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2020 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

2. A Short History of the AI

Author : Klaus Mainzer

Published in: Artificial intelligence - When do machines take over?

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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Abstract

In ancient language, an automaton is an apparatus that can act independently (autonomously). According to ancient understanding, self-activity characterizes living organisms. Reports on hydraulic and mechanical automats are already mentioned in ancient literature against the background of the technology of the time. In Jewish tradition, the Golem is described as a human-like machine at the end of the Middle Ages. The Golem can be programmed with combinations of letters from the “Book of Creation” (Hebrew: Sefer Jezira)—to protect the Jewish people in times of persecution.
At the beginning of modern times, automation was approached from a technical and scientific point of view. Leonardo da Vinci’s construction plans for vending machines are known from the Renaissance. In the Baroque era, slot machines were built on the basis of watchmaking technology. P. Jaquet-Droz designs a complicated clockwork that was built into a human doll. His “androids” play the piano, draw pictures and write sentences. The French physician and philosopher J. O. de Lamettrie sums up the concept of life and automata in the age of mechanics: “The human body is a machine that stretches its (drive) spring itself”.

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Literature
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go back to reference Mainzer K (1985) The concept of intelligence from the point of view of epistemology and science theory. In: Strombach W, Tauber MJ, Reusch B (eds) The concept of intelligence in the various sciences. Series of the Austrian computer society, vol 28. Oldenbourg, Vienna, pp 41–56 Mainzer K (1985) The concept of intelligence from the point of view of epistemology and science theory. In: Strombach W, Tauber MJ, Reusch B (eds) The concept of intelligence in the various sciences. Series of the Austrian computer society, vol 28. Oldenbourg, Vienna, pp 41–56
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go back to reference Further historical notes of AI in K. Mainzer (1994), Computer—new wings of the mind? The evolution of computer-aided technology, science, culture and philosophy. De Gruyter, Berlin, p 103 ff. The development of AI in the 1990s is documented in the AI journal “Artificial Intelligence” of the German Society of Informatics e. V Further historical notes of AI in K. Mainzer (1994), Computer—new wings of the mind? The evolution of computer-aided technology, science, culture and philosophy. De Gruyter, Berlin, p 103 ff. The development of AI in the 1990s is documented in the AI journal “Artificial Intelligence” of the German Society of Informatics e. V
Metadata
Title
A Short History of the AI
Author
Klaus Mainzer
Copyright Year
2020
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-59717-0_2

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