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About this book

This book discusses the current biomaterials used for dental applications and the basic sciences underpinning their application. The most critical structures in the oral cavity are the teeth, which play a central role in speaking, biting, chewing, tasting and swallowing. Teeth consist of three types of tissue: the cementum, enamel and dentin, with bone and gingival tissue serving as supporting structures. Caries, tooth wear, trauma and mechanical defects can lead to severe facial conditions; however, correcting these defects remains a challenge for scientists and dentists. Presenting insights form a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, biology, physiology and clinical science, this book provides a timely review of the principles, processing and application of dental materials.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Primary Information About Biomaterials

Abstract
Biomaterials are known as any substances and materials for the aim of making devices to replace a section or a function of the body in a safe, dependable, cost-effective, and physiologically accepted manner, which is provided as synthetic or natural materials. Synthetic materials have gained attention when the first generation of materials from 1960 to 1970 was invented for usage inside a human body.
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner

2. Tooth Problems and Infections

Abstract
A schematic structure of a completely developed mammalian tooth, which consists of dentin, enamel, gingiva, pulp, cementum, and bone. As can be seen, the tooth is attached to its alveolus bone socket and held in place by a thin cementum interlayer adjoining the periodontal ligament.
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner

3. Dental Restorative Materials

Abstract
Restorative dental materials are of great importance in dentistry for restoring and replacing injured or missed teeth with the purpose of simulating natural teeth functions besides providing translucency and tooth-like color shade. Restorative dental materials are produced as crowns, inlays, onlays, multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, and veneers. These materials are divided into two distinct categories, which are direct and indirect restorative materials.
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner

4. Tooth Pastes and Mouthwashes: The Two Commonly Known Dental Preventive Materials

Abstract
Different kinds of oral care products have been produced since the 1920s. These are used for prevention of teeth from caries and initial mouth problems.
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner

5. Nanoparticles (NPs) in Dentistry

Abstract
The term nanotechnology, referring to technologies operating at very small scales, was first introduced by Richard Feynman.
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner

6. 3D-Printing Technologies for Dental Material Processing

Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) especially the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been applied for creating different complex geometry constructions which consists of printing successive layers of materials on top of other layers.
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner

7. Application of the Finite Element Method in Dentistry

Abstract
The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical method in which stress and strain distributions, resulting from the application of external force, pressure, and thermal variation, are calculated within several finite elements of a larger system with a complex geometry and heterogeneous properties
Hamid Reza Rezaie, Hassan Beigi Rizi, Mojdeh Mahdi Rezaei Khamseh, Andreas Öchsner
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