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BTI has long been recognized as a partially reversible wearout effect, but the literature is vague about how much recovery can be achieved under different conditions and what it means for designers to boost the rate and level of BTI recovery. This chapter proposes a series of biologically inspired techniques that are able to effectively accelerate and activate the BTI recovery; measurement results with actual hardware demonstrate that even what would be considered irreversible BTI wearout can be almost fully eliminated by employing an internal circadian rhythm for recovery. By fully taking advantage of the explored unique BTI recovery behaviors and running the system in a “refreshed” mode, the necessary design margins that would be assigned by flat-guardband approach can be significantly reduced, and the average performance can be improved as well. We present the theory, models, experimental demonstration, and potential design benefits of accelerated and active BTI recovery in this chapter.
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S Mahapatra, V Huard, A Kerber, V Reddy, S Kalpat, and A Haggag. Universality of nbti-from devices to circuits and products. In Reliability Physics Symposium, 2014 IEEE International, pages 3B–1. IEEE, 2014.
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Narendra Parihar, Uma Sharma, Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay, Nilesh Goel, Ankush Chaudhary, Rakesh Rao, and Souvik Mahapatra. Resolution of disputes concerning the physical mechanism and DC/AC stress/recovery modeling of Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) in p-MOSFETs. In Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2017 IEEE International, pages XT–1. IEEE, 2017.
Jyothi Bhaskarr Velamala, Ketul Sutaria, Takashi Sato, and Yu Cao. Physics matters: statistical aging prediction under trapping/detrapping. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Design Automation Conference, pages 139–144. ACM, 2012.
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Saket Gupta and Sachin S Sapatnekar. Gnomo: Greater-than-nominal v dd operation for bti mitigation. In Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), 2012 17th Asia and South Pacific, pages 271–276. IEEE, 2012.
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Abhishek Tiwari and Josep Torrellas. Facelift: Hiding and slowing down aging in multicores. In Microarchitecture, 2008. MICRO-41. 2008 41st IEEE/ACM International Symposium on, pages 129–140. IEEE, 2008.
Nimay Shah, Rupak Samanta, Ming Zhang, Jiang Hu, and Duncan Walker. Built-in proactive tuning system for circuit aging resilience. In Defect and Fault Tolerance of VLSI Systems, 2008. DFTVS’08. IEEE International Symposium on, pages 96–104. IEEE, 2008.
Taniya Siddiqua and Sudhanva Gurumurthi. Nbti-aware dynamic instruction scheduling. In Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Silicon Errors in Logic-System Effects. Citeseer, 2009.
Lin Li, Youtao Zhang, Jun Yang, and Jianhua Zhao. Proactive nbti mitigation for busy functional units in out-of-order microprocessors. In Proceedings of the Conference on Design, Automation and Test in Europe, pages 411–416. European Design and Automation Association, 2010.
Dean Michael Ancajas, Koushik Chakraborty, and Sanghamitra Roy. Proactive aging management in heterogeneous nocs through a criticality-driven routing approach. In Proceedings of the Conference on Design, Automation and Test in Europe, pages 1032–1037. EDA Consortium, 2013.
Hans Reisinger, Oliver Blank, Wolfgang Heinrigs, Wolfgang Gustin, and Christian Schlünder. A comparison of very fast to very slow components in degradation and recovery due to nbti and bulk hole trapping to existing physical models. Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on, 7(1):119–129, 2007. CrossRef
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- Accelerated and Active Self-healing Techniques for BTI Wearout
Mircea R. Stan
- Springer International Publishing
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- Chapter 2