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About this book

This book gathers the proceedings of the 30th Scientific-Experts Conference of Agriculture and Food Industry, held on September 26-27, 2019, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It reports on the application of innovative technologies in food sciences and agriculture, and covers research in plant and animal production, agricultural economics and food production. Further, the book discusses key social and environmental issues, and proposes answers to current challenges. The conference was jointly organized by the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences of the University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Faculty of Agriculture of Ege University, Turkey, the Bosnia and Herzegovina Medical and Biological Engineering Society, and the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Belgrade, Serbia. The proceedings offer a timely snapshot of cutting-edge, multidisciplinary research and developments in modern agriculture. As such, they address the needs of researchers and professionals, agricultural companies, food producers, and regulatory and food safety agencies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Plant Production

Frontmatter

Ex-Situ Remediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils Using Natural Aluminosilicate Minerals

The effects of zeolite and pyrophyllite on decreasing heavy metals availability in contaminated soil were evaluated in pot experiments. The zeolite and pyrophyllite materials were added to contaminated soil at four rates i.e. 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha−1. The available forms of heavy metals from soil samples were extracted using EDTA solution (0.01 mol dm−3 C10H16N2O8 and 1 mol dm−3 (NH4)2CO3, adjusted to pH 8.6) and their concentrations in the obtained extract were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Zeolite and pyrophyllite incorporation in soil was found to reduce the availability of heavy metals in soil under experimental conditions. The addition of zeolite was more effective in decreasing Cu and Pb availability, while the pyrophyllite showed a better effect on reducing Mn and Cd availability. These results indicated that addition of these clay minerals could be a suitable technique for reducing heavy metals availability in soils. However, the further research is necessary to confirm this hypothesis across different experimentation and soil ecosystems.

Emina Sijahović, Hamdija Čivić, Senad Murtić

Soil Water Balance Response to Climate Change in Posavina Region

Posavina region represents the area with the most favorable natural conditions for agricultural production in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Increase in the air temperature and changes in the amount of rainfall results in changes in evapotranspiration and the values of main water balance elements indicating the need for a precise determination of the current and future state of basic water balance elements, such as soil moisture deficit and the amount of runoff. Linear regression was applied to determine soil water balance response to climate change in Posavina region. The air temperature, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration and water balance components: actual evapotranspiration, total runoff, soil moisture deficit and amount of snow trends were analyzed. Monthly weather data from 4 weather stations, two in Croatia: Slavonski Brod and Gradište; and two in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Doboj and Gradačac, for the time period of 58 years (1961–2018) were used. The results obtained show increasing trends in annual air temperature (0.032 °C–0.057 °C year−1), sum of precipitation (1.424 mm–2.317 mm year−1), reference evapotranspiration (0.462 mm–4.640 mm year−1), actual evapotranspiration (0.019 mm–2.190 mm year−1), soil moisture deficit (0.443 mm–2.672 mm year−1) and total runoff (0.286–2.46 9 mm year−1) series and decreasing trend in the annual amount of snow (0.676–1.664 mm year−1). Results obtained are showing an urgent need to start with climate change adaptation measures and actions to combat the negative impact of climate change in the Posavina region.

Sabrija Čadro, Monika Marković, Selman Edi Kaloper, Marija Ravlić, Jasminka Žurovec

The Influence of Changes in Way of Use, in Climate and in Hydrological Conditions on Histosol in Reclamation Area in Peatland Ždralovac

Possibilities of Re-establish of Agricultural Production in Abandoned Reclamation Area in Peatland Ždralovac in Livanjsko Polje After 25 yr.

Fen type peatland Ždralovac in Livanjsko Polje (Livno’s karsts field) in south-west Bosnia and Herzegovina traditionally were used for livestock grazing with mowing grass, agricultural production by the sides of the field and peat excavation only for own necessaries.The 1970s at southern part peatland with shallow peat was built a reclamation area Table (1000 ha) used for agricultural production. The entire hydro meliorated system is designed based on shallow and controlled drainage with the system of water-gates that maintained the water table at a depth which enabled the continuous capillary wetting of the rhizosphere in the dry summer period. After the last war (1991–1995) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, these areas were abandoned over the past 20 years so that the entire system of water-gates is now devastated. Peatland use change and uncontrolled drainage together with climate change are lowered the water table level and prolonged drying of the surface layer in the summer period. This has further caused accelerates peat mineralization by changing its traits and reducing the peat depth to only 20 cm. Everything was followed numerous long-lasting fires resulting in the changes in vegetation cover on agricultural areas that overgrown into grassy surfaces, shrubs and trees.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of renewal of agricultural production on these surfaces taking into account the results of the analysis of climate change, changes in hydrological conditions, soil water balance and the physical and chemical properties of Histosol.The possibility of restoration of agricultural production on these surfaces primarily includes the continuous supply crops with the water in the summer period.

Mirza Tvica, Hamdija Čivić, Vesna Tunguz

Survival of Soil Microbial Population After Glyphosate Application

Modern agricultural production is often associated with application of agrochemicals. One of them is glyphosate, which has become one of the most widely used herbicides in weed control. However, the widespread use of glyphosate may influence the living organism’s activity. The aim of this paper was to estimate the soil microbial activity after glyphosate application. Glyphosate (Glifomark SG) was applied at the end of 2017 on two locations: Principovo polje, and Novi Travnik (Travnik municipality, Bosnia and Herzegovina), so that corn and raspberry residues can be removed. Soil sampling (0–10 and 10–30 cm) was conducted at the time of glyphosate application, also 15 and 45 days after application. On control soil glyphosate was not applied. Chemical soil analysis (pH, content of humus, available P and K) was performed using standard methodology, whilst microbial abundance (total number of bacteria, ammonification bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and glyphosate-tolerant bacteria) was analyzed using agar plate method. The results of chemical soil analysis showed slightly acid to slightly alkaline pH value, moderate to high humus content, and low to high content of available P and K. In most of samples, bacterial number was reduced 15 days after glyphosate application, whilst at the end of experiment increase of bacterial abundance was recorded. Similar results were obtained for fungi. Rapid decrease of actinomycetes number was observed after application of glyphosate. Two bacterial strains (PP-23 and NT-11) were able to grow on mineral medium supplemented with glyphosate in concentrations of 1 and 2% (v/v), thus representing a promising candidates for bioremediation of soil contaminated with glyphosate.

B. Lalević, S. Hamidović, T. Gavrić, A. Sunulahpašić, B. Borovac, M. Halilović, I. Jusić, A. Kazlagić, M. Delić

Determination of Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Some Soybean Genotypes Suitable for Double Crop Agriculture in Mediterranean Climate Conditions

As a source of oil, protein, biodiesel, etc., soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is the fourth widely grown crop in the world. In Mediterranean climate conditions, soybean can be produced as a double crop. This study was conducted at the experimental area of Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University in Turkey (2016) to determine yield and important agronomic traits of some soybean varieties and lines under double crop conditions. Ten advanced soybean lines and four registered varieties (KASM-03, KASM-02, KANA, KAMA, BDUS-04, BATEM 207, BATEM 223, BATEM 306, BATEM 317, BDSA 05 and ARISOY, ATAEM-7, BRAVO, NOVA) were used as a plant material. Field trial was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Results from the analysis of variance for all traits (grain yield, plant height, first pod height, pods per plant, days for maturity, days for flowering, 1000-seed weight) indicated large variations among the genotypes. Although the lines KASM-02 (3519.5 kg ha−1), BATEM 207 (3456.7 kg ha−1) and BATEM 223 (3414.2 kg ha−1) provided the best result for grain yield, according to earliness, ARISOY, ATAEM-7 and BRAVO registered varieties were showed better performance rather than advanced lines used in the study. As a result, genotypes with high grain yields but with late maturing times are tested under the main product conditions.

Aliye Yildirim, Hakan Yildiz, Emre Ilker, Sidika Ekren

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Peach Varieties in the Herzegovina Area

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different agro ecological conditions on the physical (weight, height, width, thickness) and chemical (the soluble solids content (%), total sugar content (%), total acid content (%) and maturity index) characteristics of five peach varieties in Herzegovina. The fruits for analysis were taken of Maycrest, Springcrest, Spring Lady, Rich Lady and Elegant Lady varieties from the area of Mostar, Stolac and Čapljina for three years (2009–2011). The results of research show that the locality influenced the examined physical parameters of the fruits, but had no effect on the fruit/stone ratio (randman). The highest values of the weight, height, width and thickness of the fruit and stone were recorded in Rich Lady and Elegant Lady peaches in the Dubrava plateau (Stolac).The results show statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of peach fruit depending on variety and locality. The highest average soluble solid content and total sugars were measured in the Elegant Lady in Mostar, while the lowest content of these compounds was found in the Maycrest and Rich Lady.The highest total acid content was found in Maycrest variety in Stolac and the lowest content in the Elegant Lady variety (Mostar). The largest sweetnes index had the variety the Elegant Lady (Mostar), and the lowest variety of the Maycrest in Stolac.It can be concluded that the investigated varieties in all three localities had an excellent quality of fruit in terms of physical and chemical characteristics and can be recommended to farmers for wide cultivation in Herzegovina.

Lamija Aliman, Jasmina Aliman, Sezai Ercisli, Azra Skender, Aida Šukalić, Aleksandra Šupljeglav Jukić

Chemical Composition and Total Phenols Content of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) Grown in Different Vegetation Seasons

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) is an annual plant that is classified as a pseudocereal with high nutritional values. It is mainly cultivated in Asia, where grain and other parts of plants are used in traditional diet. In recent years, tartary buckwheat is grown on smaller areas and mostly in a mixture with common buckwheat in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and total phenols content of tartary buckwheat grown in different vegetation seasons. Field experiments were conducted in Donje Selo, near Ilijaš during 2011, 2012 and 2013 vegetation seasons. The results show that weather in some vegetation seasons have statistically significant effect on contents of protein and starch in kernel. The largest contents of protein were found in vegetation season with a lack of precipitation (2012 year), while the largest content of starch was recorded in years with relatively higher precipitation levels (2011 and 2013 years). Results show that total phenols content depended on the plant organ and vegetation season. The highest content was found in the flower (63.63 mg GAE g−1), while the smallest content was found in the kernel (5.03 mg GAE g−1).

Teofil Gavrić, Drena Gadžo, Josip Jurković, Mirha Đikić, Dženan Hadžić, Blažo Lalević, Saud Hamidović

Root Pathogens Occurring on Pea (Pisum sativum) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba) in Germany

An extensive survey was undertaken in ten German States in three consecutive years (2016–2018) in order to determine the incidence of root rot on pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) and identify pathogens involved. In total, 185 pea and faba bean fields were sampled (102 conventional and 83 organically managed) within the demonstration network on peas and beans in the framework of the German Protein Crop Strategy. A total of 5167 Fusarium and 1438 Didymella isolates were recovered representing 14 different Fusarium and 4 Didymella species. Didymella pinodella was the only pathogen strongly influenced by the management systems and was found predominantly in organic fields on both crops. Preliminary results further indicate increasing importance and significance of F. redolens and D. pinodella for grain legume production in Germany. However, their role and direct pathogenicity need to be further investigated.

Adnan Šišić, Jelena Baćanović-Šišić, Harald Schmidt, Maria R. Finckh

Influence of Different Plum Pox Virus Strains on Chemical Composition of ‘Čačanska Lepotica’ Plum Fruit Cultivar

Plum pox virus (PPV) is economically the most important virus of stone fruits. In sensitive plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivars, PPV causes foliar symptoms, fruits deformation, changes in the chemical composition of fruits and premature fruit drop.Fruits of ‘Čačanska lepotica’ plum cultivar were collected from an experimental orchard in locality Čačak. Samples were collected from 15 trees (5 infected with PPV-D, 5 infected with PPV-Rec and 5 from PPV-free trees). Trees for sampling were selected after the RT-PCR analysis of the trees from the plantation using PPV strain-specific primers. The fruits were picked at five different terms at seven-days interval during the entire maturation stage.All tested samples, 10 PPV-infected and 5 uninfected, were further chemically analyzed. The analyses included determination of soluble solid content, titratable acidity and total phenolic content.The aim of this work was to reveal the possible changes in chemical composition in the fruits of ‘Čačanska lepotica’ cultivar, grown at the same locality, caused by the two different PPV strains.

Nemanja Miletić, Darko Jevremović, Olga Mitrović, Olivera Gvozdenović, Marko Pajić, Svetlana Paunović

Molecular and Biological Characterization of Black Raspberry Necrosis Virus on Red Raspberry in Serbia

Black raspberry necrosis virus (BRNV) is considered to be economically important virus infecting raspberries. In black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) BRNV causes cane tip necrosis, but infected red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars in general do not express foliar symptoms.From 2014–2018, a number of 105 samples from 9 red raspberry cultivars (‘Amira’, ‘Fertödi Zamatos’, ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Meeker’, ‘San Rafael’, ‘Polana’, ‘Polka’, ‘Tulameen’ and ‘Willamette’) were collected from different localities in Serbia. Samples were tested on the BRNV presence by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers targeting 417 bp nucleotide (nt) fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region of RNA 1 of the BRNV genome. BRNV was detected in 19 samples in cultivars ‘Fertödi Zamatos’, ‘Polana’, ‘Tulameen’ and ‘Willamette’.A 417 nt sequence of the RdRp was determined for 5 isolates. The nt sequences of these isolates were 94.2–99.7% identical. When compared to available sequences of BRNV isolates from North America and Europe, Serbian isolates showed significant divergence (80.0–82.2% of nt identity).A portion of the BRNV infected plants of cultivar ‘Fertödi Zamatos’ were further tested on indicator R. occidentalis by inarch bottle grafting. Two months after inoculation cane tip begun to curl down and became necrotic on all inoculated plants. Non-grafted control plants were symptomless.

Darko Jevremović, Aleksandar Leposavić, Svetlana A. Paunović

Determination of the Barley Diseases in Bingöl Province of Turkey

Five barley fields in Genç, Adaklı and Central district of Bingöl province of Turkey were investigated for the presence of barley diseases in 2018. Spot form of net blotch caused by Drechslera teres f. maculata, net form of net blotch caused by Drechslera teres f. teres, scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune, powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, barley stripe caused by Drechslera graminea and covered smut caused by Ustilago hordei were found among the fields inspected. Prevalence and severity of these diseases showed variation.

Işıl Saraç Sivrikaya, Aziz Karakaya, Arzu Çelik Oğuz

Current Situation of Rice Blast Disease in Edirne, Turkey

Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of most important cereal crops in Turkey. More intensive rice production areas in Turkey are located in Thrace region. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae is one of the most important pathogens that affect the yield and quality of rice plants. In this study, a total of 22 rice fields were surveyed in Keşan, Meriç, Uzunköprü, İpsala, Enez and Havsa districts of Edirne province of Turkey in 2018 for the presence of rice blast disease. The disease severity and prevalence values of rice blast disease in these districts were recorded. The highest disease severity was observed in Havsa district (48.40%), followed by Uzunköprü (27.68%), Meriç (26.20%), Keşan (19.23%), İpsala (19.12%) and Enez (6.40%) districts. The highest prevalence of the disease was observed in Havsa district (100%), followed by Meriç (71.43%), Uzunköprü (69.15%), Keşan (62.73%), İpsala (33.66) and Enez (13.00%) districts. It appears that rice blast is common in Edirne province of Turkey. Precautions should be taken against this important disease.

Melis Seidi, Aziz Karakaya, Kemal Akın, Arzu Çelik Oğuz

Prevalence of Botrytis cinerea in Tomato Greenhouses in Antalya Province of Turkey and Phenotypic Characterization of Isolates

Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important fungal diseases that decrease the yield and quality of tomato plants especially under greenhouse conditions where intensive cultivation was carried out. The fungus can infect plants under field, garden, greenhouse and storage conditions. B. cinerea has the ability to infect all aboveground parts of the plants during the vegetation period, it is prone to fungicide resistance and has high genetic variation. These features make control of the pathogen difficult. Antalya province of Turkey is an important tomato growing area and greenhouse production of tomatoes in this province is common. In 2018, a survey was conducted in Serik, Aksu, Kumluca, Finike and Kepez districts of Antalya province. Diseased tomato plant samples were obtained from 35 greenhouses. B. cinerea was found in all surveyed districts of Antalya province. The disease was more common in Serik district. The percentages of B. cinerea isolated from diseased tomato parts were 64, 20, 35, 22 and 29 from Serik, Kumluca, Kepez, Finike and Aksu districts, respectively. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates revealed that the most common phenotype was S3.

Esra Gül, Aziz Karakaya

Animal Production

Frontmatter

Polymorphisms of the ovine prion protein (PrP) Gene in the Pramenka Sheep Breed Population(s) in Bosnia and Herzegovina - Kupreski Strain

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) is a group of diseases that affects nervous system, and which leads to death. Scrapie is an infectious disease of sheep and goats that belongs to this TSE group and with always fatal outcome. The putative infectious agent is the host-encoded prion protein (PrP) and it appears that the development of scrapie in sheep is closely related to polymorphisms in the host PrP gene. The aim of this study was to investigate three well-known polymorphisms in exon 3 of the PrP gene (on chromosome 13) that have a clear and significant effect on scrapie in sheep (at codons 136, 154 and 171), but also to investigate four other polymorphisms in exon 3 (at codons 145, 185, 231 and 237) that are undefined yet, but might have some effect on disease. The study was performed on the Bosnian sheep – Pramenka breed, Kupreski strain from central Bosnia. Genomic DNA was isolated from venous blood and then a 628 bp long DNA fragment from exon 3 was amplified using the PCR method. The results from this study indicate the presence of nine different genotypes associated with susceptibility of scrapie in investigated Bosnian sheep population(s). Five haplotypes were found.

Ervin Zecevic, Admir Dokso, Alma Rustempasic, Muhamed Brka

Polymorphism of PrP Gens in the Population of Chamois in the Area of Biokovo - Republic of Croatia

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of contagious neurodegenerative diseases that attack neural tissue by the formation of aggregates of prion particles in it. The final outcome of these diseases is lethal. Causative agent is prion, a cellular glycoprotein which have two forms, not contagious with the α - projection, denoted PrPC and infectious with the β - folded plate and labeled PrPSc. This disease is characteristic for many mammals and humans also. Research has shown that there are genetic predispositions to disease or resistance to it. In the case of goats, various codons that may be associated with disease resistance are reported in the literature, mostly for codon 146. In the study of polymorphisms in chamois, the same information as for goats was used. The genomic DNA was used in the study, which was isolated from the full blood of animals and was subjected to a polymerase chain reaction with specially designed primers. The populations of the chamois have shown that the investigated population is monomorphic when it comes to PrP gene.

Ervin Zecevic, Admir Dokso, Alma Rustempasic, Muhamed Brka

Bottleneck Analysis of Turkish and Algerian Sheep Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

The present study was performed to reveal genetic diversity and bottleneck of Turkish and Algerian autochthonous sheep breeds using fifteen microsatellites marker recommended by FAO (2011). Animal material for the study was consisted of 180 head sheep raised in different location in Turkey and Algeria. A total of 349 alleles were detected from fifteen markers studied. The mean number of alleles (23.26), observed heterozygosity (0.76) and polymorphic information content (0.89) findings indicated that noticeable genetic variability in sheep population studied. Fourteen out of the sixteen microsatellite markers studied had a positive FIS value. The mean value of FIS was 0.061.The infinite allele model (IAM), two-phase mutation model (TPM) and stepwise mutation model (SMM) in the Bottleneck software were used to check genetic bottleneck. The Lshaped curve obtained from analyze indicates absence of bottleneck in studied sheep population raised in Turkey and Algeria. Consequently, it can be said that these results will help to develop conservation and breeding strategies for the sheep population.

Nezih Ata, Abdelkader Ameur Ameur, Onur Yilmaz

Using of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens) Larvae Meal in Fish Nutrition

Fish consumption is expected to increase in future due to increase in demand for animal products. Fish meal is a mayor ingredient in Salmonidae diets and it considerably increases the cost of fish feed. Replacing fish meal with plant protein was not so successful, primarily due to low biological value of plant protein (composition and ratio of amino acids). Recently, many researchers started to look into the possibility of using insects in fish nutrition. EU Regulation No 813/2017 [1] approved the use of the following seven insects as animal feed: Black soldier fly – BSF (Hermetia illucens), Common housefly (Musca domestica), Banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), Field cricket (Gryllus assimilis), House cricket (Acheta domesticus), Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). Among them, use of black soldier fly shows the most promising results. BSF contains between 40 and 45% of crude protein and even more than 40% of ether extract - depending on the substrate it was reared on, and stage in the life cycle. Protein from BSF larval meal contains favourable composition of amino acids for fish nutrition. Additionally, fatty acids composition of BSF that depends on the growing substrates can be adjusted to have higher content of ALA, EPA and DHA, and lower content of SFA. The literature data about replacing fish meal with BSF larval meal is controversial. What appears to be the best is to replace up to 50% of fish meal with BSF larval meal in rainbow trout nutrition, as this shows no adverse effect on fish performances, including weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and protein productive value.

Senada Čengić-Džomba, Emir Džomba, Salko Muratović, Dženan Hadžić

Effect of Different Energy: Protein Ratio on Commercial Laying Hens’ Performances in the First Half of Laying Period

An experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of different dietary levels of energy and protein on commercial laying hen’s performance. A hundred twenty Lohmann Brown hens in the first half of production period (30 weeks old) were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was dietary energy at levels of 11.7 and 12.5 MJ ME/kg feed and second one was dietary protein at levels of 16%, 17% and 18% of CP achieving 6 treatments with 5 replications of 4 birds each. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Hens performances (egg production, weight of egg, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality of hens) and egg structure (albumen, yolk and shell proportion, total egg solids) were evaluated. Increased level of protein has positive effect (P < 0.05) on egg weight and albumen proportion in egg. Feed intake decreased and yolk proportion increased at higher energy level in dets. Significant dietary ME X CP interaction on feed intake, feed conversion as well as albumen and yolk proportion were found.

Emir Džomba, Senada Čengić-Džomba, Salko Muratović

The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Rumen Protected Glucose on Metabolic Parameters and Milk Quality in Dairy Cows

Blood glucose concentrations in high productive dairy cows is a master regulator of hormones and metabolites which are in relation with milk production, reproductive performances and health. Low blood glucose postpartum is caused by inadequate glucose entry rate relative to whole-body demand as opposed to the alternative possibility that postpartum cows have a lower regulatory set point for blood glucose. The aim of this research was to evaluate the addition of rumen protected glucose on metabolic and milk parameters in dairy cows at the peak of lactation. Twenty-four dairy cows average 52.83 (SD = 28.94) days (control) and 54.58 (SD = 27.78) days in milk (experimental) were used for the dietary trial with rumen protected glucose addition in concentration of 200 g/day/cow. Biochemical parameters glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, (BHB) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured at the beginning of the trial and 21st day after dietary treatment. Parameters for milking control were daily milk yield (DMY), milk fat content (MFC), milk protein content (MPC), urea in milk, lactose in milk, fat/protein index and somatic cell count (SCC). No significant differences of biochemical parameters and milk performances between control group and the experimental group were found. Feeding bypass glucose showed 57% reduction in the number of milk somatic cells in the milk of multiparty cows at the end of the experiment. Dietary addition of rumen protected glucose in dosage of 200 g/day/cow in the period of lactation peak showed no effect on milk production and metabolic profile.

Stipo Benak, Mislav Đidara, Vesna Gantner, Marcela Šperanda

Blood Acid-Base Balance of Istrian Goats

The aim of the research was to determine of acid-base balance in the blood of Istrian goats during summer season and compare with the other breeds of goats in Mediterranean environment. The research included 21 Istrian goats average age 4 years. Feeding of goats was with pasture and when returned to stable were fed a grain mixture (0.3 kg/goat/day) and meadow hay (ad libitum). In the blood of goats concentrations acid-base indicators (blood pH, BE(efc), blood gas analysis: partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), total pressure of carbon dioxide (tCO2), as well as electrolytes: Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO3- - bicarbonate) as well as total protein and albumin concentration were determined. Afterwards, anion gap (AG), strong ion differences (SID), z-values, weak anions and cations (ATOTtp and ATOTalb), strong ion gap (SIGtp, SIGalb) and unmeasured anions (XA) were estimated. Indicators of acid-base balance in blood of Istrian goats did not differ compared to reference values, except blood pH value (7.32) which was at lower limit of reference values, and higher values of pCO2 and tCO2 (11.49 kPa and 28.8 mmol/L) possibly related to pulmonary ventilation due to higher air temperature during summer season.

Zvonko Antunović, Željka Klir, Vatroslav Šerić, Krunoslav Zmaić, Josip Novoselec

Persistency of the Effect of Heat Stress in Simmental Cows in Eastern Croatia

Aiming to determine the persistency of effect of heat stress in Simmental cows reared in Eastern Croatia regarding the parity and susceptibility to heat stress, 539,993 test-day records from 59,821 cows collected in the period from January 2005 to December 2012 were analysed. The cows with determined statistically significant decrease in daily milk production at set temperature-humidity index (THI) threshold value (68 and 72) were included in the further analyses. The persistency of heat stress effect was defined as the drop in daily milk traits in the subsequent milk recordings (1st and 2nd) after the heat stress. The obtained results indicate that cows heat stressed at lower THI threshold value had higher drop in daily milk yield in subsequent milk recordings. Furthermore, cows in first parity experience higher drop comparing to older cows. The negative effect of heat stress on daily milk contents that existed in all cows was more pronounced in the 2nd milk recording. Finally, the lower was THI threshold value (cows more susceptible to heat stress), the stronger and more persistent was heat stress effect. Given the very likely increase in the frequency of days with heat stress in the future, it is necessary to develop a proper mitigation strategy for dairy cattle production.

Vesna Gantner, Denis Kučević, Mirna Gavran, Ranko Gantner, Maja Gregić, Tina Bobić, Marcela Šperanda, Muhamed Brka

The Variation of Air Temperature, Humidity and Wild Boar Population in Hunting Area in Eastern Croatia in Period 2008–2018

Climate change drives population growth of wild boar directly by relaxing the negative effect of cold winters on survival and reproduction, and indirectly by increasing food availability. Air temperature is one of the main climatic elements when observing the climate of an area. Furthermore, humidity is an important factor for normal life of wild animals. Considering the great importance of the wild boar population in Croatia, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between weather conditions and population size (regarding the categories: offspring, young, middle-aged, and mature) of wild boar population in hunting ground in Eastern Croatia during the analysed period from year 2008 to year 2018. Based on the conducted research following could be pointed out: during the analysed period from year 2008 till year 2018 the mean yearly air temperature varied in interval from 11–13 °C, during the analysed period from year 2008 till year 2018 the mean yearly humidity varied in interval from 76–84%, the lowest total number of offspring was determined in year 2017. Since the offspring are extremely susceptible to inadequate environmental conditions especially low temperature the decrease of boar population could be expected during the period characterised by extreme environmental conditions.

Mirna Gavran, Maja Gregić, Vesna Gantner

Determination of Meat Quality in Extensively Reared Akkaraman Sheep Breed

The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of breed on meat quality of Akkaraman sheep breed reared in extensive production systems in Turkey. Animal material for the study consisted of 32 male lambs belonging to Akkaraman sheep breed in three and six month age groups raised solely on pasture after weaning. Post weaning 16 of each animal were slaughtered at 90 days and 16 of each animal was slaughtered at 180 days of age. The meat quality factors such as cooking loss and shear force were determined instrumentally on the M. longissimus dorsi (MLD) and M. semitendinosus (MST). Some muscle characteristics belong to M. longissimus dorsi (MLD) such as backfat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width and muscle area were determined in two different age group. Fatty acid composition were determined only in M. longissimus dorsi. The effect of age and muscle type on cooking loss and shear force were significant (P < 0.01). Muscle area in 3 and 6 month old lambs were 9.72 and 15.95 cm2, respectively, while muscle depth for the same ages were 3.24 and 3.88 cm, respectively. Lambs with three months of age group showed slight superiority in terms of muscle area, muscle depth and muscle width in Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) samples. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) composition was significantly influenced by age differences while conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was not statistically significant on the age differences. The study results clearly showed that age significantly affects some of muscle fatty acid composition and muscle characteristics.

Ahmet Engin Tüzün, Onur Yilmaz

The Effect of Horse Age and Competitive Season on Stress Indicators in Jumping Horses in Running Track

Aiming determination of the effect of horse age and competitive season (May, July, September) on stress indicators in jumping horses in running track, research was performed on 14 studs (7 younger, and 7 older) trained and bred in the same conditions. The stress indicators (heartbeats, cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations in saliva) were measured or sampled before, during and at the end of the training - running track. The significance of the differences in stress indicators due to horse age regarding the competitive season was tested by t-test (PROC GLM, SAS/STAT). Based on conducted research it could be concluded that all analyzed stress indicators: heartbeats, and cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations in saliva, during the entire competitive season, were higher in younger (less experienced) comparing to older (more experienced) horses. Furthermore, all analyzed stress indicators were highest in July that is in the peak of competitive season. Since every physical activity causes a certain amount of stress, monitoring of stress indicators, especially heart-beats could be used for routine evaluation of horse preparedness for a particular activity.

Maja Gregić, Mirjana Baban, Pero Mijić, Tina Bobić, Dragan Dokić, Muhamed Brka, Vesna Gantner

Agricultural Economics

Frontmatter

Stakeholder and Social Networks: Basis for Developing Pasture Management Strategies

Pastures in Shara Mountain are managed by the Public enterprise for management of Pastures (PEMP) in the Republic of North Macedonia. The national pasture development strategy is still not ascertained, thus many structural questions remain unsolved. Strengthening the capacities for pasture management is very significant, hence the need to identify all relevant stakeholders on horizontal and vertical level that can contribute in the proper information diffusion and raise public awareness among all affected actors in the pasture management network. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to describe certain aspects of social complexity of pasture management structures in order to provide grounds for developing sustainable management strategy. Combining methods such as social network analysis (SNA) with stakeholder analysis can often contribute to the richness in the analysis and add to the understanding of relations. Therefore, the analysis primarily aims to identify the stakeholders in the context of mountain grazing areas of Shara Mountain, but also present the relations and information sharing network of the actors at regional and local levels on horizontal level, and the vertical and horizontal interplay between the actors at different levels such as their institutional and commercial associates. Mapping each stakeholders’ positions and roles in the communication network and information transfer is expected to provide a base for developing strategy tailored to each stakeholders’ future involvement in the pasture management system.

Emelj Tuna, Aleksandra Martinovska Stojcheska

Exploring the Links Between Farmers’ Intention to Apply for Rural Development Program and Networks

The rural areas in North Macedonia encompass around half of the territory and population in the country, where agriculture is core activity and source of income, with lack of other employment opportunities. The rural development program (RDP) budget is not fully utilized. Informal networks among rural population are still the most valuable source of social capital and information exchange, whereas formal networks, such as associations or cooperatives, are still lacking to ensure their sustainable and functional role. This paper explores the factors influencing farmers’ intention to apply for RDP, with an emphasis on network membership. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Capital Theory are used as framework. A direct survey on 296 family farms was carried out in 2014. The study is conducted using multivariate statistics, structural equation modelling and social network analysis. The model explains farmers’ mid-term intention to use RDP. Farmers’ attitudes and perceived behavioral controls, as well as network activity and participation, significantly influence the intention to apply for RDP funds. Network participation, as well as education levels and investment tendency are positively related to the intention to use RDP. These findings could be reflected in appropriate measures to encourage farmers’ participation in institutionalized networks, thus in addition to their primary aim, to increase the RDP effectiveness as means of providing better opportunities and quality of life in rural areas.

Aleksandra Martinovska Stojcheska, Ana Kotevska, Emelj Tuna, Ana Simonovska

Food Technologies

Frontmatter

Content and Nutritional Value of Selected Biogenic Elements in Monofloral Sunflower Bee-Collected Pollen from Serbia

Pollen (floral or bee-collected) can be used as a good source of different nutrients including several important biogenic elements (minerals). The aim of this study was to determine content of selected biogenic elements (phosphorous, potassium, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc) in monofloral bee-collected pollen originated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants grown in Serbia and to estimate its nutritional value regarding to elements content. In that purpose ICP-OES analytical method was applied. According to obtained results the examined pollen sample contains above mentioned elements in following quantities: P – 3523.98 mg/kg; K – 2869.13 mg/kg; S – 1951.74 mg/kg; Ca – 1919.20 mg/kg; Mg – 654.36 mg/kg; Fe –83.55 mg/kg; Zn – 45.92 mg/kg of dry weight. Based on recommended daily intakes for iron, phosphorus and zinc application of pollen, as food or food ingredient, will cover meaningful part of human needs for these three important elements.

Aleksandar Ž. Kostić, Biljana P. Dojčinović, Nebojša Nedić, Danijel D. Milinčić, Nebojša Ð. Pantelić, Sladjana P. Stanojević, Miroljub B. Barać, Živoslav Lj. Tešić, Mirjana B. Pešić

Metal Content in Honey with Different Coloring from Industrial Areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Honey is the food which is used by humans since ancient times and is highly valued due to its nutritional value. Most metals which are found in soil - plants system can be found in honey also. The aim of this research is to see could some metals from industrial areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina be found in honey samples and to see is there a difference in amount of metals in dark and light versions of honey. In honey samples some basic quality parameters were measured: water activity, pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, dry matter content. Also, concentrations of five metals were determined: K, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. Concentration of metals were determined by means of FAAS (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) and FP (flame photometry). For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used, one – way ANOVA, and correlation. The results are showing differences between honeys from different industrial areas, and among honeys of different coloring. High correlations (above 0.900) were found between concentrations of K and pH (0.962) and between K and EC (0.975).

Josip Jurković, Mejrima Ploskić, Senad Murtić, Teofil Gavrić, Lejla Biber, Enisa Omanović Mikličanin, Anera Kazlagić

Quantification of Selected Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Vegetables, and Health Risk Assessment

Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and their importance in diet is determined by its chemical composition. Numerous studies indicate a high degree of contamination of soil and plants produced in certain agro-ecological conditions, especially near urban and industrial areas. Accordingly, toxic and potentially toxic elements (aluminum, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc) were quantified in edible parts of four vegetable species (potato, cabbage, carrot and broccoli) by means of inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES). In addition, health risk assessment was done and expressed through estimated weekly intake of elements (EWI) and hazard quotient (HQ). Samples of each species originating from different localities were collected from three green markets in the city of Belgrade (Serbia). The content of studied elements ranged from 1.32 to 4.00, 0.31 to 5.77, 3.50 to 23.11, 1.82 to 11.17 and 2.11 to 10.62 mg/kg for aluminum, cooper, manganese, nickel and zinc, respectively. Chromium was detected in carrot sample (1.76 mg/kg), whereas concentration of lead in two samples of broccoli exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (>0.3 mg/kg) set by the national regulations. The average estimated weekly intakes for Al, Cu, and Zn were within the safe limits set by FAO/WHO, while for Ni and Pb in some vegetables were considerably higher than proposed values. In respect to the obtained results, a great weekly health risk was indicated for chromium, nickel and lead with the highest HQ values: 2.44, 10.32 and 2.02, respectively. The results of the study impose the necessity for continuous monitoring of harmful elements content in individual vegetable crops as well as strict regulative guide-lines in order to diminish possibility of contamination.

Irena Miljković, Jelena Popović-Djordjević, Miloš B. Rajković, Aleksandar Ž. Kostić, Blaženka Popović, Ilija Brčeski

Development and In-House Validation of HACH Spectrophotometry Method for Determination of Phosphoric Acid in Cola Beverages

A cheap and a rapid HACH spectrophotometric method 8048 was developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of phosphoric acid in soft drinks. The developed method resulted in phosphoric acid exhibiting linearity in the range from 0.02 to 2.5 mg/L. The precision is exemplified by relative standard deviation of 3.45%. Percentage Mean recovery was found to be in the range of 90–107%, during accuracy studies. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.0075 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L respectively. Accordingly, it is concluded that the developed HACH spectrophotometric method 8048 is accurate, precise, linear and rugged, and therefore the method can be used for the routine analysis of phosphoric acid in soft drinks.

Lejla Jesenković-Habul, Amira Čustović, Selma Dizdarević

Analysis of the Fat Substitution in Biscuit Type Cookies by the Addition of Inulin

Cookies are the products with a high content of sugar and fat, and one of the methods of improv- ing their nutritional profile is the addition of the functional products in the recipe for making cakes, such as inulin. Addition of inulin, reduce the fat content in the final product, without a significant change in the water content and sensory properties. This study aimed at developing formulations of cookies with partial replacement of fat by inulin as well as evaluating physical, chemical and sensory characteristics. In the recipe for the cookies 2%, 4% and 6% of inulin was added with the reduction in fat content. Cookies with inulin content of 2% had reduction of the total fat 44.6%, while in the cookies with 4% of inulin, the reduction of the fat content was 64.8%, and the cookies with 6% of inulin had the reduction of the fat 75.8%. In the samples with 2% and 6% of inulin, the percent of the moisture was higher with regard to a standard, but, in the sample with 2% of inulin, the percent of the moisture was lower (p < 0.01) regard to a standard. Once content of inulin was increased, the size of the cookies after baking also increased; all samples had a higher thickness regard to a standard, and the diameter of the cookies was higher regard to a standard in the all samples, except in case of sample with 2% of inulin. According to the results of the sensory analysis, the Commision classified the samples with 2% and 6% of inulin into the category very good and the samples with 4% of inulin in the category good.

Mirsad Veladžić, Suzana Jahić, Aida Džaferović

Fermentation of Cow’s Milk and Soy Milk Mixture with L. acidophilus Probiotic Bacteria with Yoghurt Culture

The aim of the paper was to produce a functional product and to determine the physico - chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of probiotic beverages produced from different mixtures of cow’s milk and soy milk. The ratios of cow’s milk and soy milk were 100:0%, 25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25% and 0:100%. The samples were fermented with probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (La5) with the addition of yogurt culture. The fermentation of samples was performed at +43 ℃ until coagulation and pH value of 4.6. Characteristics of the obtained beverages were monitored during storage at 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage at +4 ℃. Produced probiotic beverages were observed and change in active acidity, titration acidity, change in the number od probiotic bacteria, and sensory properties and acceptability of products were tracked. After fermentation, the number of lactobacilli in the samples produced gradually decreased during 21 days, but was still above the probiotic minimum (CFU 106 mL−1) so the samples had probiotic properties. Samples of fermented beverages got the best score of their sensory properties on the seventh day of preservation. The sensory properties of the samples were mainly influenced by the type and ratio of the used milk. Mixing cow’s milk with soy milk significantly improved the sensory properties of the product. The acceptance test showed good acceptance of fermented beverages samples by potential consumers, apart from the sample that was 100% soy milk.

Edina Šertović, Zlatan Sarić, Rajka Božanić, Miroljub Barać, Irena Barukčić, Aleksandar Kostić

Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk by the ELISA Method in the Una-Sana Canton

The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw milk should be continuously monitored to protect the population from the risks associated with proven toxicity and carcinogenicity. The ELISA method offers many advantages, including shorter time of analysis, simultaneous analysis of a large number of samples, acceptable as a screening method, limited use of organic solvents, absence of complicated sample preparation steps and simplicity of analytical procedure compared to long-lasting and expensive chromatographic techniques. The test is highly sensitive with a detection limit of 0.01 μg/kg and a quantitative range of 0.01–0.1 μg/kg. In the Una-Sana Canton in 2018, 27 samples of raw cow milk were analysed and all the analyses were carried out twice. The highest concentration of AFM1 was in December and it was 0.032 μg/kg, which is a permissible concentration of AFM1 according to the Regulations on Maximum levels for certain contaminants in food, Official Gazette No. 37/09, which is in compliance with European Union regulations (EU) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). In a case of a positive result, the samples are analysed several times and sent to a certified chemical laboratory for the super analysis for the confirmation of the results.

Huska Jukić, Samira Dedić, Miloš Rodić, Zlatko Jusufhodžić, Dinko Demirović

Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Blueberry Species from Prozor Region

Blueberries are considered as functional foods due to their high content of bioactive compounds. This study was undertaken to investigate total phenol content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activities of wild bilberry and two highbush blueberry cultivars Bluecrop and Goldtraube from Bosnia and Hercegovina. Extracts were investigated for their antioxidant properties using ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results indicated highest phenolic content (280,55 ± 7,22 mg GA/100 g FW) in wild bilberry. Wild bilberry showed the highest antioxidant activity regardless of the method used. Content of total anthocyanins detected in wild bilberries (178,7 ± 0,46 mg cyaniding-3-glycoside)/100 g FW) was higher than in highbush blueberry cultivars investigated. Significant relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content indicates that the phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of these fruits.

Maja Kazazic, Jasmina Aliman, Suada Djogic, Maida Djapo-Lavic

Dynamics of Microbial Populations Activities After the Application of Nicosulfuron

When a pesticide gets into soil, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors such as physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil and climatic factors. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on microbial populations and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity. The aim of this study was to analyze post nicosulfuron application dynamics of microbial populations’ activity in the soil. By standard methodology, soil pH value was determined as slightly acid to slightly alkaline, humus and available K content as moderate to high, and available P content as very low to moderate. Microbial abundance (total number of bacteria, number of ammonification bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) was determined by agar plate method. The application of nicosulfuron in all samples and at both locations has resulted in increased number of bacteria, fungi and ammonification bacteria and reduction of the number of actinomycetes. The highest positive effect on the number of microorganisms was 15 days after treatment with nicosulfuron.

Saud Hamidović, Blažo Lalević, Berina Borovac, Anera Kazlagić, Sanel Haseljić, Vera Raičević, Mirha Đikić

Evaluation of Microbiological Parameters of Drinking Water from the Dobrenica Water Supply System in Ostrožac na Uni

The Dobrenica water supply system in Ostrožac on Uni was originally intended only for drinking water supply for the Sedra Hotel. Later on, the left and the right side of the village Ostrožac on Uni, i.e. Donji Srbljani, were connected to the Dobrenica water supply. Since the Sedra Hotel has been closed for three years, the maintenance of the water supply system and the chlorination of water has ceased. At the moment, the water is chlorinated at the entrance to the hotel facility due to special circumstances (holding facilities for migrants), while the villagers still receive unsafe and nonchlorinated water. Water samples were analysed for basic microbiological parameters: Echcerichia coli and coliform bacteria, total aerobic colony count at 22 °C and 37 °C, intestinal enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium perfringens. Microbiological analyses of water samples were performed in the laboratory of the Public Institution Veterinary Institute in Bihać, which has accredited methods required by the Standard BAS EN ISO/IEC 17025: 2006 issued by the Institute for Accreditation of BiH, and MACs are taken from the Guidelines for drinking-water quality (“Official Gazette of BiH”, No. 40/2010, 43/2010, 30/2012 and 62/2017). The results of the analyses indicate the presence of coliform bacteria, Echcerichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens, and intestinal enterococci. A high percentage of unsafe water samples indicate the need to monitor the micro- biological quality of water for safer drinking water supply to the population. In order to make the water safe for further use, it is necessary to first rinse the pipes and then proceed with regular chlorination.

Samira Dedić, Huska Jukić, Miloš Rodić, Zlatko Jusufhodžić, Aida Džaferović

Seasonal Variations in Deposition of Fat in the Body of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus Mykiss (Walbaum 1792) and Its Effect on Yield and Quality of Meat in Cages at Commercial Breeding Farm

The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of seasonal changes in the degree of fat deposition in various parts of the body and its impact on yield VSI (Viscero Somatic Index) of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792), under the same conditions of feeding in cage farming systems of commercial fish farms. The task was to identify what is and what impact seasonal variation and environment on yield and quality of the meat of rainbow trout, which is fed with same nutrients to achieve a certain weight. As a basic experimental material has been used rainbow trout produced for the Bosnian and foreign markets of varying body weight: First group of fish between 150 ± 5 g, group II 200 ± 5 g and III group 250 ± 5 g. The same is provided from the local fish farm Salakovac on the Neretva River. A total of 180 fish samples were analyzed.This test showed there were highly significant statistical differences in the content of: fat (0.000), moisture (0.000), and protein (0.000) relative to the weight of the samples. Gathering data confirmed there were statistically significant differences between the seasons March-November in fat content (0.019), and November-December (0.033). At the same time proteins showed statistically significant differences only in relation to season of March-August (0,001). The results of analysis of the value of Viscero Somatic Index (VSI) showed very highly significant statistical difference in relation to season (0,000).

Enver Karahmet, Senita Isaković, Samir Muhamedagić, Almir Toroman, Nermina Đulančić

Determination of Antioxidant and Heavy Metals in Cold-Pressed Edible Oils

The aim of this research was to determine the antioxidant and heavy metals content in various types of cold-pressed oil produced in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples of cold-pressed pumpkin, sunflower and linseed oils were collected during two seasons and analyzed. During the first season, cold-pressed pumpkin oil had a significantly higher content of total phenols, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Cold-pressed linseed oil, during the first season, had a significantly higher content of chlorophylls and carotenoids in comparison with the same oil in the second season. Cold-pressed sunflower oil from the first season had a significantly higher content of total phenols and chlorophylls in comparison with the sunflower oil from the second season. In the first season, cold-pressed sunflower oil compared to other oils had a significantly higher content of Pb, Cu and Cd. In the second season, cold-pressed pumpkin and linseed oil contained a significantly higher amount of Cu compared to cold-pressed sunflower oil. The content of Cd is significantly higher in cold-pressed linseed and sunflower oil compared with cold-pressed pumpkin oil. In the second season cold-pressed linseed oil had significantly higher amount of heavy metals compared to linseed oil from the first season.

Enisa Nezirević-Nizić, Selma Čorbo, Sedina Podrug, Munevera Begić

Fatty Acid Composition and Stability of Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils

The aim of this study was to determine the composition of fatty acids and stability of different cold-pressed vegetable oils manufactured in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Three kinds of cold-pressed oils were used during the experiment (pumpkin oil, linseed oil and sunflower oil). The composition of fatty acids (both saturated and unsaturated), peroxide value, and content of free fatty acids has been determined on tested samples. The largest amount of saturated fatty acids during the two-year research was found in pumpkin oil with the largest share of palmitic acid. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in all the tested samples was larger in the first year of research. The highest content of unsaturated fatty acids in two years of research was found in linseed oil with largest share of α-linolenic acid. The highest peroxide value and content of free fatty acids were found in linseed oil. Both parameters that were tested had lower values in the second year of testing in all the samples.

Munevera Begić, Enisa Nezirević-Nizić, Selma Čorbo, Sedina Podrug, Zilha Ašimović, Ševal Muminović

Innovative Technologies in Agriculture and Human Health

Frontmatter

Impact of Parental BMI on Adolescents’ BMI: Moderating Effects of Gender

Nutritional status is influenced by many factors. One of the most important factors is parental BMI not only because of genetics but also because of food choices parents make for children. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between parents’ BMI and children’s BMI. The sample for this study consisted of 280 adolescents, 131 boys (46.8%) and 149 girls (53.2%) living in Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We measured adolescents’ BMI and we used parents’ self-reported measures to calculate parents’ and childrens’ BMI. The correlation was significant between mothers’ BMI and childrens’ BMI (r = .24, p < .01) but not between fathers’ BMI and childrens’ BMI (r = .08, p = .16). In relation to the child’s gender the correlation between mothers’ BMI is stronger for the boys (r = .28, p < .01) than for the girls (r = .20, p = .013) and fathers’ BMI was correlated with boys’ BMI (r = .19, p = .032), but not with girls’ BMI (r = .012, p = .88). The results of this study point to the complex relationship between parents’ and childrens’ BMI.Because of the complexity of this issue and the need for more precise results, it is recommended to collect more data, with larger sample size and to include additional environmental factors into the prediction model.

Irzada Taljic, Haris Memisevic

Information and Communication Technologies for Smart and Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculture faces different environmental, economic and social challenges that make the case for transition towards sustainability. Digitization is one of the most significant ongoing transformation processes in global agriculture. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) range from traditional communication aids (e.g. telephones, televisions), internet and mobile applications, to Big Data analytics and information systems, Cloud computing, Internet of Things, remote sensing and drones, blockchain and artificial intelligence. Different terms have been used to refer to the application of ICTs in agriculture e.g. digital agriculture, e-agriculture, smart agriculture, precision agriculture. This review paper analyses the potential of ICT in agricultural sector. In particular, it explores the benefits of ICT in terms of agriculture smartness and sustainability, provides an overview on the main technologies used, delineates the contours of the smart farming market and landscape, and analyses the potential drawbacks of such a ‘digital revolution’ in agriculture. Smart agriculture is presented by some scholars and practitioners as the ‘Third Green Revolution’, after the plant breeding and genetics revolutions. It is widely recognised that ICTs can help reducing inefficiencies, increasing resource productivity, decreasing management costs, and improving traceability and transparency. However, some caution is needed to make the ongoing ‘digital revolution’ in agriculture inclusive for small-scale farmers and women, especially in developing countries. Moreover, some threats and challenges relating to digital and smart technologies need to be appropriately addressed through policies to support the development of the necessary market and legal architecture for ICT and smart farming, with due consideration to ethical questions.

Hamid El Bilali, Francesco Bottalico, Giovanni Ottomano Palmisano, Roberto Capone

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Fresh Leaf Extract of Aloe vera barbadensis Miller, Aloe vera and Sempervivum tectorum and Its Antimicrobial Activity Studies

New advances in technology have inspired the development and application of new products in food industry, which brings to new challenges featuring food safety. Demands from consumers for more natural foodstuff are increasing, which puts aside conventional methods for controlling the microbial growth, such as thermal processing or adding chemical preservatives. New methods are being highlighted, due to features such as controlling microbial growth without damaging the product. Nowadays, nanotechnology is considered as promising technology for the food industry in general, as well as for new methodologies in the entire agri-food chain.The use of plant extract while synthesizing metal nanoparticles represents an eco-friendly and promising alternative to traditional chemical methods. In this study, a new green method of preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fresh leaf extract of Aloe vera barbadensis Miller, Aloe vera and Sempervivum tectorum has been proposed. Antimicrobial activity study was assessed using Kirby-Bauer test, commonly known as disc diffusion method. AgNPs demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Salmonella spp. but showed no effect on Escherichia coli. This study indicates that AgNPs synthesized this way could be a new potential candidate for use in agricultural, biological, and pharmaceutical applications for fighting infections caused by microorganisms.

Anera Kazlagić, Amela Lagumdžija, Berina Borovac, Saud Hamidović, Odej Ali Abud, Enisa Omanović-Mikličanin

Effects of Stabilizing Agent on the Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity Studies

In this study, a new green method of preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fresh leaf extract of different types of onion has been proposed. The effects of stabilizing agent on the green synthesized AgNPs has been investigated, as well as the antimicrobial activity using Disk diffusion method. AgNPs demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Salmonella spp.

Anera Kazlagić, Ediba Mršo, Odej Ali Abud, Berina Borovac, Saud Hamidović, Enisa Omanović-Mikličanin

Application and Impact of Nanotechnology in Sport

Nanotechnology has been widely used in the last decade. Today, nanotechnology brings many benefits in our daily lives.The term “nano” in theory appeared much earlier in the same application in various areas, due to not having adequate equipment nor technology that could explore such “small” particles.In addition to all possible applications, nanotechnology, has one of the most important application and that is sports. Improvement of sports equipment by nanoparticles in many sports it brought to a clear development in the performance of athletes, achieving better results and quality of new equipment.In this review, we are approaching nanotechnologies and sports, the possibility of applying nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, silicon dioxide nanoparticles and others to create sports equipment in various sports such as cycling, golf, tennis, skiing, surfing. The impact of nanotechnology, as a new technology in sports has been briefly explained.

Maid Ćibo, Adis Šator, Anera Kazlagić, Enisa Omanović-Mikličanin

Backmatter

Additional information