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About this book

This book provides a wealth of practical guidance on how to design parts to gain the maximum benefit from what additive manufacturing (AM) can offer. It begins by describing the main AM technologies and their respective advantages and disadvantages. It then examines strategic considerations in the context of designing for additive manufacturing (DfAM), such as designing to avoid anisotropy, designing to minimize print time, and post-processing, before discussing the economics of AM.

The following chapters dive deeper into computational tools for design analysis and the optimization of AM parts, part consolidation, and tooling applications. They are followed by an in-depth chapter on designing for polymer AM and applicable design guidelines, and a chapter on designing for metal AM and its corresponding design guidelines. These chapters also address health and safety, certification and quality aspects. A dedicated chapter covers the multiple post-processing methods for AM, offering the reader practical guidance on how to get their parts from the AM machine into a shape that is ready to use. The book’s final chapter outlines future applications of AM.

The main benefit of the book is its highly practical approach: it provides directly applicable, “hands-on” information and insights to help readers adopt AM in their industry

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Additive Manufacturing

Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) encompasses a range of technologies that allows physical components to be made, from virtual 3D models by building the component layer-upon-layer until the part is complete.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 2. Additive Manufacturing Technologies

Abstract
This chapter describes the main additive manufacturing technologies in use today. Note, however, that new technologies are continuously appearing on the market, so this space is in a continuous state of flux. Some of the technologies also have minor variants such as, for example, a material extrusion which might have one, two, or even more, extrusion nozzles. The intent of this chapter is not to cover every single technology in existence but, rather, to give the novice an overall understanding how each category of AM technology works.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 3. DfAM Strategic Design Considerations

Abstract
Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) is when designers seek to create a product design that takes advantage of the unique capabilities of AM. DfAM also respects the specific process constraints of the AM technology that will be used to produce the product. This goes beyond merely re-designing existing parts for AM. Re-design for AM is useful because it can yield benefits such as a reduction in the use of material or the consolidation of several parts into one. However, what it fails to do is to consider the added benefits that AM can bring to an entire product through improvements in form, fit, and function. This book seeks to encourage engineers and designers to consider the strategic benefits of AM before concentrating on detailed design. Design for AM is definitely more of a thought process in which conscious decisions are made (often compromises) rather than just blindly following a set of design rules.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 4. Computational Tools for Design Analysis and Optimisation of AM Parts

Abstract
There are several possible purposes for using simulation tools related to AM. The first aim, just as with traditional design analysis, is to simulate the behaviour and performance of a virtual design, and to use this information to either manually or automatically improve the design according to some given criteria. This avoids the time-consuming and costly step of manufacturing a prototype and setting up test rigs, thus enabling rapid iteration in the design process. The second aim is to simulate the physical build process to aid in finding an optimal build orientation, support structures, material properties or to compensate for distortions.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 5. Guidelines for Part Consolidation

Abstract
Always design with the following thought in mind: With the function I am trying to achieve, what is the simplest possible configuration of part(s) that I can print in an orientation to avoid anisotropy? This thought often leads to good possibilities for part consolidation.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 6. Guidelines for AM Tooling Design

Abstract
We have, so far, mostly been talking about using AM for direct part production. However, many industries are now starting to use AM as a way of manufacturing the tooling for conventionally injection molded, cast, extruded, or sheet-metal parts. This means that the final parts are exactly the same as those that they would have previously made with conventional tooling, and only that the tooling, itself, was produced with AM. This makes it relatively easy for engineers to accept the technology, as the produced parts are identical (or better) to the parts they are used to.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 7. Design for Polymer AM

Abstract
The design guidelines in this section apply to almost all polymer AM technologies. Some technologies have specific guidelines that apply only to that technology, and these are discussed in the chapter on design guidelines for specific AM processes.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 8. Polymer Design Guidelines

Abstract
Material extrusion (a.k.a. fused deposition modelling or FDM) is an AM process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle much like a hot-glue gun. Materials used are typically thermoplastic polymers and the part being constructed normally requires support structures for overhanging features. Some system use support material built from the same material as the print material, some use a different second material that is slightly easier to remove by mechanical force, and some use a second material that is soluble.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 9. Design for Metal AM

Abstract
Metal powder bed fusion (e.g., direct metal laser sintering, selective laser melting, and electron beam melting) is an AM process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder bed. Materials used include stainless steel, tool steel, aluminium, titanium alloys, nickel-based alloys, cobalt chrome, and precious metals such as gold. The part being constructed normally requires supports (sometimes called anchors) to be added, built from the same material as the part. These supports are removed manually after the build process, so the designer must allow room for access to the supports. Also, care must be taken when creating small features that are attached to the supports because they can break off accidentally during support removal.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 10. Metal AM Guidelines

Abstract
The design guidelines below apply to laser powder bed fusion metal processes. The guidelines will vary from machine manufacturer and model to machine manufacturer and model so, if in doubt it is recommended to print a test piece to verify each set of design parameters.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 11. Other AM Considerations

Abstract
This chapter covers activities that are, typically, outside the designer’s influence, but impact the quality of the final part produced.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 12. Post-processing

Abstract
All Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies require post-processing to produce parts that are ready for use. This post-processing can range from support material removal, to surface quality improvement, to colouring and painting, and to aging for polymer parts and heat-treatment for metal parts. Throughout the AM industry there is a vast amount of tacit knowledge in the area of post-processing but there, currently, exists very little documentation on the various post-processing methods for different AM technologies and materials. This leads to time being wasted by companies having to individually learn and develop post-processing methods. This chapter aims to correct this.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 13. The Future of Additive Manufacturing

Abstract
Additive manufacturing is developing very rapidly. Every few months we see new technologies, new materials, new software, and new AM products coming to market. It is of great importance to those with an interest in AM to keep abreast of some of the upcoming developments as they will, without doubt, affect how we develop future products.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Chapter 14. Concluding Remarks

Abstract
Additive manufacturing is in an extremely rapid state of flux. By the time you have read this book, new AM technologies, materials or software will have appeared on the market. It is a growing area of research and there are few universities that do not have some research program in AM, and existing and new companies are increasingly adding it to their production systems.
Olaf Diegel, Axel Nordin, Damien Motte

Backmatter

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