Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics 1/2022

08-01-2021 | Original Paper

A Moral Cleansing Process: How and When Does Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior Increase Prohibitive and Promotive Voice

Authors: Ying Wang, Shufeng Xiao, Run Ren

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics | Issue 1/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

In this study, we draw on moral cleansing theory to investigate the consequence of unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) from the perspective of the actors. Specifically, we hypothesize that after conducting UPB, people may feel guilty and tend to cleanse their wrongdoings by providing suggestions or identifying problems at work (i.e., prohibitive and promotive voice). We further hypothesize that the above relationship is moderated by the actor’s moral identity symbolization. We conducted three studies, including experiment and surveys, to test our hypotheses. Results of these studies show consistent support to our hypotheses. In particular, individuals reported more felt guilt after conducting UPB, and they tended to compensate with more prohibitive and promotive voice subsequently. In addition, the indirect relationship from UPB acting to both voice behaviors via felt guilt was stronger for people with a high level of moral identity symbolization. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Footnotes
1
We also conducted a separate online survey with 173 employees (47% were male, age at 33 on average, 82.7% have a college or higher degree, with at least 1e year of work tenure (mean = 3.73, SD = 1.27). We measured their prohibitive and promotive voice (measured by Liang et al. 2012; α = .89 and .93); moral identity (measured by the 10-item scale developed by Reed and Aquino 2003; α = .89); moral voice (measured by Hannah and Avolio 2010; α = .76); and ethical behavior (measured by Baker et al. 2010; α = .85). Results showed that prohibitive and promotive voice correlated with moral identity (r = .40, .36, p < .001), moral voice (r = .40, .31, p < .001), and ethical behavior (r = .15, .19, p < .05). This evidence suggests again that voice has a moral facet.
 
2
We appreciate the anonymous reviewer for pointing out this limitation.
 
3
This study was approved by Internal Review Board at Peking University (#2020–01).
 
Literature
go back to reference Aguinis, H., & Bradley, K. J. (2014). Best practice recommendations for designing and implementing experimental vignette methodology studies. Organizational Research Methods, 17(4), 351–371. Aguinis, H., & Bradley, K. J. (2014). Best practice recommendations for designing and implementing experimental vignette methodology studies. Organizational Research Methods, 17(4), 351–371.
go back to reference Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Amodio, D. M., Devine, P. G., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2007). A dynamic model of guilt: Implications for motivation and self-regulation in the context of prejudice. Psychological Science, 18(6), 524–530. Amodio, D. M., Devine, P. G., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2007). A dynamic model of guilt: Implications for motivation and self-regulation in the context of prejudice. Psychological Science, 18(6), 524–530.
go back to reference Aquino, K., & Reed, A., II. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440. Aquino, K., & Reed, A., II. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440.
go back to reference Barkan, R., Ayal, S., Gino, F., & Ariely, D. (2012). The pot calling the kettle black: Distancing response to ethical dissonance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 757–773. Barkan, R., Ayal, S., Gino, F., & Ariely, D. (2012). The pot calling the kettle black: Distancing response to ethical dissonance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 757–773.
go back to reference Barkan, R., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2015). Ethical dissonance, justifications, and moral behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6(Dec), 157–161. Barkan, R., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2015). Ethical dissonance, justifications, and moral behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6(Dec), 157–161.
go back to reference Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
go back to reference Bastian, B., Jetten, J., & Fasoli, F. (2011). Cleansing the soul by hurting the flesh: The guilt-reducing effect of pain. Psychological Science, 22(3), 334–335. Bastian, B., Jetten, J., & Fasoli, F. (2011). Cleansing the soul by hurting the flesh: The guilt-reducing effect of pain. Psychological Science, 22(3), 334–335.
go back to reference Bazerman, M. H., Tenbrunsel, A. E., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (1998). Negotiating with yourself and losing: Making decisions with internal competing preferences. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 225–241. Bazerman, M. H., Tenbrunsel, A. E., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (1998). Negotiating with yourself and losing: Making decisions with internal competing preferences. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 225–241.
go back to reference Bierbrauer, G. (1992). Reactions to violation of normative standards: A cross-cultural analysis of shame and guilt. International Journal of Psychology, 27(2), 181–193. Bierbrauer, G. (1992). Reactions to violation of normative standards: A cross-cultural analysis of shame and guilt. International Journal of Psychology, 27(2), 181–193.
go back to reference Blasi, A. (1993). The development of moral identity: Some implications for moral functioning. In G. Noam & T. Wren (Eds.), The moral self (pp. 99–122). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Blasi, A. (1993). The development of moral identity: Some implications for moral functioning. In G. Noam & T. Wren (Eds.), The moral self (pp. 99–122). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Bohns, V. K., & Flynn, F. J. (2013). Guilt by design: Structuring organizations to elicit guilt as an affective reaction to failure. Organization Science, 24(4), 1157–1173. Bohns, V. K., & Flynn, F. J. (2013). Guilt by design: Structuring organizations to elicit guilt as an affective reaction to failure. Organization Science, 24(4), 1157–1173.
go back to reference Bonner, J. M., Greenbaum, R. L., & Quade, M. J. (2017). Employee unethical behavior to shame as an indicator of self-image threat and exemplification as a form of self-image protection: The exacerbating role of supervisor bottom-line mentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(8), 1203–1221. Bonner, J. M., Greenbaum, R. L., & Quade, M. J. (2017). Employee unethical behavior to shame as an indicator of self-image threat and exemplification as a form of self-image protection: The exacerbating role of supervisor bottom-line mentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(8), 1203–1221.
go back to reference Brislin, R. W. (1986). A culture general assimilator: Preparation for various types of sojourns. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 215–234. Brislin, R. W. (1986). A culture general assimilator: Preparation for various types of sojourns. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 215–234.
go back to reference Burris, E. R., Rockmann, K. W., & Kimmons, Y. S. (2017). The value of voice to managers: Employee identification and the content of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 60(6), 2099–2125. Burris, E. R., Rockmann, K. W., & Kimmons, Y. S. (2017). The value of voice to managers: Employee identification and the content of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 60(6), 2099–2125.
go back to reference Caldwell, C., & Canuto-Carranco, M. (2010). “Organizational terrorism” and moral choices—Exercising voice when the leader is the problem. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(1), 159–171. Caldwell, C., & Canuto-Carranco, M. (2010). “Organizational terrorism” and moral choices—Exercising voice when the leader is the problem. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(1), 159–171.
go back to reference Carlsmith, J. M., & Gross, A. E. (1969). Some effects of guilt on compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11(11), 232–239. Carlsmith, J. M., & Gross, A. E. (1969). Some effects of guilt on compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11(11), 232–239.
go back to reference Chen, M., Chen, C. C., & Sheldon, O. J. (2016). Relaxing moral reasoning to win: How organizational identification relates to unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1082–1096. Chen, M., Chen, C. C., & Sheldon, O. J. (2016). Relaxing moral reasoning to win: How organizational identification relates to unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1082–1096.
go back to reference Cohen, T. R., Wolf, S. T., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2011). Introducing the gasp scale: A new measure of guilt and shame proneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(5), 947–966. Cohen, T. R., Wolf, S. T., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2011). Introducing the gasp scale: A new measure of guilt and shame proneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(5), 947–966.
go back to reference Cryder, C. E., Springer, S., & Morewedge, C. K. (2012). Guilty feelings, targeted actions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(5), 607–618. Cryder, C. E., Springer, S., & Morewedge, C. K. (2012). Guilty feelings, targeted actions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(5), 607–618.
go back to reference Matherne, C. F., III., & Litchfield, S. R. (2012). Investigating the relationship between affective commitment and unethical pro-organizational behaviors: The role of moral identity. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 9(5), 35–46. Matherne, C. F., III., & Litchfield, S. R. (2012). Investigating the relationship between affective commitment and unethical pro-organizational behaviors: The role of moral identity. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 9(5), 35–46.
go back to reference Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869–884. Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869–884.
go back to reference Detert, J. R., Burris, E. R., Harrison, D. A., & Martin, S. R. (2013). Voice flows to and around leaders understanding when units are helped or hurt by employee voice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(4), 624–668. Detert, J. R., Burris, E. R., Harrison, D. A., & Martin, S. R. (2013). Voice flows to and around leaders understanding when units are helped or hurt by employee voice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(4), 624–668.
go back to reference Dunn, P., Farrar, J., & Hausserman, C. (2018). The influence of guilt cognitions on taxpayers’ voluntary disclosures. Journal of Business Ethics, 148(3), 689–701. Dunn, P., Farrar, J., & Hausserman, C. (2018). The influence of guilt cognitions on taxpayers’ voluntary disclosures. Journal of Business Ethics, 148(3), 689–701.
go back to reference Dutton, J. E., & Ashford, S. J. (1993). Selling issues to top management. Academy of Management Review, 18(3), 397–428. Dutton, J. E., & Ashford, S. J. (1993). Selling issues to top management. Academy of Management Review, 18(3), 397–428.
go back to reference Edwards, M. S., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Gardner, J. (2009). Deciding to speak up or to remain silent following observed wrongdoing: The role of discrete emotions and climate of silence. In J. Greenberg & M. S. Edwards (Eds.), Voice and silence in organizations (pp. 83–109). Bingley: Emerald. Edwards, M. S., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Gardner, J. (2009). Deciding to speak up or to remain silent following observed wrongdoing: The role of discrete emotions and climate of silence. In J. Greenberg & M. S. Edwards (Eds.), Voice and silence in organizations (pp. 83–109). Bingley: Emerald.
go back to reference Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
go back to reference Fuller, J. B., Marler, L. E., & Hester, K. (2006). Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: Exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 1089–1120. Fuller, J. B., Marler, L. E., & Hester, K. (2006). Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: Exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 1089–1120.
go back to reference Ghorbani, M., Liao, Y., Çayköylü, S., & Chand, M. (2013). Guilt, shame, and reparative behavior: The effect of psychological proximity. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(2), 311–323. Ghorbani, M., Liao, Y., Çayköylü, S., & Chand, M. (2013). Guilt, shame, and reparative behavior: The effect of psychological proximity. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(2), 311–323.
go back to reference Glucklich, A. (2001). Sacred pain: Hurting the body for the sake of the soul. New York: Oxford University Press. Glucklich, A. (2001). Sacred pain: Hurting the body for the sake of the soul. New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Gollwitzer, M., & Melzer, A. (2012). Macbeth and the joystick: Evidence for moral cleansing after playing a violent video game. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1356–1360. Gollwitzer, M., & Melzer, A. (2012). Macbeth and the joystick: Evidence for moral cleansing after playing a violent video game. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1356–1360.
go back to reference Gotowiec, S., & van Mastrigt, S. (2019). Having versus doing: The roles of moral identity internalization and symbolization for prosocial behaviors. The Journal of Social Psychology, 159(1), 75–91. Gotowiec, S., & van Mastrigt, S. (2019). Having versus doing: The roles of moral identity internalization and symbolization for prosocial behaviors. The Journal of Social Psychology, 159(1), 75–91.
go back to reference Graham, K. A., Resick, C. J., Margolis, J. A., Shao, P., Hargis, M. B., & Kiker, J. D. (2020). Egoistic norms, organizational identification, and the perceived ethicality of unethical pro-organizational behavior: A moral maturation perspective. Human Relations, 73(9), 1249–1277. Graham, K. A., Resick, C. J., Margolis, J. A., Shao, P., Hargis, M. B., & Kiker, J. D. (2020). Egoistic norms, organizational identification, and the perceived ethicality of unethical pro-organizational behavior: A moral maturation perspective. Human Relations, 73(9), 1249–1277.
go back to reference Gurchiek, K. (2006). US workers unlikely to report office misconduct. HR Magazine, 51, 38. Gurchiek, K. (2006). US workers unlikely to report office misconduct. HR Magazine, 51, 38.
go back to reference Harth, N. S., Leach, C. W., & Kessler, T. (2013). Guilt, anger, and pride about in-group environmental behaviour: Different emotions predict distinct intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 18–26. Harth, N. S., Leach, C. W., & Kessler, T. (2013). Guilt, anger, and pride about in-group environmental behaviour: Different emotions predict distinct intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 18–26.
go back to reference Hau, K. T., & Marsh, H. W. (2004). The use of item parcels in structural equation modelling: Non-normal data and small sample sizes. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 57(2), 327–351. Hau, K. T., & Marsh, H. W. (2004). The use of item parcels in structural equation modelling: Non-normal data and small sample sizes. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 57(2), 327–351.
go back to reference Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Journal of Educational Measurement, 51(3), 335–337. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Journal of Educational Measurement, 51(3), 335–337.
go back to reference Johnson, H. H., & Umphress, E. E. (2019). To help my supervisor: Identification, moral identity, and unethical pro-supervisor behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 519–534. Johnson, H. H., & Umphress, E. E. (2019). To help my supervisor: Identification, moral identity, and unethical pro-supervisor behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 519–534.
go back to reference Jordan, J., Mullen, E., & Murnighan, J. K. (2011). Striving for the moral self: The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(5), 701–713. Jordan, J., Mullen, E., & Murnighan, J. K. (2011). Striving for the moral self: The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(5), 701–713.
go back to reference Kakkar, H., Tangirala, S., Srivastava, N. K., & Kamdar, D. (2016). The dispositional antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(9), 1342–1351. Kakkar, H., Tangirala, S., Srivastava, N. K., & Kamdar, D. (2016). The dispositional antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(9), 1342–1351.
go back to reference Kirrane, M., O’Shea, D., Buckley, F., Grazi, A., & Prout, J. (2017). Investigating the role of discrete emotions in silence versus speaking up. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 90(3), 354–378. Kirrane, M., O’Shea, D., Buckley, F., Grazi, A., & Prout, J. (2017). Investigating the role of discrete emotions in silence versus speaking up. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 90(3), 354–378.
go back to reference Lavelle, J. J., Harris, C. M., Rupp, D. E., Herda, D. N., Young, R. F., Hargrove, M. B., et al. (2018). Multifoci effects of injustice on counterproductive work behaviors and the moderating roles of symbolization and victim sensitivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(8), 1022–1039. Lavelle, J. J., Harris, C. M., Rupp, D. E., Herda, D. N., Young, R. F., Hargrove, M. B., et al. (2018). Multifoci effects of injustice on counterproductive work behaviors and the moderating roles of symbolization and victim sensitivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(8), 1022–1039.
go back to reference Lee, A., Schwarz, G., Newman, A., & Legood, A. (2019). Investigating when and why psychological entitlement predicts unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 154(1), 109–126. Lee, A., Schwarz, G., Newman, A., & Legood, A. (2019). Investigating when and why psychological entitlement predicts unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 154(1), 109–126.
go back to reference Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J. L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71–92. Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J. L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71–92.
go back to reference Lin, S. H., & Johnson, R. E. (2015). A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1381–1397. Lin, S. H., & Johnson, R. E. (2015). A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1381–1397.
go back to reference Linda, T., Stefan, S., & Gregorio, L. R. (2016). Empathy, guilt proneness, and gender: Relative contributions to prosocial behavior. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 260–270. Linda, T., Stefan, S., & Gregorio, L. R. (2016). Empathy, guilt proneness, and gender: Relative contributions to prosocial behavior. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 260–270.
go back to reference Liu, W., Zhu, R., & Yang, Y. (2010). I warn you because I like you: Voice behavior, employee identifications, and transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 189–202. Liu, W., Zhu, R., & Yang, Y. (2010). I warn you because I like you: Voice behavior, employee identifications, and transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 189–202.
go back to reference May, D. R., Chang, Y. K., & Shao, R. (2015). Does ethical membership matter? Moral identification and its organizational implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 681–694. May, D. R., Chang, Y. K., & Shao, R. (2015). Does ethical membership matter? Moral identification and its organizational implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 681–694.
go back to reference Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 633–644. Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 633–644.
go back to reference Mesdaghinia, S., Rawat, A., & Nadavulakere, S. (2019). Why moral followers quit: Examining the role of leader bottom-line mentality and unethical pro-leader behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 491–505. Mesdaghinia, S., Rawat, A., & Nadavulakere, S. (2019). Why moral followers quit: Examining the role of leader bottom-line mentality and unethical pro-leader behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 491–505.
go back to reference Monin, B., & Jordan, A. H. (2009). The dynamic moral self: A social psychological perspective. In Personality, identity, and character: Explorations in moral psychology (pp 341–354). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Monin, B., & Jordan, A. H. (2009). The dynamic moral self: A social psychological perspective. In Personality, identity, and character: Explorations in moral psychology (pp 341–354). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373–412. Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373–412.
go back to reference Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 706–725. Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 706–725.
go back to reference Nelissen, R. M., & Zeelenberg, M. (2009). When guilt evokes self-punishment: Evidence for the existence of a dobby effect. Emotion, 9(1), 118–122. Nelissen, R. M., & Zeelenberg, M. (2009). When guilt evokes self-punishment: Evidence for the existence of a dobby effect. Emotion, 9(1), 118–122.
go back to reference Ormiston, M. E., & Wong, E. M. (2013). License to ill: The effects of corporate social responsibility and CEO moral identity on corporate social irresponsibility. Personnel Psychology, 66(4), 861–893. Ormiston, M. E., & Wong, E. M. (2013). License to ill: The effects of corporate social responsibility and CEO moral identity on corporate social irresponsibility. Personnel Psychology, 66(4), 861–893.
go back to reference Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, L., & Podsakoff J. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommendation remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, L., & Podsakoff J. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommendation remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.
go back to reference Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107–142. Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107–142.
go back to reference Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
go back to reference Reed, A., II., & Aquino, K. F. (2003). Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard toward out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(6), 1270–1286. Reed, A., II., & Aquino, K. F. (2003). Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard toward out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(6), 1270–1286.
go back to reference Ruedy, N. E., Moore, C., Gino, F., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2013). The cheater’s high: The unexpected affective benefits of unethical behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(4), 531–548. Ruedy, N. E., Moore, C., Gino, F., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2013). The cheater’s high: The unexpected affective benefits of unethical behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(4), 531–548.
go back to reference Sachdeva, S., Iliev, R., & Medin, D. L. (2009). Sinning saints and saintly sinners. The paradox of moral self-regulation. Psychological Science, 20(4), 523–528. Sachdeva, S., Iliev, R., & Medin, D. L. (2009). Sinning saints and saintly sinners. The paradox of moral self-regulation. Psychological Science, 20(4), 523–528.
go back to reference Shalvi, S., Gino, F., Barkan, R., & Ayal, S. (2015). Self-serving justifications: Doing wrong and feeling moral. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 125–130. Shalvi, S., Gino, F., Barkan, R., & Ayal, S. (2015). Self-serving justifications: Doing wrong and feeling moral. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 125–130.
go back to reference Skarlicki, D. P., Van Jaarsveld, D. D., & Walker, D. D. (2008). Getting even for customer mistreatment: The role of moral identity in the relationship between customer interpersonal injustice and employee sabotage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1335–1347. Skarlicki, D. P., Van Jaarsveld, D. D., & Walker, D. D. (2008). Getting even for customer mistreatment: The role of moral identity in the relationship between customer interpersonal injustice and employee sabotage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1335–1347.
go back to reference Skarlicki, D. P., van Jaarsveld, D. D., Shao, R., Song, Y. H., & Wang, M. (2016). Extending the multifoci perspective: The role of supervisor justice and moral identity in the relationship between customer justice and customer-directed sabotage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(1), 108–121. Skarlicki, D. P., van Jaarsveld, D. D., Shao, R., Song, Y. H., & Wang, M. (2016). Extending the multifoci perspective: The role of supervisor justice and moral identity in the relationship between customer justice and customer-directed sabotage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(1), 108–121.
go back to reference Starzyk, A., Sonnentag, S., & Albrecht, A. G. (2018). The affective relevance of suggestion-focused and problem-focused voice: A diary study on voice in meetings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(2), 340–361. Starzyk, A., Sonnentag, S., & Albrecht, A. G. (2018). The affective relevance of suggestion-focused and problem-focused voice: A diary study on voice in meetings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(2), 340–361.
go back to reference Steenhaut, S., & Kenhove, P. V. (2006). An empirical investigation of the relationships among a consumer’s personal values, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(2), 137–155. Steenhaut, S., & Kenhove, P. V. (2006). An empirical investigation of the relationships among a consumer’s personal values, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(2), 137–155.
go back to reference Tang, P. M., Yam, K. C., & Koopman, J. (2020). Feeling proud but guilty? Unpacking the paradoxical nature of unethical pro-organizational behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 160, 68–86. Tang, P. M., Yam, K. C., & Koopman, J. (2020). Feeling proud but guilty? Unpacking the paradoxical nature of unethical pro-organizational behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 160, 68–86.
go back to reference Tangirala, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2010). Employee silence on critical work issues: The cross-level effects of procedural justice climate. Personnel Psychology, 61(1), 37–68. Tangirala, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2010). Employee silence on critical work issues: The cross-level effects of procedural justice climate. Personnel Psychology, 61(1), 37–68.
go back to reference Tangney, J. P., Mashek, D., & Stuewig, J. (2007). Working at the social–clinical–community–criminology interface: The GMU inmate study. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(1), 1–21. Tangney, J. P., Mashek, D., & Stuewig, J. (2007). Working at the social–clinical–community–criminology interface: The GMU inmate study. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(1), 1–21.
go back to reference Tenbrunsel, A. E., Diekmann, K. A., Wade-Benzoni, K. A., & Bazerman, M. H. (2010). The ethical mirage: A temporal explanation as to why we are not as ethical as we think we are. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 153–173. Tenbrunsel, A. E., Diekmann, K. A., Wade-Benzoni, K. A., & Bazerman, M. H. (2010). The ethical mirage: A temporal explanation as to why we are not as ethical as we think we are. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 153–173.
go back to reference Tom, S. M., Fox, C. R., Trepel, C., & Poldrack, R. A. (2007). The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk. Science, 315(5811), 515–518. Tom, S. M., Fox, C. R., Trepel, C., & Poldrack, R. A. (2007). The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk. Science, 315(5811), 515–518.
go back to reference Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2006). Appraisal antecedents of shame and guilt: Support for a theoretical model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(10), 1339–1351. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2006). Appraisal antecedents of shame and guilt: Support for a theoretical model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(10), 1339–1351.
go back to reference Umphress, E. E., & Bingham, J. B. (2011). When employees do bad things for good reasons: Examining unethical pro-organizational behaviors. Organization Science, 22(3), 621–640. Umphress, E. E., & Bingham, J. B. (2011). When employees do bad things for good reasons: Examining unethical pro-organizational behaviors. Organization Science, 22(3), 621–640.
go back to reference Umphress, E. E., Bingham, J. B., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 769–780. Umphress, E. E., Bingham, J. B., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 769–780.
go back to reference Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. The Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108–119. Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. The Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108–119.
go back to reference Vlachos, P. A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Rapp, A. A. (2014). Employee judgments of and behaviors toward corporate social responsibility: A multi-study investigation of direct, cascading, and moderating effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7), 990–1017. Vlachos, P. A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Rapp, A. A. (2014). Employee judgments of and behaviors toward corporate social responsibility: A multi-study investigation of direct, cascading, and moderating effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7), 990–1017.
go back to reference Wang, T., Long, L., Zhang, Y., & He, W. (2019a). A social exchange perspective of employee–organization relationships and employee unethical pro-organizational behavior: the moderating role of individual moral identity. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 473–489. Wang, T., Long, L., Zhang, Y., & He, W. (2019a). A social exchange perspective of employee–organization relationships and employee unethical pro-organizational behavior: the moderating role of individual moral identity. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 473–489.
go back to reference Wang, J., Zhang, Z., & Jia, M. (2019b). Echoes of corporate social responsibility: How and when does CSR influence employees’ promotive and prohibitive voices? Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 1–17. Wang, J., Zhang, Z., & Jia, M. (2019b). Echoes of corporate social responsibility: How and when does CSR influence employees’ promotive and prohibitive voices? Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), 1–17.
go back to reference Winterich, K. P., Aquino, K., Mittal, V., & Swartz, R. (2013). When moral identity symbolization motivates prosocial behavior: The role of recognition and moral identity internalization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(5), 759–770. Winterich, K. P., Aquino, K., Mittal, V., & Swartz, R. (2013). When moral identity symbolization motivates prosocial behavior: The role of recognition and moral identity internalization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(5), 759–770.
go back to reference Xu, Z. X., & Ma, H. K. (2016). How can a deontological decision lead to moral behavior? The moderating role of moral identity. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 537–549. Xu, Z. X., & Ma, H. K. (2016). How can a deontological decision lead to moral behavior? The moderating role of moral identity. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 537–549.
go back to reference Yang, C., Nay, S., & Hoyle, R. H. (2010). Three approaches to using lengthy ordinal scales in structural equation models: Parceling, latent scoring, and shortening scales. Applied Psychological Measurement, 34(2), 122–142. Yang, C., Nay, S., & Hoyle, R. H. (2010). Three approaches to using lengthy ordinal scales in structural equation models: Parceling, latent scoring, and shortening scales. Applied Psychological Measurement, 34(2), 122–142.
go back to reference Yukl, G. A. (1989). Leadership in organizations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Yukl, G. A. (1989). Leadership in organizations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Zhong, C. B., & Liljenquist, K. (2006). Washing away your sins: Threatened morality and physical cleansing. Science, 313(5792), 1451–1452. Zhong, C. B., & Liljenquist, K. (2006). Washing away your sins: Threatened morality and physical cleansing. Science, 313(5792), 1451–1452.
go back to reference Zhu, L. L., Restubog, S. L. D., Leavitt, K., Zhou, L., & Wang, M. (2020). Lead the horse to water, but don’t make him drink: The effects of moral identity symbolization on coworker behavior depend on perceptions of proselytization. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 156, 53–68. Zhu, L. L., Restubog, S. L. D., Leavitt, K., Zhou, L., & Wang, M. (2020). Lead the horse to water, but don’t make him drink: The effects of moral identity symbolization on coworker behavior depend on perceptions of proselytization. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 156, 53–68.
Metadata
Title
A Moral Cleansing Process: How and When Does Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior Increase Prohibitive and Promotive Voice
Authors
Ying Wang
Shufeng Xiao
Run Ren
Publication date
08-01-2021
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Journal of Business Ethics / Issue 1/2022
Print ISSN: 0167-4544
Electronic ISSN: 1573-0697
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04697-w

Other articles of this Issue 1/2022

Journal of Business Ethics 1/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partner