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About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks, ADHOCNETS 2018, held in Cairns, Australia, in September 2018. The 27 full papers were selected from 50 submissions and cover a variety of network paradigms including mobile ad hoc networks, sensor networks, vehicular networks, underwater networks, airborne networks, underground networks, personal area networks, device-to-device (D2D) communications in 5G cellular networks, and home networks. The papers present a wide range of applications in civilian, commercial, and military areas.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Ad Hoc Networks

Frontmatter

Task Assignment for Semi-opportunistic Mobile Crowdsensing

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel crowdsensing paradigm called semi-opportunistic sensing, which is aimed to achieve high task quality with low human involvement. In this paradigm, each mobile user can provide multiple path choices to reach her destination, which largely broadens the task assignment space. We formulate the task assignment problem in this paradigm of maximizing total task quality under incentive budget constraint and user travel time constraints. We prove this problem is NP-hard and then propose two efficient heuristic algorithms. First, we propose a Best Path/Task first algorithm (BPT) which always chooses current best path and current best task into the assignment list. Second, we propose an LP-relaxation based algorithm (LPR), which greedily assigns paths and tasks with the largest values in LP relaxation solution. We deduce the computational complexities of the proposed algorithms. We evaluate the performance of our algorithms using real-world traces. Simulation results show that our proposed crowdsensing paradigm can largely increase overall task quality compared with the opportunistic sensing paradigm where each user has only one fixed path. Simulation results also show that our proposed algorithms are efficient and their performance is close to the optimal solution.
Wei Gong, Baoxian Zhang, Cheng Li

Caching on Vehicles: A Lyapunov Based Online Algorithm

Abstract
With the explosive increase of mobile data and users, data tsunami seriously challenges the mobile operators worldwide. The vehicular caching, which caches mobile data on widely distributed vehicles, is an efficient method to solve this problem. In this paper, we explore the impact of vehicular caching on cellular networks. Specifically, targeting on network performance in energy efficiency, we first formulate a fractional optimization model by considering the network throughput and energy consumption. We then apply nonlinear programming and Lyapunov technology to relax the nonlinear and nonconvex model. Based on analysis, we propose a novel online task decision algorithm. Based on this algorithm, vehicles determine to act either as servers or task schedulers for the requests of users. The burden of cellular MBS (Macro Base Station) then can be alleviated. Extensive simulations are finally conducted and results verify the effectiveness of our proposal.
Yao Zhang, Changle Li, Tom H. Luan, Yuchuan Fu, Lina Zhu

Simplicial Complex Reduction Algorithm for Simplifying WSN’s Topology

Abstract
In this paper, a reduction algorithm aiming at simplifying the topology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is proposed. First, we use simplicial complex as the tool to represent the topology of the WSNs. Then, we present a reduction algorithm which recurrently deletes redundant vertices and edges while keeping the homology of the network invariant. By reducing the number of simplexes, we make the simplicial complex graph nearly planar and easy for computation. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is investigated. Simulations under different node intensities are presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs well in reducing the number of simplexes under various situations.
Wenyu Ma, Feng Yan, Xuzhou Zuo, Jin Hu, Weiwei Xia, Lianfeng Shen

Resource Allocation

Frontmatter

Resource Allocation Scheme for D2D Communication Based on ILA

Abstract
Resource allocation is one of the most crucial issues in Device-to-Device (D2D) communication, which can achieve high spectrum efficiency and enhance system capacity. However, the interference generated by multiplexing users makes resource allocation more complicated. In this paper, a resource allocation algorithm based on interference limited area (ILA-based) is proposed to manage the interference. First, the system capacity of D2D communication is analyzed. Next, the ILA is divided and the resource pool is selected. Finally, it is verified that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the overall capacity of the communication system with a relatively low complexity.
Zhifang Gu, Pingping Xu, Guilu Wu, Hao Liu

Content Aware Resource Allocation for Video Service Provisioning in Wireless Networks

Abstract
Video service has been a killer application over wireless networks. Many cross-layer optimization techniques have been proposed to improve the quality of video services in wireless networks. However, most of them did not consider video content type information in resource allocation, which greatly affects the quality of users’ watching experience. In this paper, we take video type information into consideration for resource allocation at base stations. Accordingly, for given transmission power at base station, we build an optimal model to achieve maximal achievable total Mean Opinion Score (MOS) by allocating appropriate powers and video rates for different users watching different types of videos. Numerical results show that our model can achieve much higher MOS compared with existing scheme that does not consider such video type information.
Yongxiang Zhao, Yunpeng Song, Chunxi Li

A Power Allocation Algorithm for D2D-Direct Communication in Relay Cellular Networks

Abstract
The relay and Device to device (D2D) technologies can be used to improve the Quality of Service (QoS) of a mobile user in the edge region of the cellular networks, To coordinate these two technologies, this paper considers a heterogeneous network containing the D2D-direct, D2D-non-direct and cellular communication mode. Furtherly, a system model taking throughput as optimization object is built to descript this network precisely. It is proved that the objective function and the constraints satisfy the requirements of convex function, and then a power allocation algorithm based on Lagrange Multiplier is proposed to find the optimal solver. Finally, we evaluate the performance of algorithm in terms of throughput and fairness by simulation.
Chenguang He, Wenbin Zhang, Weixiao Meng, Yuwei Cui

A Joint Power Control and Cooperative Transmission Scheme in Random Networks

Abstract
In this paper, we consider the average spectrum efficiency of edge users under the random network model. In this model, the base stations (BSs) and the users exhibit Poisson distribution. By dividing the center and cell edge users, we use the multiple BSs that are closer to the edge users to cooperative with each other to transfer the users information to improve the average spectrum efficiency of the downlink edge users. We also adopt a distance-dependent power control scheme to further reduce inter-cell interference. Using the above method comprehensively, we derive the analytical expression of the spectral efficiency of the edge user. The performance of this scheme is evaluated through simulation results. Simulation results show that the spectrum efficiency is significantly improved compared to traditional user-centric transmission and non-power control cooperative schemes.
Dan Zhang, Xin Su, Lu Ge, Jie Zeng, Bei Liu, Xiangyun Zheng

Routing and Network Planning

Frontmatter

An Energy-Efficient Distributed Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks

Abstract
Mobile sink(s) can solve the hotspot issue in static wireless sensor networks (WSNs) but also cause frequent change of network topology, increase the network overhead, and thus affect the network performance. A lot of work has been done to enable efficient routing in such networks. However, little work has addressed the issue of energy efficient distributed routing in WSNs with mobile sinks (mWSNs). This paper designs an energy-efficient distributed routing protocol, which combines energy-efficient data-driven packet forwarding, trail based forwarding, and energy-efficient random walk routing, in order to achieve prolonged network lifetime performance. Detailed protocol design is presented. Simulation results show that our designed protocol can prolong the network lifetime remarkably while maintaining high packet delivery ratio performance with low protocol overhead.
Hengyi Wen, Tao Wang, Daren Zha, Baoxian Zhang

Asymptotical Performance of Ring Based Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink: An Analysis

Abstract
Design of efficient routing protocols has been a critical issue in wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks (mWSN). In [1], Yu et al. proposed a distributed lightweight ring based routing protocol for mWSNs, which builds a multi-ring based network structure by creating a quasi-polar coordinate system on the network in order to support efficient ring based routing. However, in [1], only average case routing performance was reported via simulations. In this paper, we derive the asymptotical path-length performance of the ring based routing via extensive analyses. We hope the results reported in this paper can be helpful for understanding the characteristics of ring based routing.
Sheng Yu, Baoxian Zhang, Chunxi Li, Kun Hao, Cheng Li

Energy Efficient Based Splitting for MPTCP in Heterogeneous Networks

Abstract
This paper models a theoretical framework of energy efficiency concurrent multipath transfer based on MPTCP. An optimal energy efficient splitting way was proposed. By exploring the theoretical relationship between transmission rate and energy efficiency, a multi-network concurrent multipath transmission energy efficiency optimization model is developed. For downlink and concurrent transmission scenarios in heterogeneous wireless networks, the relationship between different network channel states, energy consumption and transmission rate is studied. In order to ensure that the data leave the send queue within a limited time, the Lyapunov optimization method is used in this paper, and then obtained an optimal splitting strategy.
Huanxi Cui, Xin Su, Jie Zeng, Bei Liu

RPMA Low-Power Wide-Area Network Planning Method Basing on Data Mining

Abstract
A network planning method based on data mining was proposed for Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA) low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) with large density of base stations and uneven traffic distribution. First, a signal quality prediction model was established by using the boosting regression trees algorithm, which was used to extract the coverage distribution spacial pattern of the network. Then, the weighted K-centroids clustering algorithm was utilized to obtain the optimal base station deployment for the current spacial pattern. Finally, according to the total objective function, the best base station topology was determined. Experimental results with the real data sets show that compared with the traditional network planning method, the proposed method can improve the coverage of low-power wide-area networks.
Yao Shen, Xiaorong Zhu, Yue Wang

Localization and Tracking

Frontmatter

Mobility Assisted Wireless Sensor Network Cooperative Localization via SOCP

Abstract
Cooperative sensor localization plays an essential role in the Global Positioning System (GPS) limited indoor networks. While most of the earlier work is of static nodes localization, the localization of mobile nodes is still a challenging task for wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes an effective cooperative localization scheme in the mobile wireless sensor network, which exploits distance between nodes as well as their mobility information. We first use multidimensional scaling (MDS) to perform initial location estimation. Then second-order cone programming (SOCP) is applied to obtain the location estimation. To make full use of the mobility of nodes, we further utilize Kalman filter (KF) to reduce the localization error and improve the robustness of the localization system. The proposed mobility assisted localization scheme significantly improves the localization accuracy of mobile nodes.
Sijia Yu, Xin Su, Jie Zeng, Huanxi Cui

A Lightweight Filter-Based Target Tracking Model in Wireless Sensor Network

Abstract
Target tracking is an important research in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), which detects and estimates the event source based on the data of multiple sensors. In this domain, the accuracy of tracking, the choosing of communication nodes and the real-time performance are the main direction of research. In this paper, the local density and distributed filter are investigated. Based on those above, a lightweight filter-based target tracking model is proposed, which use the local density to determine the communication nodes, and use the distributed filter to reduce the interval of sampling. The simulation shows the local density-based communication algorithm is stable and flexible.
Chao Li, Zhenjiang Zhang, Yun Liu, Fei Xiong, Jian Li, Bo Shen

Radio-Map Search Algorithm Based on Steepest Descent Principle

Abstract
For most of the Ad-Hoc systems, position information is very important. Indoor scenario is a blind area of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service, which affects the application of Ad-Hoc technology. Fingerprint positioning technology is one of the most popular indoor localization methods. Searching strategy is one of the key techniques of fingerprint positioning. Because the data amount of the radio-map, which is used as the database of the system, is very big. Currently, the main accelerating measure of radio-map searching is clustering. But clustering brings some problems to the system, such as jittering and jamming. This paper proposes a novel radio-map searching strategy. Based on the steepest descent principle, the searching order is changed in the proposed method, compared with traditional clustering-positioning strategy. Thus, the radio-map is used in one piece, which is different from the traditional clustering-matching strategy. Simulations and experiments verified that the positioning accuracy of the proposal is better than that of the traditional method.
Deyue Zou, Yuwei Shi, Shuai Han

Node Scheduling for Localization in Heterogeneous Software-Defined Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract
In this paper, a node scheduling scheme for localization in heterogeneous software-defined wireless sensor networks (SD-WSNs) is proposed. An expression to evaluate the connectivity degree of the localized agent is derived, which is used to judge if the agent is connected with an expected number of anchors. The node scheduling scheme is designed on the basis of the software-defined networking (SDN) paradigm, and the state of each anchor is determined by the SDN controller through a flow table via sensor OpenFlow. In the proposed scheme, a timer for each anchor is calculated based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) value and the residual energy. Simulations show that the proposed node scheduling scheme can reduce the number of active nodes while ensuring an expected number of anchors for localization. It can also be shown that the scheme can reduce the energy consumption with only a slight decrease in positioning accuracy.
Yaping Zhu, Feng Yan, Weiwei Xia, Fei Shen, Song Xing, Yi Wu, Lianfeng Shen

Handover, Scheduling, and Action Recognition

Frontmatter

A Speed-Adjusted Vertical Handover Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Logic

Abstract
The development of wireless communication technology promotes the inevitability of network integration. In order to solve the problems in the process of heterogeneous wireless networks handover, this paper proposes a speed-adjusted vertical handover algorithm based on fuzzy logic. The algorithm periodically acquires motion information of the terminal in the heterogeneous network environment. By using a threshold function based on the simple weighting method and adjusting the threshold value in combination with the speed, the information that is not suitable for handover will be filtered out. Then, the received signal strength (RSS), network available bandwidth, and battery power are normalized and put into a fuzzy logic controller to obtain a comprehensive network performance value (NCPV). Finally, the handover decision is performed according to NCPV. The simulation results show that this algorithm can reduce unnecessary handover with the increase of speed and suppress the generation of ping-pong effect, compared with the traditional algorithm. In addition, this algorithm also considers factors such as network delay, service cost, etc. Those improve the quality of service (QoS) and user satisfaction.
Dongdong Yao, Xin Su, Bei Liu, Jie Zeng

A Self-adaptive Feedback Handoff Algorithm Based Decision Tree for Internet of Vehicles

Abstract
In this paper, a self-adaptive feedback handoff (SAFH) algorithm is proposed to address the problem about dynamic handoffs for the Internet of Vehicles (IoVs), aiming at minimizing handoff delay and reducing the ping-pong effect. We first analyze the main attributes and terminal movement trend, and give the respective handoff probability distribution. Based on handoff probability distributions, the structure of multi-attribute decision tree is determined. To update the terminal state, the incremental learning method by feedback mechanism is implemented by adding decision table information at the nodes of the decision tree so as to dynamically catch the splitting attributes of the decision tree. Simulation results show that the proposed SAFH algorithm’s time cost is lower than some existing algorithms. Besides, SAFH algorithm also reduces the ping-pong effect and increases the effectiveness of network connections.
Wenqing Cui, Weiwei Xia, Zhuorui Lan, Chao Qian, Feng Yan, Lianfeng Shen

Segment-Based Scheduling Algorithm in Cache-Enabled Device-to-Device Wireless Networks

Abstract
In this paper, we study the link scheduling problem in cache-enabled device-to-device (D2D) wireless networks considering the quality-of-service (QoS) requirement of each scheduled D2D link. We propose a segment-based link scheduling method which consists of two phases, user pairing and link scheduling, to maximize the overall system throughput. We designed a segment factor to control interference among the established D2D links in the link scheduling phase. With the proposed method, interference among different scheduled D2D links can be significantly reduced and the QoS of each link can be guaranteed. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing ones in terms of overall system throughput and the number of scheduled D2D links.
Shaoqin Peng, Bo Chang, Liying Li, Guodong Zhao, Zhi Chen, Qi Wang

An Action Recognition Method Based on Wearable Sensors

Abstract
In the field of human action recognition, some existing works are mainly focused on macro actions, e.g., the requirements for action recognition is walking or jumping, while others are concentrated on micro actions, e.g., hand waving or leg raising. However, existing works rarely consider the recognition effect of different sensor wearing schemes with various requirements. In this work, the influences of the wearing scheme on action recognition effect are taken into account, a universal action recognition method to adapt different recognition requirements is developed. First, we present an action layered verification model which includes static action layer, dynamic action layer and joint presentation layer, which is used to provide an optional wearing scheme for each layer and to prevent wrong classification problems. Second, we verify the recognition effect of various wearing schemes under different layers. Finally, an action recognition method based on decision tree is introduced to adapt different requirements. The experiments show that the proposed method achieves a desirable recognition effect in comparison to existing ones.
Fuliang Ma, Jing Tan, Xiubing Liu, Huiqiang Wang, Guangsheng Feng, Bingyang Li, Hongwu Lv, Junyu Lin, Mao Tang

Security

Frontmatter

Speed Based Attacker Placement for Evaluating Location Privacy in VANET

Abstract
The deployment of connected and autonomous vehicles is expected to increase rapidly in the coming decade. For successful operation, it is critical to maintain the security and privacy of the communication messages exchanged among such vehicles. One important aspect of this is to maintain the location privacy of vehicles/users that use unencrypted basic safety messages (BSM) to exchange information with nearby vehicles. The use of temporary identifiers called pseudonyms have been proposed for protecting location privacy. A pseudonym change strategy (PCS) determines the conditions under which pseudonyms should change. The goal is to change pseudonyms in a way that prevents an attacker from linking multiple pseudonyms to the same vehicle. In this paper we explore how an intelligent attacker placement scheme can impact the success rate for linking pseudonyms. We propose a new speed-based attacker placement algorithm that can be used to evaluate different PCS. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is able to increase the rate for successfully linking vehicle pseudonyms.
Ikjot Saini, Sherif Saad, Arunita Jaekel

HACIT2: A Privacy Preserving, Region Based and Blockchain Application for Dynamic Navigation and Forensics in VANET

Abstract
The current architecture for VANET related services relies on a Client-Server approach and leads to numerous drawbacks. Among them, data privacy concerns and service availability are of prime importance. Indeed, user data collected and stored in servers by providers may be used by third-party services. Particularly for navigation, users submit their GPS position in order to obtain road traffic information and alternative paths. These services treat user privacy for their own purpose (commercial or not) (Beresford and Stajano, 2004) even if GPRD (European Parliament, 2014) is now enforced in Europe. We propose an innovative approach using blockchain technology to avoid the use of third parties services, which enable dynamic navigation rerouting within a fixed geographic zone while ensuring user anonymity. Furthermore, the approach will allow for legal authority to enable forensic analysis of the ledger without unnecessary violation of the user anonymity and privacy.
Decoster Kevin, Billard David

A Lightweight Security and Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract
Most applications based on wireless sensor networks (WSN) have devices with constraints of limited energy and computational/storage capabilities. The traditional security mechanisms are not desirable to these applications. A lightweight security and energy-efficient clustering protocol was proposed in this paper to solve the security problem in the clustering-based sensor networks. Firstly, a lightweight security algorithm is proposed to meet the security requirements, which reduces the communication overload by using the transmission key index. Secondly, in the process of clustering, the base station (BS) and cluster head (CH) use lightweight authentication procedure to verify the identities hierarchically, to reduce the risk of attacks from malicious nodes posing as BS or CH. Thirdly, the proposed protocol is analyzed in the aspects of security and energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol not only enhances the network security but also improves the energy efficiency.
Guangsong Yang, Xin-Wen Wu

Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security Among Similar Channels

Abstract
Physical layer security technologies are used to ensure the secure communication when eavesdroppers use infinite computing capabilities to launch brute force attacks. Traditional physical layer security technologies utilized the difference between legitimate channels and eavesdropping channels. However, in certain scenarios, the legitimate channels are similar to eavesdropping channels so that the communication become insecure. In this paper, we especially studied the physical layer security communication among similar channels. An interference relay model was proposed to ensure the security of communication and at the same time, optimize the power allocation by maximizing the lower bound of the secrecy outage probability. The theoretical secrecy outage probability of the proposed power allocation scheme was derived. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is superior to a uniform power allocation scheme on channel security performance under the same condition. Furthermore, using simulation, we demonstrated that the derivation of secrecy outage probability for the proposed power allocation scheme is valid.
Xiangxue Tai, Shuai Han, Xi Chen, Qingli Zhang

Miscellaneous Topics in Wireless Networks

Frontmatter

A Decision Tree Candidate Property Selection Method Based on Improved Manifold Learning Algorithm

Abstract
When the traditional decision tree algorithm is applied to the field of network security analysis, due to the unreasonable property selection method, the overfitting problem may be caused, and the accuracy of the constructed decision tree is low. Therefore, this paper proposes a decision tree selection method based on improved manifold learning algorithm. The manifold learning algorithm maps the high-dimensional feature space to the low-dimensional space, so the algorithm can acquire the essential attributes of the data source. According to this, the problems of low accuracy and overfitting can be solved. Aiming at the traditional manifold learning algorithms are sensitive to noise and the algorithms converges slowly, this paper proposes a Global and Local Mapping manifold learning algorithm, and this method is used to construct a decision tree. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional ID3 decision tree construction algorithm, the improved method reduces 2.16% and 1.626% in false positive rate and false negative rate respectively.
Fangfang Guo, Luomeng Chao, Huiqiang Wang

Repairable Fountain Codes with Unequal Repairing Locality in D2D Storage System

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel repairable fountain codes (RFC) used in D2D data storage systems for failure data recovery. This RFC has the priority of unequal repairing locality (URL), which can provide unequal data protection for different nodes’ bandwidth and power in different areas. The lower locality of URL-RFC can reduce the repair bandwidth in D2D storage system, and tradeoff different nodes’ capabilities of transmitting. We firstly give the heterogeneous D2D storage network model, and analysis the communication cost for data download and node repair. Then, the construction method of URL-RFC is given based on generated matrix. Simulation results show that, URL-RFC significant outperforms conventional distributed codes on communication cost in heterogeneous D2D storage system.
Yue Li, Shushi Gu, Ye Wang, Juan Li, Qinyu Zhang

Channel Impulse Response Analysis of the Indoor Propagation Based on Auto-Regressive Modeling

Abstract
A novel statistical channel impulse response model at 2.6 GHz is proposed for the indoor stairs and corridor environment. The model is based on the frequency domain auto-regressive (AR) process. The samples of the complex frequency response can be described as the output of the AR transfer function driven by a Gaussian white-noise process. In this model, the number of poles of the AR transfer function is determined by the significant paths of radio propagation. The paths depend on the reflectors of different propagation environment. The accuracy of the AR modeling has been verified by utilizing the root-mean-square error and root-mean-square delay spread as metrics. The model is also compared with the conventional tapped delay line model. The proposed model can be useful for the development and design of future communication.
Jinpeng Liang, Wenjun Lu, Yang Liu, Qiong Wu, Baolong Li, Zhengquan Li

Predicting Freezing of WebRTC Videos in WiFi Networks

Abstract
WebRTC is an open source project which enables real-time communication within web browsers. It facilitates web-based multimedia applications, e.g. video conferencing and receives great interest from the academia. Nevertheless understanding of quality of experience (QoE) for the WebRTC video applications in wireless environment is still desired. For the QoE metric, we focus on the widely accepted video freezing event. We propose to identify a freezing event by comparing the interval of receiving time between two successive video frames, named F-Gap, with a threshold. To enable automatically tracking of video freezing, we modify the original WebRtc protocol to punch receiving timestamp on the frame overhead. Furthermore, we evaluate the correlation between video freezing and quality of service (QoS) in WiFi network based on experiments in typical indoor environment. We build a machine learning model to infer whether QoE is unacceptable or not in the next time window based on current QoS metrics. Experiments verify that the model has good accuracy and the QoE state is mainly relevant to quality metrics of Round-Trip Time, Link Quality and RSSI. This model is helpful to highlight the providers in system design and improve user experience via avoiding bad QoE in advance.
Suying Yan, Yuchun Guo, Yishuai Chen, Feng Xie

Backmatter

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