Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book
This chapter maps the theoretical underpinnings of the conditions that shaped the political landscape of the 2016 presidential campaign. Among those conditions was the politics of the “no-third-term tendency” that created a difficult path to the White House for Democrats. There are several theoretical considerations addressed in this chapter: first, the politics of backlash and resentment, the politics of intergroup conflict, and the role of gender in politics. This chapter operationalizes the tenets political theme to situate the analysis of the book: the politics of spectacle and the 2016 campaign. Simply defined, spectacle creates something to look at. The thesis is advanced that the components of spectacle were largely anchored in campaign rhetoric and unconventional tactics. At times, the spectacle seemed to intentionally detract from substantive issues.
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
Abramowitz, Alan I. The Great Alignment: Race, Party Transformation, and the Rise of Donald Trump. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.
Barrett, Lisa Feldman, and Eliza Bliss-Moreau. “She’s Emotional: He’s Having a Bad Day: Attributional Explanations for Emotion Stereotypes.” Emotion 9, no. 5 (2009): 649. CrossRef
Brescoll, Victoria L., and Eric Luis Uhlmann. “Can an Angry Woman Get Ahead? Status Conferral, Gender, and Expression of Emotion in the Workplace.” Psychological Science 19, no. 3 (2008): 268–275. CrossRef
Bystrom, Dianne G., Terry A. Robertson, and Mary Christine Banwart. “Framing the Fight: An Analysis of Media Coverage of Female and Male Candidates in Primary Races for Governor and US Senate in 2000.” American Behavioral Scientist 44, no. 12 (2001): 1999–2013. CrossRef
Bystrom, Dianne G. “Women as Political Communication Sources and Audiences.” Handbook of Political Communication Research (2004): 435–459.
Carlin, Diana B., and Kelly L. Winfrey. “Have You Come a Long Way, Baby? Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Sexism in 2008 Campaign Coverage.” Communication Studies 60, no. 4 (2009): 326–343. CrossRef
Cassese, Erin C., and Mirya R. Holman. “Party and Gender Stereotypes in Campaign Attacks.” Political Behavior 40, no. 3 (2018): 785–807. CrossRef
———. “Playing the Woman Card: Ambivalent Sexism in the 2016 US Presidential Race.” Political Psychology 40, no. 1 (2019): 55–74.
Cramer, Katherine J. The Politics of Resentment: Rural Consciousness in Wisconsin and the Rise of Scott Walker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.
Cronin, Thomas E. and Michael A. Genovese. The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Curnalia, Rebecca M.L., and Dorian L. Mermer. “The ‘Ice Queen’ Melted and It Won Her the Primary: Evidence of Gender Stereotypes and the Double Bind in News Frames of Hillary Clinton’s ‘Emotional Moment’.” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication 15, no. 1 (2014): 26–32. CrossRef
Dalton, Russell J. “The Blinders of Partisanship and the 2016 US Election.” Oxford University Press Blog. January 9, 2017. Accessed at https://blog.oup.com.
Denton, Robert E. The Primetime Presidency of Ronald Reagan: The Era of the Television Presidency. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1988.
Dittmar, Kelly. Navigating Gendered Terrain: Stereotypes and Strategy in Political Campaigns. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2015.
———. “Finding Gender in the Election 2016: Lessons from Presidential Gender Watch.” Center for American Women in Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics. 2016. Accessed at www.cawp.rutgers.edu.
Dolan, Kathleen A., and Thomas M. Holbrook. “Knowing Versus Caring: The Role and Affect and Cognition in Political Perceptions.” Political Psychology 22, no. 1 (2001): 27–44. CrossRef
Dunaway, Johanna, Regina G. Lawrence, Melody Rose, and Christopher R. Weber. “Traits Versus Issues: How Female Candidates Shape Coverage of Senate and Gubernatorial Races.” Political Research Quarterly 66, no. 3 (2013): 715–726. CrossRef
Edelman, Murray. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1964.
Falk, Erika. Women for President: Media Bias in Eight Campaigns. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2008.
Falk, Erika, and Kate Kenski. “Issue Saliency and Gender Stereotypes: Support for Women as Presidents in Times of War and Terrorism.” Social Science Quarterly 87, no. 1 (2006): 1–18. CrossRef
Fox, Richard L., and Jennifer L. Lawless. “Gendered Perceptions and Political Candidacies: A Central Barrier to Women’s Equality in Electoral Politics.” American Journal of Political Science 55, no. 1 (2011): 59–73. CrossRef
Genovese, Michael, ed. Presidential Leadership in an Age of Change. Abingdon: Routledge, 2017.
Genovese, Michael, and Todd Belt. The Post-Heroic Presidency: Leveraged Leadership in an Age of Limits. Denver, CO: Praeger, 2016.
Guarino, Ben. “Fake News Spreads ‘Farther, Faster, Deeper’ Than Truth, Study Finds.” The Washington Post. March 8, 2018.
Hall, Thad, and Betsy Sinclair. A Connected America: Politics in the Era of Social Media. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Han, Lori Cox. Women and US politics: The spectrum of political leadership. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2010.
Han, Lori Cox, and Caroline Heldman, eds. Rethinking Madam President: Are We Ready for a Woman in the White House? Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2007.
Huddy, Leonie, and Nayda Terkildsen. “Gender Stereotypes and the Perception of Male and Female Candidates.” American Journal of Political Science 37, no. 1 (1993): 119–147. CrossRef
Jalalzai, Farida. “Women Candidates and the Media: 1992–2000 Elections.” Politics and Policy 34, no. 3 (2006): 606–633.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. Beyond the Double Bind: Women and Leadership. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Kahn, Kim Fridkin, and Edie N. Goldenberg. “Women Candidates in the News: An Examination of Gender Differences in US Senate Campaign Coverage.” Public Opinion Quarterly 55, no. 2 (1991): 180–199. CrossRef
Kahn, Kim Fridkin. “Gender Differences in Campaign Messages: The Political Advertisements of Men and Women Candidates for US Senate.” Political Research Quarterly 46, no. 3 (1993): 481–502.
———. “The Distorted Mirror: Press Coverage of Women Candidates for Statewide Office.” The Journal of Politics 56, no. 1 (1994): 154–173. CrossRef
Kantola, Johanna, and Emanuela Lombardo. Gender and Political Analysis. New York: Macmillan International Higher Education, 2017.
Kelley, Harold H. “The Processes of Causal Attribution.” American Psychologist 28, no. 2 (1973): 107. CrossRef
Kristoff, Nicholas. “Lessons from the Media’s Failure in the Year with Trump.” New York Times. December 31, 2016.
Lawless, Jennifer. “Sexism and Gender Bias in Election 2008: A More Complex Path for Women in Politics.” Politics & Gender 5, no. 1 (2009): 70–80. CrossRef
Lawrence, Regina G., and Melody Rose. Hillary Clinton’s Race for the White House: Gender Politics and the Media on the Campaign Trail. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2010.
Lorber, Judith. “‘Night to His Day’: The Social Construction of Gender.” Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study, 54–64. New York: MacMillan. 2004.
Marcus, George E. Sentimental Citizen: Emotion in Democratic Politics. University Park: Penn State Press, 2010.
McDermott, Monika L. “Race and Gender Cues in Low-Information Elections.” Political Research Quarterly 51, no. 4 (1998): 895–918. CrossRef
———. Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior. Oxford University Press, 2016.
Meeks, Lindsey. “Is She ‘Man Enough’? Women Candidates, Executive Political Offices, and News Coverage.” Journal of Communication 62, no. 1 (2012): 175–193. CrossRef
Mezey, Michael L. Selecting the President: The Perils of Democracy. New York: Routledge, 2018.
Miller, Arthur H., Patricia Gurin, Gerald Gurin, and Oksana Malanchuk. “Group Consciouness and Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science (1981): 494–511. CrossRef
Miroff, Bruce. “The Presidency and the Public: Leadership as Spectacle.” The Presidency and the Political System (2013): 299–322.
———. “The Presdiential Spectacle.” In Voices of Dissent: Critical Readings in American Politics, ed. William F. Grover and Joseph G. Peschek. Pearson Publishing, 2013.
Morjorie Randon Hershy. “The Media: Covering Donald Trump.” In The Elections of 2016, ed. Michael Nelson. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2018.
Nagourney, A. “Calling Senator Clinton ‘Angry,’ GOP Chairman Attacks.” The New York Times, 2006.
Olsen, Henry, and Dante J. Scala. “The Paths to the 2016 Republican Nomination.” In The Four Faces of the Republican Party, 122–147. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
Paisley, Pamela O. Gender Issues in Supervision. ERIC Clearinghouse, 1994.
Parry-Giles, Shawn J., and Trevor Parry-Giles. “Gendered Politics and Presidential Image Construction: A Reassessment of the ‘Feminine Style’.” Communications Monographs 63, no. 4 (1996): 337–353. CrossRef
Popkin, Samuel L., and Samuel L. Popkin. The Reasoning Voter: Communciation and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Prager, Dennis. “The Feminization of America Is Bad for the World.” The National Review. November 3, 2015.
Ranney, Austin. Channels of Power: The Impact of Television on American Politics. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Rawls, John. A Theory of Social Justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1971.
Rudman, Laurie A., and Kimberly Fairchild. “Reactions to Counterstereotypic Behavior: The Role of Backlash in Cultural Stereotype Maintenance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87, no. 2 (2004): 157. CrossRef
Sanchez, Leslie. You’ve Come a Long Way, Maybe: Sarah, Michelle, Hillary, and the Shaping of the New American Woman. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Scheckels, Theodore F., Nichola D. Gutgold, and Diana B. Carlin. Gender and the American Presidency: Nice Presidential Woman and the Barriers They Faced. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012.
Sheeler, Kristina Horn, and Karrin Vasby Anderson. Woman President: Confronting Postfeminist Political Culture. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2013.
Shoaf, Nicole R. Foster, and Tara N. Parsons. “18 Million Cracks, but No Cigar: News Media and the Campaigns of Clinton, Palin, and Bachmann.” Social Sciences 5, no. 3 (2016): 1–15.
Sides, John, Daron R. Shaw, Matthew Grossman, and Kenna Lipsitz. Campaigns and Elections: Rules, Reality, Strategy, Choice. New York: W. W. Norton, 2015.
Sides, John, Michael Tesler, and Lynn Vavreck. “The Electoral Landscape of 2016.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 667, no. 1 (2016): 50–71. CrossRef
———. Identity Crisis: The 2016 Presidential Campaign and the Battle for the Meaning of America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018.
Sinclair, Betsy. The Social Citizen: Peer Networks and Political Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
Skowronek, Stephen. The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to Bill Clinton. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Smith, Jessi L., David Paul, and Rachel Paul. “No Place for a Woman: Evience for Gender Bias in Evaluations of Presidential Candidates.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 29, no. 3 (2007): 225–233. CrossRef
Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth, and John R. Hibbing. “Citizensip and Civic Engagement.” Annual Review of Political Science 8 (2005): 227–249. CrossRef
Tiedens, Larissa Z. “Ander and Advancement Versus Sadness and Subjugation: The Effect of Negative Emotion Expressions on Social Status Conferral.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80, no. 1 (2001): 86. CrossRef
Valentino, Nicholas A., Carly Wayne, and Marzia Oceno. “Mobilizing Sexism: The Interaction of Emotion and Gender Attitudes in the 2016 US Presidential Election.” Public Opinion Quarterly 82, no. 1 (2018): 213–235. CrossRef
Van Dyke, Vernon. Ideology and Political Choice: The Search for Freedom, Justice, and Virtue. London, UK: Chatham House Publishers, 1995.
Vaughn, Justin S., and Jennifer R. Mercieca, eds. The Rhetoric of Heroic Expectations: Establishing the Obama Presidency, vol. 24. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2014.
Wasburn, Philo C., and Mara H. Wasburn. “Media Coverage of Women in Politics: The Curious Case of Sarah Palin.” Media, Culture & Society 33, no. 7 (2011): 1027–1041. CrossRef
Wattenberg, Martin P. The Decline of American Political Parties, 1952–1996. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Weaver, David, Maxwell McCombs, and Donald L. Shaw. “Agenda-Setting Research: Issues, Attributes, and Influences.” Handbook of Political Communication Research 257 (2004).
Witt, Linda, Karen M. Paget, and Glenna Matthews. Running as a Woman: Gender and Power in American Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
- 2016: The Year of “Democrazy” and the Politics of Spectacle
Heather E. Yates
- Springer International Publishing
- Sequence number
- Chapter number
- Chapter 2