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About this book

This book deals with modern Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software tools and platforms implemented in ship design, the integration of techno-economic databases, the use of optimisation and simulation software tools, which are integrated in these platforms, and the virtual modelling of ships and their operation by using a Virtual Vessel Framework (VVF). It contains a series of application case studies related to the developed holistic approach to ship design and operation. Nine case studies are described, referring to the design and operation of various ship types, namely RoPax, cruise ship, double-ended ferry, bulk carrier, containership, offshore support vessel, ocean surveillance ship and research vessel and one offshore structure. All case studies are driven by leading representatives of the European Maritime Industry. This book complements A Holistic Approach to Ship Design, volume 1, which covers methods and tools for the life cycle optimisation and assessment of ship design and operation.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Revisiting the HOLISHIP Project

The present book is the second volume of the book “A Holistic Approach to Ship Design” published by Springer Publishers, the first volume of which appeared in 2019 (Papanikolaou 2019). This book forms the official HOLISHIP project documentation of activities. At the time of writing, HOLISHIP - Holistic Optimisation of Ship Design and Operation for Life Cycle (www.​holiship.​eu)—passed the 4 years milestone and turns on the finish line. A final extension of 4 months became necessary to account for some delays due to the COVID 19 pandemic, internal reconfigurations and adaptations, not uncommon for a project of this size.
Jochen Marzi

Chapter 2. Integration of Tools for Application Case Studies

This chapter elaborates the bottom-up approach taken within the European R&D project HOLISHIP to flexibly integrate and utilize software tools and systems of tools for the design, analysis and optimization of maritime assets. The focus of the project HOLISHIP and its bottom-up integration platform(s) was the design of maritime assets at the early design phases in heterogeneous environments. As it is often the situation, tools and systems come from different developers, companies and research institutes. So far they have been mostly used as stand-alone applications with the design team being responsible for proper tool execution, data exchange and management. Within HOLISHIP the tools and systems were coupled to CAESES®, i.e., a cross-platform Process Integration and Design Optimization (PIDO) environment that also provides comprehensive Computer Aided Design (CAD) functionality for the parametric modelling of shapes. Any tool or system that can be run in batch-mode can be coupled to CAESES and can be set up in order to exchange data with other tools, supporting the assembly of sophisticated synthesis models. Further developments as were needed for the application cases (AC) of the HOLISHIP project will be presented, complementing the discussion given in Harries and Abt (A holistic approach to ship design, Vol. 1: optimisation of ship design and operation for life cycle. SPRINGER Publishers, 2019).
Stefan Harries, Claus Abt

Chapter 3. Design and Operation of an Offshore Support Vessel

Offshore Service Vessels (OSV) are utilized for demanding offshore operations often under challenging conditions, e.g. Anchor Handling Tug Supply vessel (AHTS) supporting offshore drilling rigs and Offshore Construction Vessels performing subsea installation. The OSV case in the HOLISHIP project has addressed both these vessel concepts with the main focus on power system optimization based on the operational profile for the vessel. Regarded as highly specialized vessels, OSV design requires the synchronization of several of disciplines. Thus, a holistic approach, considering Key Performance Indices (KPIs) for several disciplines, was developed and utilized from a conceptual design level to the power system concept verification. Sub-optimization of each module for different KPIs without taking into account the interaction between the modules does not necessarily lead to an optimized overall performance of the vessel and a holistic approach design is highly likely to be beneficial. At the early design stage of a vessel, important parameters are defined having a huge impact on the performance of the vessel according to the KPIs. Changing these parameters at a later stage in the design process is difficult and requires a considerable effort from the multidisciplinary design team. This Chapter presents the holistic design of the OSV application case from main dimension determination to power system design, optimization and verification. Significant improvements for selected KPIs have been obtained comparing the optimized concept with the baseline vessel. The design optimization methods developed here are already being used in other research and commercial projects proving increase efficiency in the early design stage. The methods for virtual verification using dynamic simulations are being further developed and used in other research projects.
Sverre Torben, Martijn de Jongh, Paulo Macedo, Lars Husdal, Bjørnar Vik, Michel Rejani Miyazaki, Lefteris Koukoulopoulos, Chara Georgopoulou, George Dimopoulos, Alan Guégan, Julien Calvignac, Vincent Le-Diagon, Ningxiang Li

Chapter 4. Development of a Tool for the Assessment of Lightweight Bulkheads and Decks Made of Composite Materials

This chapter deals with the development of methods and tools for the concept structural design of lightweight decks and bulkheads of cruise ships by use of composite materials. This task of the HOLISHIP project dealt with the development of a decision-support solution for the assessment of decks and bulkheads that may be replaced by composite materials. For this purpose, an Excel-based tool was developed, which is optimising the inspected structural design with respect to cost and weight. This chapter explains how this solution was developed. Various designs are explored and tested, while test results are presented and conclusive remarks are made after each completed milestone.
Arthur-Hans Thellmann, Tim Schouwer, Wibke Mayland, Santiago Ferrer Mur

Chapter 5. Design for Maintainability of a Research Vessel’s Engine Room

The Life Cycle Performance Assessment (LCPA) Tool developed in the first phase of the HOLISHIP project (Maggioncalda et al. 2018) was tested in the herein presented application case dealing with the “Design for Maintainability of a Research Vessel’s Engine Room”. In this relation, we further developed the methods for the estimation of the operational and maintenance costs of a Research Vessel, by using a structured and flexible tool capable of evaluating the investment, operational and maintenance costs for different engine room configurations and of identifying the best solution for elaboration at the design stage (design for maintainability). The engine room space optimisation and accessibility were also evaluated by use of a developed 3D digital mock-up, enabling the assessment of the potential impact on maintenance costs in relation to the clearance space around the machinery and their compliance with specific requirements. After a general introduction to the topic provided in Sect. 5.1 of the chapter, Sect. 5.2 describes the reference vessel used in this Application Case, with a focus on the main characteristics of the propulsion system and electric power generation. Section 5.3, besides an overview of the standard maintenance techniques, describes the implementation of the Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) in the LCPA tool, based on the best working point of an engine. Section 5.4 identifies the alternative solutions for the propulsion layout, proposed with respect to the base configuration, while analysing the obtained LCPA results in terms of economic and environmental Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Finally, Sect. 5.5 presents the results of further investigations on ship design for maintainability by using the digital mockup of a 3D model of the engine room and focusing on accessibility analysis.
Chiara Notaro, Paola Gualeni, Matteo Maggioncalda, Carlo Cau

Chapter 6. Design of a Multi-Purpose Ocean Vessel

The fourth application case of the HOLISHIP project is the design of a Multi-Purpose Ocean Vessel with the support of the CAESES platform. A particular focus is given to early stages of ship design, to systems’ architecture and to mission requirements by use of management software (s/w) tools developed in the first phase of the HOLISHIP project (Papanikolaou A Holistic Approach to Ship Design. Springer 2019). The Multi-Purpose Ocean Vessel is designed to address a large variety of missions, from patrol and surveillance to search and rescue or pollution fighting operations. The missions of such a vessel depend strongly on the range, the region of operation, and the type of operations the ship owner ultimately wants to perform. “Off-the-shelf” ship designs meeting this type of requirements require intensive re-work, when they are not excluded altogether. To deliver the best possible design, the naval architect needs to reach a balance between the many requirements expressed by the ship owner and the complexity of the ship systems’ architecture. To achieve this aim, several variants need to be explored. In this chapter we present the design of a Multi-Purpose Ocean Vessel. We discuss the advantages of using “easy-to-use” early stage ship design tools combined with a more advanced, integrated CAD design platform, when exploring several variants. We also discuss the benefits of use of the architecture and requirements management tool SAR developed in HOLISHIP, in the context of complex ship design.
Romain Le Néna, Julien Calvignac, Alan Guégan

Chapter 7. Virtual Vessel Framework for Merchant Ship Manoeuvring Operation

There is a need for prototyping in the shipping industry but the costs are too high. Numerical simulations can provide a solution for this. In order to use numerical simulations in prototyping, proper numerical tools for relevant components of various suppliers are needed, as well as a framework capable of coupling these tools. HOLISHIP proposes asolution by coupling the tools of various suppliers through the internet, where the tools remain on the server of the owning company, protecting the Intellectual Property Rights (I.P.R.), but providing limited, controlled access to the framework.In this chapter, after abrief introduction on the numerical models in Sect. 7.1, the next Sect. 7.2 describes the need for coupled simulations, what is required from atechnical point of view to achieve that.In Sect. 7.3 the use of simulations in concept design is elaborated, while in Sect. 7.4 the use of simulations in design verification is discussed. Section 7.5 provides insight into the available models, frameworks to perform coupled simulations.Some application, acase study are discussed in Sect. 7.6. Finally, Sect. 7.7 demonstrates the framework through an example application.The conclusions, way ahead are presented in Sect. 7.8.
Patrick Hooijmans, Martin Th. van Hees, Freek Verkerk

Chapter 8. Hydrodynamic Optimisation of a Containership and a Bulkcarrier for Life-Cycle Operation

Efficient ship operation has always been a challenge of paramount importance to the ship owner, aiming to minimize operational expenditures and to maximize annual revenues. Nowadays, efficient ship operation is even more important due to the global warming phenomenon and the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, next to the fuel cost. In the present chapter, we consider the possible retrofitting of two existing vessels, namely a bulk carrier and a container ship, on the basis of results of conducted hydrodynamic optimizations. For both vessels, bulbous bow and operational trim optimizations were carried out using advanced CFD tools. In addition, a weather routeing tool was developed and applied to the operation of both vessels, assuming realistic operational conditions and online weather data, while aiming at the reduction of fuel oil consumption.
George Zaraphonitis, Aggeliki Kytariolou, George Dafermos, Scott Gatchell, Anders Östman

Chapter 9. Model-Based Systems Engineering for the Design and Operational Assessment of Marine Energy Systems and Retrofitting Solutions

Nowadays, a variety of technical solutions to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions is available to the shipping industry, offering a wide range of possible solutions to ship builders and operators. However, the selection of the best performing option is subject to the individual specifications of the vessel, its trade route, lifetime expectancy and many other factors. Furthermore, the decision-making process usually accounts for multiple objectives, such as energy efficiency, environmental impact, reliability and safety, which in various cases may be conflicting. This chapter demonstrates how Model Based Systems Engineering methods and associated tools can support the assessment and quantification of ship machinery system performance at concept design and in retrofit applications, aiding decision makers. Two typical application cases of the HOLISHIP project are presented: the energy efficiency and reliability assessment of a hybrid Offshore Supply Vessel; and the retrofitting of a bulk carrier with a fuel recovery from a sludge unit.
Chara Georgopoulou, Lefteris Koukoulopoulos, George Dimopoulos

Chapter 10. Gravity Base Foundation Concept for a Platform in Icy Shallow Waters

The currently available foundation options capable of handling both ice and wave loads on offshore structures are very few. In most cases, even the few available design options create high wave and/or ice loads, of which they must be able to withstand. In addition, the construction and installation procedures of these foundations are challenging to undertake due to often high environmental loads, short weather windows, and limited accessibility. This Application Case within WP15 of the HOLISHIP project refers to the conceptual design of an offshore foundation concept to manage both wave and ice loads in shallow waters with soft bottom seabed. Specifically, this chapter outlines the concept design, the structural analysis, and early project cost estimates of the construction, transportation and on-site installation. The adopted approach is holistic by looking into all main issues of the platform design, of construction installation and life-cycle cost. The application area selected for this study is the Northeast Caspian Sea. However, the concept is also well suited for other regions of the world with similar conditions. The concept can be used in hydrocarbon field development, bridge piers, oil piers (offshore loading facilities), wind turbine foundations, channel markers, lighthouse foundations, dolphins and harbour berth wall structures. In the concept development work, basic structural assessment and cost estimation tools and models have been developed. They have been integrated into the HOLISHIP concept design platform based on CAESES® enabling the iterative or optimisation designs in future feasibility studies.
Justice Anku-Vinyoh, Sakari Oja, Antti Ajosmäki, Johanna Sjölund, Michael Hübler, Santiago Ferrer Mur, Deborah Kaschube, Ceyhan Erdem, Philipp Knüppel

Chapter 11. RoPax Design Revisited—Evolution or Revolution?

The design development of a RoPAX vessel is very complex, in fact one can argue that stricter regulatory requirements and multitude of operational flexibility required by the owner and operator makes it one of the most challenging vessel types to bring any real improvement. Although the know-how and experience of the design team is vitally important, an optimising platform such as that offered by HOLISHIP can help develop design solutions much more tailored to the needs and challenges the prospective owner and the marketplace brings about. This application case demonstrates how a RoPAX design can be optimised by using the HOLISHIP platform. A number of critical ship design development tools and methods, particularly parametric modelling tools and their use in design optimisation, are presented and discussed. Although the focus of the optimisation problem and the complexity may vary the processed employed here demonstrates the capabilities and potential of the HOLISHIP platform. This chapter also offers an insight to the predicament of weather to follow traditional designs to meet owners’ specifications or make a special effort to accomplish something new, go beyond the norm.
Cantekin Tuzcu, Cameron Dinsdale, Jack Hawkins, George Zaraphonitis, Fotis Papadopoulos

Chapter 12. Design of a Double Ended Ferry

One of the 9 application cases of HOLISHIP is the design of a double-ended ferry. The double-ended ferry was seen ideal for the case study because it has clearly defined constrains and objectives, while it attracts the significant interest by customers of the designer, ELOMATIC Ltd. The General Arrangement (GA) of a double-ended ferry is mainly built around the need to carry a certain number of cars. Double-ended ferries have strict schedules which can only be achieved by hydrodynamically optimized hull design, trim, efficient propulsion system and low lightweight. The present chapter “Double-Ended Ferry” focuses on the synthesis of software tools forming the Intelligent GA s/w platform (IGA) that is used in the double-ended ferry case study. Software tools forming the Intelligent GA are CAESES (hull design), Cadmatic (structure and outfitting), NAPA (stability), HSVA’s Fresco+ (resistance and propulsion), HSVA’s ν-shallo (wave resistance), BV’s Mars2000 (midship analysis) and BV’s SEECAT (energy simulations). The Intelligent GA utilizes parallel multi-disciplinary design and analysis, which is made possible by use of surrogate models, as they have been introduced in the HOLISHIP project. The chapter elaborates on the links between CAESES, Cadmatic and other tools, namely how the general arrangement data are transferred between CAESES and Cadmatic during the design process. It explains what parameters were optimised, and what were the constraints in the optimisation process. It also describes the link between Cadmatic and BV’s structural design tool Mars 2000. Resistance and propulsion optimisation is also elaborated. The stability section explains the link to NAPA ad what intact and damage stability rules are applied for the double-ended ferry, which is classified as “D” class according to NON-SOLAS rules. Of key interest for a zero or reduced emissions double-ended ferry is the optimal dimensioning of the batteries’ capacity. The chapter explains how the batteries were dimensioned and compares the fully electric vessel against a hybrid version where the batteries are the main source for propulsion and diesel engines/generators are the auxiliary source of energy. The final general arrangement/design of the double-ended ferry is the synthesis of all naval architectural disciplines and is presented at the end of the chapter. Constraints, rules, the functionality of the general arrangement, and the optimal solutions proposed by the Intelligent GA platform decide on the final form of the general arrangement. The exploration of design alternatives, both mathematically and by visual testing/verification, is the basic idea behind the Intelligent GA concept that is fully complying with the basic concept of HOLISHIP. It was concluded that Intelligent GA can be used as an efficient decision-making tool and a tool for the rapid design space exploration. Intelligent GA is not meant to replace designers, as the final verification of the GA quality stays for the naval architects.
Markus Jokinen, Riccardo Broglia, Scott Gatchell, Adrien Aubert, Rachmat Gunawan, Gregor Schellenberger, Stefan Harries, Heinrich von Zadow

Chapter 13. SHIPLYS (Ship Life Cycle Software Solutions) Concept for Ship Newbuilding and Retrofitting Bids

The SHIPLYS (Ship Life Cycle Software Solutions) (2016–2019) project was an EU funded HORIZON 2020 project in response to needs of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME), of design offices and naval architects, shipbuilders and ship-owners who need to make improvements in order to survive in the highly competitive maritime world market. The improvements that this project focused on are at the early bidding/tendering stage, during which the ability to respond quickly with reliable cost estimates, and from a life cycle perspective, is increasingly important to remain competitive. Key tasks in the SHIPLYS project were: the development of software for rapid virtual prototyping of design and production, life cycle tools, a multi-criteria decision analysis tool (taking account of life cycle cost, environmental impact and risk based criteria) and a software platform with the ability to integrate the tools developed within the project and other tools (third-party or to be developed in the future). The software tools were developed to provide specific solutions to problems posed by three shipyards in the SHIPLYS consortium, with potential for generic application within the marine industry and across sectors. Apart from being guided by the shipyards within the consortium, the project had an advisory committee comprising experts from major stakeholders who provided periodic feedback during the project. This chapter describes key activities and software tools developed within the project, and is targeted towards industry stakeholders without prerequisite specialized knowledge of the topics discussed.
Ujjwal Bharadwaj

Chapter 14. LINCOLN—Lean Innovative Connected Vessels

The maritime industry has been working to apply unique solutions capable of improving design and development performances. Over the past several decades, the industry has faced changes related to the increasing complexity of the dynamic global market. LINCOLN project successfully developed three new value-added vessels by following a highly customizable lean design methodology that combined series of innovative sensor arrays, on-board equipment, and IoT solutions to support the design and development of efficient and sustainable maritime vessels. Through this integrated approach to vessel development, innovative solutions that have not previously been combined were able to support designers/engineers transform the design process for the extension of serviceability and reduction of design time. This chapter describes the innovative design framework, based on the comprehensive usage of design methodologies, (economic and environmental) sustainability analysis and Internet of Things (IoT) in vessel design.
Brendan P. Sullivan, Monica Rossi, Sergio Terzi


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