites through the exploration of contemporary planning methodologies. On the other hand, it investigates the current conservation state of those sites overshadowed by the Knossian example. The peculiarity of the challenges faced by Minoan heritage preservation legitimizes the targeting of Minoan sites in this research. To achieve its ambitions, this paper adopts an original and evolutive methodology in three steps, and it advocates a cross-source approach combining a review of existing literature and new fieldwork.

Thérèse Claeys
71. TUNeIT and GRALBeIT as Opportunities to Valorise the Cultural Heritage from Cape Town to Beijing

The idea that accompanies the stable connection from Cape Town to Beijing through TUNeIT, the stable union between Tunisia and Sicily and GRALBeIT and the connection between Greece, Albania and Italy is far more than a project and an engineering challenge, insofar as it leads us to think about a process of composition, definition, reaggregation of historic, social, economic and cultural elements that, on the one hand, imply the involvement of a multitude of competences that need to interact with each other and with all the players concerned and on the other require special attention to the different relations between existing and future systems. This is a complex operation that involves not only technical aspects but also a look connected with the poetic interpretation of the context aiming to go beyond the mere practical purpose of the work. It is thus that words such as identity, conservation, development and management can find full implementation within the vast design process that involves the matter of the connection between Italy and Tunisia in all its possible declinations. The opportunity offered by TUNeIT and GRALBeIT allows us to analyse the contents connected with the protection and valuation of the cultural heritage and the sustainable development of these areas so filled with history, enabling us to assess the possibility of including new architecture in the Mediterranean landscape and maintaining the meaning, and is aimed at the in-depth examination of the relations and possible effects that this new infrastructure may generate within the consolidated context of values in which it has been conceived. The Mediterranean has an extremely full regional heritage, history and potential that are well worthy of being protected, developed and managed in such a way as to reinforce the cooperation and promote trust between the coastal states. This cultural heritage, which is also universally recognised by UNESCO and included on the list of intangible heritage, comprises traditions, uses and customs connected with folkloric events. The strengthening of the cultural wealth of these areas must be a continuous process in which knowledge, dissemination and valuation become the keyword. The spirit that accompanies Mediterranean bridging and the motto Bridging Cultures and Sharing Hearts is enclosed precisely in these concepts.

Enzo Siviero, Michele Culatti, Alessandro Stocco, Viviana Martini
72. Bridges in the Landscape: Qualitative Aspects

The poor architectural quality of the infrastructure tends to degrade the landscape, generating “non-places”. Moreover, the “perception” is not used in sufficiently great depth as a tool for interpretation and a design criterion for the inclusion of the bridges in the landscape.The aim of this approach is to use the concept of perception as a criterion for a critical interpretation of bridges and a design criterion for better inclusion in the landscape.In the study of the relationship between bridges and landscape, perception comes into place both as a cognitive process and an anthropological phenomenon. According to a cognitive perspective, perception implies grasping something in its characteristics of form, function and meaning; according to an anthropological point of view, perception implies feeling being in a space, defining it in its boundaries, density and directionality and using it in its parts. This approach provides for the extrapolation of the parameters belonging to these perceptive phenomena to use them as critical interpretation criteria of bridges.Indicate a cultural route by which to structure qualitative-quantitative indicators to determine the relationship between a work and the landscape, based on the exploration of the perceptive dynamics.This approach allows to increase, during the design stage, control over the effective perception of bridges, seeking to envisage the impact on the landscape but striving to also interpret the possible integrations with the landscape itself.The application of perceptive criteria, deriving from various different disciplines, enables us to use qualitative design tools that can improve the relationship between the work and the landscape.

Michele Culatti
73. Haliç Metro Crossing Bridge. A Bridge in the Historical Heart of Istanbul

Over the past years, Turkey has made remarkable efforts to modernize its transportation system. The municipality of Istanbul has planned a subway for connecting the heart of the city with the Ataturk Airport. The Haliç Metro Crossing Bridge, designed in 2004 by Hakan Kiran and by prof. Michel Virlogeux, is the key of this development plan. It is a cable-stayed bridge with a central span 180 m long, two lateral spans of 90 m long and a swimming bridge. To this main system, two approaching viaducts are connected at sides defining a total system approximately 1 km long. In 2010, as required by the UNESCO Committee, the municipality of Istanbul appointed a group of independent international experts to assess the historical and visual impact of the bridge in relation to the Outstanding Universal Values of the Istanbul World Heritage areas and in particular on the Süleymaniye Mosque.The results, contained in the Independent Historical and Visual Impact Assessment Report for the Golden Horn Metro Crossing Bridge, have highlighted the need to review the architectural design of the bridge in order to better insert this infrastructure in the historic city in relation and in the respect of its significance and OUV. The height of the pylons was lowered to 65 m above the sea level, and the length of the central station was reduced. In the end, the study of the colours and the architectural lighting of the bridge have completed the insertion of the bridge in terms of formal coherence with the surrounding landscape.

Enzo Siviero, Michele Culatti, Viviana Martini, Alessandro Stocco
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
10th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin
Editors
Dr. Maria Koui
Prof. Fulvio Zezza
Dr. Dimitrios Kouis
Copyright Year
2018
Electronic ISBN
978-3-319-78093-1
Print ISBN
978-3-319-78092-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78093-1

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