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2020 | Book

4th International Conference on Internet of Things and Connected Technologies (ICIoTCT), 2019

Internet of Things and Connected Technologies


About this book

This book presents the proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Internet of Things and Connected Technologies (ICIoTCT), held on May 9–10, 2019, at Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India. The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to usher in a revolutionary, fully interconnected “smart” world, with relationships between objects and their environment and objects and people becoming more tightly intertwined. The prospect of the Internet of Things as a ubiquitous array of devices bound to the Internet could fundamentally change how people think about what it means to be “online”.

The ICIotCT 2019 conference provided a platform to discuss advances in Internet of Things (IoT) and connected technologies, such as various protocols and standards. It also offered participants the opportunity to interact with experts through keynote talks, paper presentations and discussions, and as such stimulated research. With the recent adoption of a variety of enabling wireless communication technologies, like RFID tags, BLE, ZigBee, embedded sensor and actuator nodes, and various protocols such as CoAP, MQTT and DNS, IoT has moved on from its infancy. Today smart sensors can collaborate directly with machines to automate decision-making or to control a task without human involvement. Further, smart technologies, including green electronics, green radios, fuzzy neural approaches, and intelligent signal processing techniques play an important role in the development of the wearable healthcare devices.

Table of Contents

A Structural Feature Based Automatic Vehicle Classification System at Toll Plaza

Most of the existing toll collection systems in vehicle toll plazas in India are manual in nature. Automation of toll collection systems at toll plazas will make the system a lot faster and fraud-free. The primary task for building such a system is to classify the vehicles arriving at toll plazas because accordingly the amount of toll varies. Most of the existing works in this regard have focused on tracking and detecting of on-road vehicles, but very few of them tried to classify the vehicles. This article presents a novel machine learning based approach to detect vehicles arriving in toll plazas along with their types or classes. In this approach, various structural features are extracted from each vehicle before feeding those features to different classifiers. An exhaustive experiment has been performed on a large self-generated dataset using five different classifiers - Gaussian naive Bayes, Multinomial naive Bayes, Logistic regression, Random forest and Support Vector Classifier (SVC). An encouraging accuracy of 96.15% is obtained from the present system.

Vivek Singh, Amish Srivastava, Snehal Kumar, Rajib Ghosh
Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease with Genetic Search Intersection Based Feature Selection Technique

The objective of this study had reduced the identification time and to get best diagnosis model in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The target was development of the strong and computationally proficient model for classification of CKD. This work had used four classification models like Naive Bayes, Multilayer Perceptron, OneR, Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to classify the CKD data set and compared the classification accuracy with all classifier. Similarly Feature Selection Technique (FST), ranking based namely Chi Squared AttributeEval (CSAE), One-R AttributeEval (ORAE) and Search based namely Genetic Search-J48 (GS-J48), Genetic Search-CART (GS-CART) have used. The contribution of this research work is to recognize and classify the CKD problem and propose a new FST namely Genetic Search Intersection Based Feature Selection Technique (GS-IBFST). The classifier offers higher accuracy with GS-IBFST compare to without FSTs and existing FSTs.

Sanat Kumar Sahu, Prem Kumar Chandrakar
Analysis of Wormhole Detection Features in Wireless Sensor Networks

Security is very important for resource constrained wireless sensor networks due to their fundamental nature. The possible attacks in wireless sensor networks include sinkhole, wormhole, sybil, selective forwarding, blackhole etc. Wormhole is a gateway of many more attacks. To launch the attack is easy, but to detect it is very hard. For launching the attack, it is not required to know the cryptographic material or protocols used in the network. A malicious node attracts the traffic from one location and tunnels to another location and disturbs the whole routing process. In this paper, we have discussed various features for wormhole attack detection in wireless sensor networks.

Manish Patel, Akshai Aggarwal, Nirbhay Chaubey
Propagating Minimal Messages Using Multi Set-Cover in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

Wireless (ad hoc) network is a group of nodes to communicate with each other over a wireless channel to receive and transmit data packets among their neighbors residing in the transmission range. We propose to build a wireless ad hoc network to maintain data transmission in a cost-effective way with minimal data packets. This transmission of data can commence in conditions/circumstances which are challenged and harsh to continue without failure caused by any network, environmental or other factors and ensure fault tolerance in such kind of noisy network. In spite of having vast research experiments in this area, existent studies shows lack effort in establishing both balanced coverage of two hop neighbors of sender and fault tolerance in the network with minimal message propagation at the same time. In this paper, a new algorithm using two hop distant neighbor information is proposed and a special version of set cover problem suited to ad hoc networks is used to output multiple forwarder lists by which, all the uncovered two hop neighbors are covered once. Extensive simulations made in NS2 implementation show that the algorithm provides high delivery rate (88% in average) of packets and transmission of average number of packets is lower than existent Dominant Pruning algorithm. Later we analyzed the reachability aspect of the algorithm by calculating the percentage of nodes (receivers) reached in presence of various fractions of malfunctioning nodes integrated deliberately by us in the network.

Sadia Sharmin
Multi Header Based Ultra Low Power MTCMOS Technique to Reduce NBTI Effect in Combinational Circuit

With the advancement of technology, negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) emerges out as a major problem for VLSI circuits. Meanwhile, the leakage power increases dramatically as the supply/threshold voltage continues to scale down. These two issues present extreme unwavering quality issues for CMOS devices. Since both the NBTI and leakage are reliant on input test vector of the circuit however input vector control strategy isn’t viable for bigger circuits. Thus in this paper two design is proposed (1) Single header Based Ultra low Power Diode Tri-mode Technique is designed for reducing leakage and delay of the circuit (2) Multi header Based Ultra low Power Diode Tri mode Technique with Body Bias on all sleep pMOS transistor to mitigate NBTI effect. Experimentations are done on 1 bit full adder circuit with the usage of tanner EDA at 90 nm CMOS technology node and supply voltage 1 V. The results reveal that by using first proposed technique leakage current is reduces by 74.93% and 0.217% respectively as compare to Stacking with delay based MTCMOS method and ULP diode based MTCMOS method. First proposed design is also effective in terms of delay. Result shows that delay get reduced by 20.91% and 7.84% as compare to prevalent techniques. Second Proposed design at 50% Duty cycle is very much effective for NBTI effect mitigation. Experimental result shows that Second Proposed design with reduction in duty cycle(from 100% to 50%) the Vth shift on pMOS transistor reduces and with this decrement in Vth of pMOS transistor NBTI effect on the circuit will get reduced.

Anjan Kumar, Shelesh Krishna Saraswat, Preeti Agrawal, Shweta Singh
Task Allocation in Distributed Real Time Database Systems in IoT

In present scenario, distributed and parallel systems in the form of grid, cloud and even cloud based Internet of things (IoT) are cater the needs of demand for computing capacity. Internet of Things (IoT) is a new come up to connect objects/things and therefore transmit information between a variety of entities of the corporeal world or to the control centers where interpret this information. By use of available resources are play very crucial role to ensure systems schedule. In distributed (Real time) database system, data allocation is one of the major problems. It affects the efficiency of the access to the requested data and thereby has large impact on the performance of the whole system. The data allocation involves data splitting, fragment replication, allocation choice to name a few issues. The distributed database system design putting all these factors together into consideration is complex and a Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) hard. By applying Genetic Algorithm (GA), this work presents a virtual machine (VM) scheduling model to address the job allocation problem aiming to minimize the turnaround time. GA helps to attain a reasonable time for the query execution. The results of experiments have been examined to appraise the efficiency of our approach by comparing with best fit VM scheduling approach.

Shetan Ram Choudhary, C. K. Jha
Optimization of Block Diagonalization for MU-MIMO Downlink System Using PSO

Multiuser Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MU-MIMO) system is to serve a number of users simultaneously. Here the aim is performance enhancement of an MU-MIMO system in terms of capacity and bit error rate (BER). To enhance the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system particle swarm optimizer (PSO) combined with Block Diagonalization (BD) precoding technique. PSO algorithm employing on BER function of BD to minimizing BER of the system. The main advantage of PSO is that in case of the performance index cannot be formulated by simple equations it can find out the solution. Simulation results show that PSO-BD can achieve significantly superior BER performance than precoding technique over the different fading channel environment like Rayleigh, Rician, and Nakagami.

Archana Doneriya, Manish Panchal, Jaya Dipti Lal
Simulation Analysis of DDoS Attack in IoT Environment

Now a day, Internet of Things (IoT) has touched almost every corner of human and unimaginably affect our life by its applications. Resources and environment are being more susceptible to security threats like Virus, DoS/DDoS, Ransomware, Spyware, IP Spoofing, etc. To consider security services and IoT devices capabilities, low power and processing constraints, response rate, this paper has proposed a Decision Tree-Based IDS for IoT environment to prevent intra and inter network from DoS/DDoS attacks. In this paper, the analysis is done in two ways- (a) Power consumption and (b) Attack Detection. The experiments are conducted in the Cooja simulator pre-installed in Contiki operating system within the virtual machine. From attack detection mode it is concluded that C5 Decision Tree-Based IDS model shows high accuracy with low false alarm rate (FAR). Whereas, from power consumption mode it is observed that the simulated network suffers from high-power consumption and around three times more CPU power and two-time Listening Power consumption during attack as compare to their normal behavior.

Vikash Kumar, Vivek Kumar, Ditipriya Sinha, Ayan Kumar Das
Blockchain Application Framework for Priority Metric Based Academic Record Repository

Blockchain as the name suggests can be virtually visualized as an endless chain of blocks. The complex algorithms and computational power required to process the transactions for inserting blocks into the chain laid to the basic structure. Blockchain functionally work on consent of all, removing the requirement of middle man authority. This paper proposed a Blockchain fabric where an academic track record can be managed for every Indian Citizen after getting verified through Aadhaar Number. The resultant information generated by the proposed fabric would be immutable, decentralized and on distributed ledger. This is beneficial for all stakeholders like, government recruitment portal, institutes, organizations, etc. All electronic academic records, summary, vitals, transcripts, certifications etc. are mapped (Aadhaar UID) and are kept on Blockchain fabric, which can be accessed anytime with no loss of data (fully secured). In the proposed framework, all Stakeholders can filter the data as per skill set in demand. Job information and opportunities can reach to beneficiary directly with minimum efforts.

Ajita Banerjee, Arman Singhal, Lokesh Gujral, Kavita Choudhary
Design of Attribute Based Authenticated Group Key Agreement Protocol Without Pairing

The paper present a multi-party attribute based authenticated key agreement protocol without using bilinear pairing. Attribute based key agreement is needed in verity of applications wherever a fine grained access control is required like design of access control for cloud storage, military applications, broadcast encryption etc. Such applications usually need to establish, a secure session among the participants without knowing their actual identities for subsequent cryptographic (symmetric key) operations. Instead of identities, the participants are authenticates based on a descriptive set of attributes (called as access policy). As per the literature-survey the protocols based on attribute based authentication presented so far requires bilinear pairing computations. Since the implementation of pairing is much costlier than ordinary scalar point multiplication over elliptic curve. Therefore pairing free protocols over attribute-based authentication is much desirable especially in resource constraint network. The present paper employs elliptic curve arithmetic along with Lagrange interpolation instead of bilinear pairing computations. The authentication process of the protocol is information theoretically secure while the confidentiality of the shared key relies on the intractability of Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP).

Reshu Verma, Abhimanyu Kumar
A Pairing Free Attribute-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Using ECC

This paper presents a two party attribute based authenticated key agreement protocol without using bilinear pairing. Attribute based key agreement is required in several applications wherever a fine grained access control is required like cloud storage, military applications, broadcast encryption etc. In several applications a secure session between the participants is established without knowing their actual identities. In that case in place of identities a descriptive set of attributes (called as access policy) is used. The participants having sufficient set of attributes that satisfy the access policy are considered as authenticated and eligible for key establishment. The present paper uses Shamir Secret Sharing, Diffie Hellman Key exchange and elliptic curve arithmetic instead of bilinear pairing computations. The participant is authenticated based on the access policy defined over the set of attributes. The participant who satisfies the set of attributes perform Diffie Hellman key exchange with the other participant. Thus, a secure key is established between the participants. The authentication process of this protocol is information theoretically secure while the confidentiality rely on the intractability of Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP). abstract environment.

Reshu Verma, Abhimanyu Kumar
Analysis of MEMS and Metamaterial Based Sensors and Its Involvement in Nanotechnology

MEMS is very smart and highly demanding field of technology and wide range of applications are prevailing, it includes electrical and mechanical components with the micro range size. In this review paper different sensors are included with critical analysis of idea, Along with categorization of various sensors and their behavior enclosed with result analysis. The comparative study with various angles in terms of the sensing capability, application, and features with parameter Study in proper context. This paper is specifically focused on “metamaterial” based sensors it is newly generated technology and emerging field of research point of view that are the integral part of developing material, metamaterial as absorber, flexible metamaterial sensor domain technology with several applications. The major advantages, disadvantages and big challenges in the path of technology advancement have also been discussed in detail. Furthermore there is also expanded description of the applicability of MEMS and Metamaterial based sensors in versatile area like bionic sensors, structural health monitoring indicated in different fields with analytical manner.

Bhupendra Sharma, Shraddha Gupta, Ashwani Yadav, Rahul Runthala
High Gain Patch Array Antenna for 5G Network Communication and IoT Applications

A new array of patch antenna is proposed in this paper for upcoming 5G networks and IoT applications. The operating frequencies are optimized at 4 different bands ranging from 30 GHz to 50 GHz. Such design is suitable for 5G communication applications for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and it consists of two patches separated by a distance which can be optimized for required different types of parametric combinations. A single point feed is divided by using the Wilkinson’s power divider model to split or combine the power transmitted to or the power received from two patch elements respectively. The designed array has shown comparatively high performance and better directional radiation patterns. The four operating frequencies are observed at 31.0 GHz, 36.4 GHz, 43.4 GHz and 48.5 GHz with simulated return losses observed with approximate values at −44.9 dB, −33.4 dB, −29.2 dB and −23.9 dB respectively. The simulated results show that the efficiency varies from 18% to 23%. The VSWR is very close to unity indicating a good performance of the antenna array. The performance is encouraging and the array antenna is suitable for the applications in upcoming 5G network communication and other IoT applications.

Kishana Ram Kashwan
Authentication and Privacy Preservation in IoT Based Forest Fire Detection by Using Blockchain – A Review

Internet of Things (IoT) has garnered a good chunk of limelight with the emerging advancements in technologies. It comprises of heterogeneous devices embedded with sensors, which are able to communicate directly with each other without any human intervention. In this paper, a survey has been done on authentication and privacy in IoT using Blockchain during Forest Fire. The purpose of Blockchain is to design a data structure to construct a distributed ledger of transactions that cannot be tampered by any third party. The blockchain forms by cryptographically linked blocks of transactions. Public-key cryptography is used to sign transactions among users in blockchain technology. It achieves privacy very strongly as it is very difficult to modify or delete blocks of data which are stored in the ledger of blockchain.

Sreemana Datta, Ayan Kumar Das, Abhijeet Kumar, Khushboo, Ditipriya Sinha
An IoT Based Agri-Cloud Architectural Framework for Monitoring Presence of Fertilizer Under Multilayered Soil Farming

Internet of Things in Precision Agriculture practices has made a long-lasting impact. Advanced agro-machineries helping farmers to increase their farm output and productivity. With addition of IoT enabled devices it is possible to integrate agro-machines and farmers to a network of connected things that shares valuable data with the help of which farmers can make sensible decisions on time. IoT devices boost up the smart farming through its efficient and dependent monitoring and controlling system. In this paper an IoT enable fertilizer applicator machine is proposed for the farmers of the countryside. The demand for the fertilizer is on high everywhere and so its associate problems like ineffective fertilizer placement methods, insufficient penetration of the fertilizer under the soil, unavailability of fertilizer for the crop roots during mid and late season growth stages of plant and many more. One of the possible solutions for these problems is to design and develop the machine which is able to place the fertilizers into different depths of soil so as to make it available to the crop during all growth stages of the crop. Further to monitor the amount and right placement of the fertilizer, an IoT enabled AgroCloud module architecture is proposed that will connect the person through mobile computing. This module will store the data and will communicate to the farmer for the information such as soil properties (pH value, EC), fertilizers presence (N, P, K), environmental condition (moisture, temperature) through smartphones and sensors. The complete model will benefit in increasing the yield through multi depth fertilizing concept along with incorporation of IoT assembly for better practices.

Nikhil V. Bhende, Jayant K. Purohit, Anup A. Junankar
Analysis of Web Usage Patterns to Identify Most Frequently Accessed Web Page by Multiple Users

All Data related to web sites that we access is stored in web logs. Increase in browsing these days has led to increase in size of these web log files. Web Mining is one technique that can be applied to these log files to mine navigational patterns. There are various types of web mining depending upon data mined Content, Usage or Structure. In this paper we focus on Mining of usage patterns: Web Usage Mining to discover most frequently accessed web page by multiple users after preprocessing of log file.

Priyanka Verma, Nishtha Kesswani
A Composite Technique to Fortify Security for DaaS Services in Cloud Environment

Cloud computing gives an extensive amount of virtual storage to users. The demands, the importance and the usage of cloud computing are increasing day by day. Therefore, security problems and threats are also increasing. An individual and any business organization or a company may have a huge amount of data; they cannot store it physically because the cost of that huge data storage will be more. Cloud computing solves this problem by providing the platform to store huge amount of data. The data storage on the cloud can be blend with the other users’ data. This can lead to data protection issues in cloud storage. As confidentiality is the main parameter of security, if confidentiality is broken then it will result in loss of data for individuals and organizations. This data needs to be protect with confidentiality measures before being store on cloud. To provide security of this data we are using composite technique i.e. obfuscation with encryption to fortify the security level. In this paper, we propose a composite technique to increase the security level while reducing the data size, and the time of execution.

Samarjeet Yadav, Pratishtha Saxena, Neelam Dayal, Shiv Prakash
Performance of Dual-Input Storage Based Induction Motor Drive for Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

This paper presents the design and control of a two-input bi-directional DC-DC converter (BDC) and implements it for driving a Fuel-cell based three-phase induction motor drive. The Fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle (FC-HEV) powertrain mainly consists of dc-source, DC-DC converter, inverter, and a driving motor. Usually the single source is used for powering electric vehicles (EVs). However, due to a single source the range of EVs is limited. In this study, two separate dc sources (battery and fuel-cell) are hybridized using a multiport BDC. This BDC is utilized to power FC-HEV drivetrain. The FC-HEVs have to operate in powering mode and braking mode, the performance of induction motor drive in forward powering mode and regenerative braking mode has been discussed. Moreover, for controlling purpose the v/f control is implemented to enhance the performance of EV drive and the simulation results have been obtained in MATLAB environment.

Narayan Yadav, Sushma Gupta, Tripta Thakur
A Lightweight Authentication Scheme for RFID Using ECC

Internet of things (IoT) contains a massive number of “things” which are communicated without human interaction. The “things” refers to a physical device such as bar code, tag, smart card, etc. These devices contain a limited amount of memory and a small processing unit. Hence, these devices require a lightweight scheme to provide authentication. However, there are various security issues with these tags such as tracking, cloning, replay attacks, disclosure attack, etc. To remove these security issues, many researchers proposed various authentication schemes. However, there are various security issues, large storage and communication requirement in these schemes. A new lightweight authentication scheme for RFID tag has been proposed which uses hash function and elliptic curve cryptography to authenticate tag and server. The hash function provides irreversibly to the scheme. The performance analysis of the scheme is analyzed in terms of communication, storage, and memory required to store the data. The scheme requires 3 hash function and 1 multiplication to mutual authentication between tag and reader. The scheme provides mutual authentication, forward security and also resistance from tracking attack, cloning attack.

Atul Kumar, Ankit Kumar Jain
Lean and Industry 4.0 Strive to Create Smart Factory Through Integration of Systems: An Exploratory Review

Lean manufacturing concept is being widely used for several decades by industries and service organizations to ease operational complexity and enhance productivity. It is so despite the debated criticism about drifting definition and priorities of lean with time. In 1980s, focus of lean was on reduction of waste. Then in 1990s, priority shifted to quality, cost and delivery. Again, in 2000 the focus shifted to customer value. On the other hand, lean experts and authors advocated such changes to be evolutionary and natural with the passing time, keeping the intent of lean intact. On analysis, it is found that lean operates with multi-model advantage using a mix of tools and practices best suited for the company’s position & the type of industry. The lean approach raised excellence of organization to higher level through process standardization, continuous improvement culture development and workers empowerment on production line. Once again, with the changing market expectations many companies require now new approaches to deal with multiple process complexity and operational challenges. Consequently, a usual set of innovative digital technology known as Industry 4.0 and has appeared as new approach in the manufacturing sector. It claims to create a smart system of machines, components, products, properties, process and ICT systems in the whole value chain to partake a smart factory. Lean tools have been using simpler devices to detect abnormalities and stop assembly line or machine to improve human reliability. Systems and devices like ‘andon’, Jidoka, contact sensors, thermocouples, and photoelectric devices are some examples. Industry 4.0 differs in technologies to achieve the common goals as lean but with automation.

Hardik Majiwala, Suresh Sharma, Pankaj Gandhi
User Authentication in VANET Using SGSK (Self Generated Session Key)

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a network of smart moving vehicles in which vehicles can communicate with each other and form a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET). This network is formed by smart vehicles, fixed Road Side Units (RSUs) and Trusted Authority (TA). This setup of the network is called a smart network because it is integrated with Smart traffic management system to monitor the traffic movement in the network. In this system data exchange between the vehicles in VANET is very crucial. It means any type of security failure may affect system performance. There is a need for security in the network in such a way that unauthorized user cannot access the network. To achieve security of the communication channel is very important for isolating intruders/attackers. This paper proposes a scheme which uses the concept of Self Generated Session Key (SGSK). This scheme protects the secret key which is shared over the network channel. A comparative is also made with some existing schemes.

Lal Singh, Ram Bahadur Patel
Grid Scrutinize Based Heuristic Sensor Node Scheduling Protocol with Partial Coverage Constraint in WSN

Random deployment of wireless sensor nodes’ with high density to enhance the coverage area and lifetime imposes many challenges in wireless sensor networks such as coverage redundancy, redundancy in packet generation, radio channel contention, high network cost and network congestion. This paper presents a distributed Grid Scrutinize based Heuristic Sensor Node Scheduling (GS-HSS) coverage protocol to design the efficient node duty schedules that maximize the area coverage and minimize the energy expenditure of sensor nodes. GS-HSS also detects and eliminates the coverage redundancy to mitigate the problem of data and packet generation redundancy. Simulation results show that GS-HSS outperforms in terms of average scheduling rounds and energy expenditure.

Anamika Sharma, Siddhartha Chauhan
Intensity Transformation Fusion of Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared (TIR) Imagery

The spatial resolution of panchromatic (PAN) and thermal infrared (TIR) band is 15 m and 100 m respectively in Landsat-8 satellite dataset. The current research proposes an Intensity transformation based fusion method (ITFM) of PAN and TIR imagery. The proposed fusion method introduces unscented spatial filtering of input TIR and PAN images and component based fusion to downscale coarse resolution thermal data. The proposed algorithm has been examined with three thermal image downscaling methods, i.e., DisTrad, TsHARP and Local model. The relative comparison of fusion algorithms results has shown that the proposed ITFM fusion method has outperformed the other conventional methods. The proposed ITFM fusion method has merged edge details from PAN band and earth surface thermal information from TIR band precisely.

Kul Vaibhav Sharma, Sumit Khandelwal, Nivedita Kaul
Efficient Spectrum Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks

The emerging technology of Elastic Optical Network (EON) has appeared to satisfy bandwidth hungry demands of today’s world. Routing and spectrum assignment is a major problem in EON for efficient spectrum utilization. In this paper we proposed a novel routing and spectrum allocation technique which gives efficient spectrum utilization by reducing blocking probability. This approach guarantees spectrum allocation upon arrival of a connection request but there may be some delay. This is called Request Provisioning with Reservation (RPR). The simulation results shows that this technique enhances spectrum utilization and reduces call blocking.

Neha Mahala, Jaisingh Thangaraj
Intrusion Detection and Prevention Mechanism Implemented Using NS-2 Based on State Context and Hierarchical Trust in WSNs

Wireless Sensor Networks are ubiquitous. The use of WSN saves a lot of man-power and instrumentation for a lot of healthcare and especially industrial applications. This paper describes the work done on securing cluster based WSNs using IDP mechanism. An Intrusion Detection and Prevention Mechanism is proposed here based on State Context and Hierchical Trust in cluster based WSNs. An IDP system will prevent and detect attacks on WSN nodes before they happen and jeopardize the whole network. The paper proposes a system which is flexible and is suitable for the WSNs that are constantly changing, characterized by changes in their perceptual environment, transitions of state of nodes and variation in trust value. A multilevel 2-tier hierarchical trust mechanism at the level of SNs and CHs evaluated on the basis of interactive trust, honesty trust and content trust is put forward, which is a combination of direct evaluation and feed-back based evaluation in the fixed-hop range. The calculation of interactive trust and honesty trust is done based on the interaction and behavior of the sensor nodes during routing. While the calculation of content trust is done based on the deviation of data transferred with respect to the rest of the members in the cluster during data aggregation. CHs evaluates the trust of the cluster member SNs, while the trust of the CH is evaluated by its neighboring SNs. When the trust evaluation process is done, then the data from low trust cluster members are avoided. Forwarding of data through low trust cluster members is avoided. Initially the attacker node tries to communicate to the rest of the nodes via fake control messages for getting itself elected to the level of CH. The mechanism proposed here in this paper will not only prevent the attacker node but also reduce the overall resource overhead while improving network performance. This paper tries to give its small contribution in the security of cluster based WSNs using IDP mechanisms.

Abhishek Vyas, Satheesh Abimannan
Hardware Design of 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 2D Discrete Cosine Transform with N/2 Equations for Image Compression

The discrete cosine transform (DCT) has remarkable significance in the area of image and video compression due to its energy compaction property. This paper propose a distinct architecture for 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 2D-DCT for compression of images. A method is proposed to reduce the number of equations with the help of high energy compaction property of DCT. In the conventional N point, 1D-DCT requires N number of equations for the transformation, by using high energy compaction property, only N/2 equations are required to perform the task. Proposed architecture reduces the arithmetic complexity. Further, it exhibits low power consumption with less area requirement. The proposed 2D-DCT is synthesized in XC3S700AN and XC6VLX75T devices, and the simulation results are compared with conventional 2D-DCT. The quality of the reconstructed image is evaluated by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). The obtained result shows the 75% reduction in the number of pixels required to store the image.

Nikhil C. Bichwe, Rahul Kumar Chaurasiya
Security and Efficiency Analysis of Anti-jamming Techniques

Internet of Things has resulted in ubiquitous computing, where all IoT devices are connected almost all the time, to provide continuous services. This makes the network prone to several attacks, one such attack being the Direct Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Jamming, which is the use of malicious nodes to deliberately lower Signal to Noise ratio (SNR), is a subset of DDoS attacks, which affects physical layer devices and channels, and can cause errors in the upper layers. Anti-jamming techniques, which are used to mitigate the effects of jamming, must be analyzed from the security and efficiency perspective. In this paper, anti-jamming techniques and protocols, viz. JAM- Jammed Area Mapping, Channel surfing and spatial retreat, channel hopping, reactive jamming detection and trigger node detection; are compared with respect to security and efficiency parameters. The suitable techniques are finally selected for specific use cases.

S. Kshipra Prasadh, Sumit Kumar Jindal
Generalized Dynamic Multilayer Fog Computing Architecture

The concept of Smart city and Smart Home is a promising and challenging one which defines the future of urban infrastructure development by integrating the Internet of Things (IoT) with Cloud Computing. Fog Computing with its latest framework on multilayering where each layer focuses on the different aspect of the architecture has proven useful in its goal to reduce space, time and computation overhead from cloud perspectives, due to its traffic offloading and edge device proximity for computation. But, a need for platform generalization and dynamic behavior still exists as most of the smart home needs to operate in multiple environments whereas the existing system mainly works on a rigid model with single infrastructure support. In this paper, a modified version of multilayer fog architecture has been proposed with scope for generalization and dynamic operation in terms of data management and placement. The proposed system consists of five sections - the Lower Fog Layer for end device collection operation and prioritization, Dockerized Middle Layer for node-specific operations like event detection and filtered data propagation, ICFN (Interconnecting Fog Node) Layer for interconnecting fog nodes, Cloud Server for data analytics and Fog Maintenance Remote Server for platform customization. The additional platform customization and multiple service support in the proposed architecture have also made significant improvements with regards to data distribution, request bandwidth, and request failure rate.

K. P. Arjun, S. Mary Saira Bhanu
An Efficient Quantum Key Management Scheme

The quantum key distribution playing the role of trusted carrier to augment the symmetric key distribution and is competing with public key cryptography in case of reliability and security. It is secure against unlimited computing power. In the implementation front of quantum key distribution, there is an intersection of fields like quantum physics, optics, computer science and electronics make it more complex. In this paper, we proposed Quantum key distribution technique in which traditional cryptographic techniques are not needed for mutually authenticating the keys. We proposed the base distribution center as a third party, in which both communicating parties share their bases before communication and mutually authenticate each other by transmitting a series of bits and deduce the encryption and decryption keys.

Vishal, S. Taruna
Privacy Threat Model for IoT

In the current era, Internet of Things (IoT) is facilitating ubiquitous and smart services to the users. IoT applications are widely increasing day by day in many fields such as healthcare, military, industries, agricultural and smart city. While, IoT application are facilitating smart services to provide comfortable living, many new issues also have emerged. Among the issues, data and user privacy is a serious issue to be considered on priority. To better understand privacy related parameters; we have presented a methodology of Privacy Threat Modeling along with Identification of the sensitive information in the Internet of Things. Then, An Adversary Model is described to clarify and comprehend the target attacks by the adversary in the architectural layers of the IoT ecosystem. A privacy risk map has been presented that will help to understand and fix priorities of the involved risk in IoT ecosystem. An IoT application called as Patient Data Provider “PDP" has been presented along with the discussion of the data privacy issues and challenges.

Shelendra Kumar Jain, Nishtha Kesswani
IoT Based Smart Luggage Monitor Alarm System

The Internet of Things is the integrated global network, which allows connecting everything to everyone. Internet of things spreads from smart Cities to smart connected homes to wearables to health-care. Based on IoT there are various security and tracking devices, which are used for tracking and monitoring personal things. But not many of those devices serve flexibility for the users. “IOT smart luggage monitor alarm” is the device based on IoT, it is a portable device connected to the user’s smart phone through Bluetooth connectivity. The device is composed of Arduino, BLE(HC-05) and Piezo speaker (Buzzer), GSM Module(SIM-800L), GPS Module. When the Bluetooth connection between the user mobile and the device is established, then it means that the luggage is safe and it is with the user. when the Bluetooth connection between the device and the user’s mobile is lost then the user is given an audio alert from the buzzer of the device and also by an SMS sent to the user mobile along with GPS location of the luggage which is connected to the device, and also provides a continuous tracking of the luggage and sends the location in some time intervals. The location is tracked till the device is connected to the user’s mobile. Comparatively based on the existing solutions it is portable, feasible and easy to install.

Sowmya Valluripally, Deepak Sukheja, Kriti Ohri, Suyash K. Singh
Text Steganography Based on Parallel Encryption Using Cover Text (PECT)

This paper presents a self-checking text steganography which could be used efficiently where large data is involved in various IoT applications. The space complexity of its cover text is one-fourth of its message size which is very less as compared to other techniques. The cover text of this method is generated from the private message itself. Later it is used to check the correctness of the data on receiver side. This helps to reduce the time overhead in case of corruption of any part of the data. Thus, the security and trust issues of IoT are easily handled even on high traffic channels.

Subhash Panwar, Mukesh Kumar, Sakshi Sharma
Intelligence in Station-of-Things

The study in this paper proposes a notion to represent a Station containing a Thing of interest termed as Station-of-Things. The proliferation in communication, computation and sensors technology has enabled to build intelligent station-of-things environments. A station-of-things is pertinent to many scenarios related to occupancy of chairs in a classroom, seats in a theatre or auditorium, cars in parking-lot, books in a bookshelf, etc. The use of occupancy of station and size by a thing leads to extract the information useful to derive intelligence for the station-of-things. In this paper, the proposed communication model, network architecture and experimental results demonstrate the merit of the work which lays a foundation to estimate and evaluate the occupancy along with the data-types or parameters suitable to enrich machine learning models to derive artificial intelligence.

Soumya Saha, Tejashree Bhave, Manisha Nene
Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulation of a Double Touch-Mode Pressure Sensor with Graphene as the Sensing Element

Touch mode capacitive pressure sensors have been a vital utilisation of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) offering better exhibitions on account of their efficiency, precision and utility. Graphene has been viewed as a promising material for MEMS because of its high elasticity, high tensile strength and tuneable elastic modulus. Graphene MEMS outperforms Silicon as Graphene can increase the sensitivity of the MEMS up to a great extent. This paper reports a Graphene and Aluminium nitride (AlN) based Double Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor (DTMCPS). A set of mathematical calculations has been presented for the sensor under study, so as to achieve high sensitivity. We used MATLAB in our paper to interpret theoretical evaluations in the form of graphical plots. This research aims at enhancing the performance of MEMS based DTMCPS so that they can be used for numerous industrial applications operating in a harsh environment.

Smiti Tripathy, Shiyona Dash, Sumit Kumar Jindal
Quality Evaluation Model for Multimedia Internet of Things (MIoT) Applications: Challenges and Research Directions

Multimedia Internet of Things (MIoT) is uniquely addressable broad network of interconnected objects, it covers many types of different fields of utilization. There are several heterogeneous requirements related applications exists for the same purpose. The MIoT revolution is reforming modern healthcare system with promising technological, economic and social prospects. The extensive distribution of MIoT devices has made the evaluation for performance of MIoT applications very important aspect as relevant placements are present in every daily life activity. Managing the quality of MIoT applications would be natural consequence of the trends. However, evaluating the quality of MIoT applications is substantially diverse from calculating the quality of software systems. This paper attempts to review and understand the quality evaluation parameter to evaluate the overall quality of a MIoT application and challenges in developing good quality evaluation model.

Malaram Kumhar, Gaurang Raval, Vishal Parikh
A Study of Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless Sensor Networks are most widely used in networking because of their large application domain. These networks due to their nature and appealing features, like multihop wireless communication, deployment in a hostile unprotected environment, low installation cost, auto-configurable etc, are very prone to security. Sensors are small devices deployed in the unprotected region and are vulnerable to attacks. To collect information from the surroundings sensor node senses information and follows multi-hop communication and the data reaches to sink. In these networks, there is no monitoring of information flow, hence security is a big concern. To provide security in Wireless Sensor Network operations, all kinds of intrusions should be detected and appropriate action must be taken against them in order to ensure that there is no harm done to the sensor network. This paper presents a review of Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks. Out of several detection techniques, this paper focuses on signature-based, anomaly-based and hybrid-based techniques. Various detection models are examined based on certain parameters. This paper summarizes various Intrusion Detection algorithms with their features which are used in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Atul Agarwal, Narottam Chand Kaushal
Energy Oriented Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Hardware Implementation

In the recent Internet Technology world, sensor-oriented network domain has significant importance for real-world application to perform user’s day to day activities. Energy efficiency in a sensor field is an extremely important characteristic for various on demand needs. The related literature on energy efficient path selection and message scheduling in a sensor-enabled wireless network is a predominant factor in the Internet of Things domain. The proposed work implements an energy-efficient routing scheme and provides design details for sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are divided into three types of nodes – the base station node, the cluster head node, and the normal sensor node. The base station node is responsible for setting up the network and the normal sensor node performs the various operations designed for the network while the cluster head node acts as a cluster head. A new simple application layer protocol is also presented. This application layer protocol provides a simple and powerful enough interface to the user. This scheme and architecture when employed produces a reliable and efficient network. The reliability and efficiency are measured and illustrated using real-time implementation. The real-time implementation is performed on custom-designed sensor nodes based on AVR Atmega8a and nRF24L01 transceiver chip. The Sensor Nodes run on a custom-designed firmware which provides basic and enough security. The custom-designed sensor nodes provide a reliable Wireless Sensor Network and can be deployed in real-world applications.

Dipanshu, A. Nagaraju
Text Detection Using Maximally Stable External Regions and Stroke Width Variation

There is a proverb “an image is worth, than ten thousand words”. So it is very difficult to explain a single image. But what happens if a single image itself contains some information in the form of text. Though it is easy to extract text from the structured image, it is difficult to retrieve it from unstructured image. Thus in this paper, we are providing an efficient and concrete algorithm to solve this problem. This algorithm consists of detecting candidate text region using maximally stable external regions (MSER). Then it removes false region based on basic geometric properties. Now, again removing false region based on stroke width variation (SWV) and finally merging all text regions for detection of the result. At last, recognition of detected text with the help of optical character recognition (OCR). All these methods are combined to give high performance of the proposed algorithm.

Nishant Singh, Vivek Kumar, Charul Bhatnagar
Digital Image Steganography Using Modified LSB and AES Cryptography

Internet of Things (IoT) serves as part of our routine life activities nowadays and the secrecy of data has been compromised and cyber-crimes are increasing at an alarming rate therefore, the needs of a secure environment is vital in order to secure the transmitting data. This calls for a method to secure the digital messages being sent over the internet. In this paper we propose a modified concept on hiding the confidential data in an image. Here the Image Steganography is achieved using Modified LSB. Modified LSB uses a certain condition to replace the bits of the confidential data at the least significant bit position of the pixels in the image so Cryptography approach is achieved using AES. In this way, Steganography and Cryptography when used together ensures enhanced security of digital messages. Experimentally we found that the proposed approach is less prone to passive and active attacks. Also, as in nature it is hybrid approach which preserves the confidentiality of the information better than existing approaches.

Subhash Panwar, Mukesh Kumar, Sakshi Sharma
Design and Implementation of AES on FPGA for Security of IOT Data

As we know that the world is been surrounded by the internet and interconnected to it and the different things or we can say the edge devices which helps us to connect to network and communicate to the different alternatives with the surroundings. In this paper we would be discussing about the different algorithms and their and disadvantages and how the advanced standard algorithm is been applied we has an great effect on cryptography and the different process carried out in the encryption and decryption process. In this paper the encryption and the decryption would be given in 128 bit format in hexadecimal, binary or any other format and the key expansion for getting the cipher text. in cryptography their are three classification for the expansion of the key which can be symmetric, asymmetric and the hash function in this paper we have discussed and the symmetric key is been given for both encryption and decryption we know that we are using the 128 bit length which has 10 rounds and the initial round includes the state and the different transformation in the cryptograpy process which is the symmetric key expansion in which the same key is been applied to both encryption and decryption in binary, hexadecimal, etc. As it is lossless operation many applications can be derived using this algorithm as we are using symmetric key block cipher. We are limiting our paper with the 128 bit length of data in verilog language. For encryption and decryption the proposed paper describes the cryptograpy which would be having the fixed size. In this algorithm where we are using the symmetric key block cipher where the key would be given same with respect to encryption. Many applications it can be used as it is lossless operation. We limit our focus on 12b8 bit AES encryption and decryption where coded in VHDL coding. The proposed paper describes the private key cryptosystems which has a key with fixed size.

Dinesh B. Bhoyar, Shelly R. Wankhede, Swati K. Modod
4th International Conference on Internet of Things and Connected Technologies (ICIoTCT), 2019
Dr. Neeta Nain
Santosh Kumar Vipparthi
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