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2022 | Book

Additive, Subtractive, and Hybrid Technologies

Recent Innovations in Manufacturing

Editors: Dr. Chander Prakash, Dr. Sunpreet Singh, Dr. Seeram Ramakrishna

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series: Mechanical Engineering Series

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About this book

This book provides readers with the comprehensive insights of the recent research breakthroughs in additive, subtractive, and hybrid technologies. Further, the book examines incomparable design and manufacturing independences, as well as strategies to upgrade the product performance characteristics through collaborating additive and subtractive technologies. Indeed, the intrinsic benefits and limitations of both additive and subtractive manufacturing technologies could be merged to obtain appreciable hybridizations. The editorial team members and contributors to Additive, Subtractive, and Hybrid Technologies are highly motivated experts committed to and the advance of hybrid manufacturing technologies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Experimental Study on Machinability of AISI 4340 Steel During Hard Turning by CBN Tool
Abstract
In this work, the performance of the CBN tool has been studied during hard turning of AISI 4340 steel in dry environment. The machining parameters that vary during the turning process are cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The experiments are performed according to Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array, and ANOVA is used to analyze the influence of machining parameters on output responses, viz. machining forces and surface characteristics of the machined surface. Finally, multi-objective optimization technique like VIKOR method is used to get optimal machining parameters for better performance. Feed rate is found to be the most influential parameter on the output performances followed by depth of cut and cutting speed. Further, regression analysis is used to correlate the experimental data with predicted data.
Jasin Kumar Tarai, Supriya Sahu, Swastik Pradhan, Chander Prakash, Anshuman Kumar Sahu, Siba Sankar Mahapatra
An Experimental Study on Major Process Parameters Effecting the Type of Burrs in Drilling Operation for Mild Steel ASTM A-36
Abstract
Drilling is a very basic and important application necessary in nearly all the machining operations and manufacturing process. While doing the drilling operation, the formation of burrs is also a very common phenomenon. Burrs are unwanted as they are responsible for decreasing the quality as well as the overall strength of finally manufactured item. In this chapter, an experimental investigation of major process parameters that effect the burr formation for Mild Steel ASTM A36 which have an enormous number of applications in several fields like automobile parts, building structures, machine tools, etc. The major process parameters that were taken for the investigation are drilling speed, speed of operation (cutting), drill bit diameter, feed rate, ratio of the mixture of the cutting fluid. In this chapter, the analysis is done for the type of burr produced while taking different process parameters separately. This experimental investigative study as discussed in this chapter will enable us to get familiar with the relation between the burr type of different types like crown burr, haphazard burr, rolled over burr, uniform, etc. and their corresponding causing process parameters as briefed above. The properties of burrs through microscopic images taken with the help of photo profilometer and digital microscope are also discussed in the later sections of this chapter.
Anas Islam, Vijay Kumar Dwivedi
Investigations on Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Secondary Recycled ABS as Filament for 3D Printing Applications
Abstract
In order to reduce polymer waste, recycling is one of the techniques extensively followed by researchers nowadays. But hitherto, less work has been reported on fabrication of composite filaments through secondary (2°) recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer reinforced with three industrial waste materials. In the present study, efforts have been made on the development of composite filaments for fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique of additive manufacturing by controlling different parameters like speed, temperature, load of twin-screw extruder for optimizing the various mechanical properties. Total nine composite filaments were prepared by taking 90% ABS and 10% reinforcements (bakelite powder + wood dust + Fe powder). The observed mechanical and thermal properties of the composite filaments were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and optical photomicrographs.
K. Chawla, Rupinder Singh, J. Singh
Mechanical and Morphological Properties Correlation of PLA-PVC-Wood Powder-Fe3O4 Composite Matrix for 3D Printing
Abstract
In the past one decade, significant studies on mechanical and morphological properties of feedstock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) have been reported. But, hitherto, little has been reported on the development of correlation matrix for such properties of feedstock filament. In the present research work, an effort has been made to develop a correlation among different outputs (peak strength, break strength, melt flow index, Shore D hardness and modulus of toughness) of feedstock filament prepared with polylactic acid (PLA)-polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-wood powder-Fe3O4 composite matrix. The results of the study suggest that melt flow index has poor correlation with other mechanical properties. On the other hand, Shore D hardness has strong positive correlation with mechanical properties of feedstock filament and negative correlation with porosity of the material matrix.
Sudhir Kumar, Rupinder Singh, T. P. Singh, Ajay Batish
Analysis of Machining Parameters in Drilling of Biocompatible Composite: HAp-HDPE and HAp-UHMWPE
Abstract
Grafting of alternative materials has been found to be popular these days to replace worn and damaged joints and bones. Research has been directed in this topic to search for alternative implantation materials like metals, ceramics, and polymers. Ceramics and metals happen to be much stiffer than natural bone, whereas polymers are much flexible. To address such a vital issue, biocompatible composites (ceramics with polymers) are used to match the requirements. Bone or bone-like materials are used in bone grafts to help in healing, strengthening, and improving function. Drilling is an important machining process carried on composites while replacing damaged natural bones. This chapter aims at studying mechanical behavior of HAp-HDPE and HAp-UHMWPE composites prepared through two different routes by varying volume percentage of hydroxyapatite in the composite. Drilling performance of the composites is analyzed, and machining parameters are optimized using principal component analysis to minimize taper and maximize circularity at entry and exit of the drilled hole. Best optimum parametric combination has been suggested when the responses are intended to be simultaneously optimized.
Arpan Mondal, Suman Chatterjee, Anshuman Kumar Sahu, Siba Sankar Mahapatra, Chander Prakash
A Framework for Magnetic Field-Assisted Electrical Discharge Machining (MFA-EDM) of Inconel-625 Using Bio-oil Dielectric
Abstract
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is contactless machining engaged for difficult-to-machine materials. It finds wide applications due to several advantages. However, spark erosion machining has some limitations like lower MRR, high TWR, and recast layer formation. To overcome these shortcomings, the mechanism of spark erosion can be combined with the mechanism of other machining process(es) referred as hybrid machining process (HMP). The beneficial outcome of HMP is significantly more than merits of the individual processes. Hybrid method can be efficiently used in various fields. In coming time, more industries will discover the merits of employing hybrid machining. In this chapter, review of research work conducted in the area of hybrid EDM technique is discussed. Scrutiny of studies on magnetic field-assisted EDM (MFA-EDM) process is presented. To give an insight the research progress conducted in this area which can be utilized for future research. A framework for conducting MFA-EDM of Inconel-625 using bio-oil dielectric is presented.
Mohd Yunus Khan, P. Sudhakar Rao, B. S. Pabla
Investigation of Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Welded Mg AZ 31 Alloy Workpieces
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding strategy which may be utilized for joining magnesium alloy and stainless steel workpieces since they are hard to join by conventional joining process. The major industrial areas where FSW method is used are aerospace, ship building, automobiles, railways, etc. This work is focused on the effect of varying rotational velocity in FSW process using magnesium AZ31 and stainless steel 304 as a workpiece on UTS, impact toughness, and flexural strength and the numerical analysis of friction stir welding (FSW) process of Mg AZ31 and stainless steel 304 alloy to explore the effects of tool travel velocity, rotational velocity, and tool offset on temperature circulation and residual stresses developed in FSW. The impact of rotational velocity on mechanical properties of friction stir welded Mg AZ31 alloys was researched. Friction stir welding was done at different rotational velocities 500 rpm and 1000 rpm and at a consistent welding velocity 28 mm/min separately. Further, mechanical testing was performed on the welded joints. Ultimate tensile strength (MPa), % of elongation, and impact energy (J) increased on increasing the rotational velocity, whereas flexural strength (MPa) was found to be decreased on increasing the rotational velocity of the tool. Tensile properties increase with increase in the rotational velocity of the tool. FSW measure is overall acknowledged for creating very high strength weld joints compared to the conventional joining process.
N. Giri, G. S. Brar, A. S. Shahi
Correlation of Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Al-Al2O3-Nylon 6 Composite Feedstock Filament for Rapid Tooling
Abstract
The Nylon-6-based, reinforced by Al-Al2O3, alternative feedstock filaments for fused deposition modelling (FDM) have been successfully developed and characterized by mechanical, thermal, rheological and wear measurements. The process optimization has been carried out for improving the operational efficiency in the feedstock filament development process. However, during feedstock filament development, sometimes it is difficult to select the process strategy within the constrains and to qualitatively evaluate the desired response. Process-specific prioritization and correlation of the properties of alternative feedstock filament have been represented by correlation matrix. In the present research work, an effort has been made to develop a mathematical model for evaluating the perceived value of input parameters for improving the process performance within constrained limits. A computer-based program has been used for mathematical calculations of the specified responses such as peak strength, break strength, melt flow index and tan δ.
K. S. Boparai, R. Singh
A Framework on Electrochemical Machining of ABS-15% Al Composite
Abstract
In commercial practice, electrochemical machining (ECM) is being widely used for material removal of electrically conducting workpiece. But hitherto little has been reported on ECM of thermoplastic composites due to limited electrical conductivity. In the present work, injection moulded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) matrix with reinforcement of 15% Al (by weight) sample has been selected for machining by ECM as a case study. The ABS-15% Al composite has been selected based upon previous studies reported for joining of dissimilar thermoplastics on the basis of rheological property. This chapter represents machining capability of ABS-15% Al with ECM. The upshot of this study shows that the machining of thermoplastic material reinforced with Al powder can be performed with the help of ECM. The results were analysed with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data.
Arun Dutt Sharma, Rupinder Singh
Cost-Effective Design of Soft Robotic Prosthetic Arm Based on 3D Printing
Abstract
Several designs and prototypes have been proposed for a robotic prosthetic arm using rigid components. At the same time, they can provide the motion but are either inflexible or very expensive. The soft robotic prosthetic arm presented in this case study is designed to meet the low-cost criterion and, at the same time, aid a trans-radial amputee in his daily task without harming himself or the delicate object. The arm is controlled by the amputee’s muscle signals using electromyography (EMG) sensors. For actuation, artificial pneumatic muscles are employed, lowering the actuation force requirement and enhancing gripping by curling on the object. The envision of prosthetic arm design works with high modularity and adapts according to the patient by utilizing 3D printing for its fabrication.
Abhijeet Singh, Sukhinderpal Singh, Raman Kumar
Macro-Mechanical Modeling of 3D Printed Material
Abstract
Nonconventional manufacturing processes are gaining wide popularity among the manufacturing industries. Additive manufacturing (AM) as one of the nonconventional manufacturing processes such as rapid prototyping, three-dimensional (3D) printing, layered manufacturing, and generative manufacturing has emerged with several beneficial features. The underlying principle of 3D printing involves the deposition of several layers of uniform thickness (mostly). Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the 3D printing technologies recognized widely owing to its simplicity and reduced time of realization of a new product. The strength of FDM parts are largely governed by various process parameters and deposition strategy. The chapter describes the macro-mechanical modeling approach and procedures adapted to predict the behavior of FDM parts. A single layer deposited for 3D printing to produce a part using FDM is assumed as a Lamina, and the mechanical behavior of 3D printed layers is analyzed. Monotonic behaviors of dog bone specimens, produced by FDM process using different deposition strategy, are predicted. Classical laminates theory (CLT) and modified CLT approaches of macro-mechanical modeling of FDM part is adopted to compare the numerical results obtained through finite element analysis.
Ashutosh Mishra, Abhishek Kumar Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar, Wasim Ashraf
Exploration on Doped TiO2 Nanostructures for Application in Optoelectronics and Additive Manufacturing of Functional Prototypes
Abstract
Semiconductor TiO2 nanostructure has been extensively studied in the last few decades due to its commendable response in various optoelectronic devices. The research elaborates that sensing mechanics is strongly co-related with morphology of material. The improvement in sensing behaviour has been observed for nanowire and nanorod without any change in the host material. The present study analyses the effect of dopant ions on the properties of TiO2 nanostructure. The synthesis route plays an important role in morphology variation; therefore, we have described the method of synthesis for the preparation of TiO2. The properties of TiO2 for specific application have also been summarised to describe the wide range of applicability. The role of TiO2 in solar cell, detector, gas sensor, chemical sensors with enhancing performance encourages the research fraternity to explore the new possibility for next-generation devices using functionalised TiO2-polymer composite. This chapter provides the importance of doped TiO2-polymer composition for optoelectronics and additive manufacturing. Also, the framework for the development of functional prototypes/structure by 3D printing process using TiO2-based nanostructures has been suggested in this chapter.
Pawan Kumar, Ranvijay Kumar
Welding-Based Additive Manufacturing for Biomedical Applications: From Concept to Technology
Abstract
The development of additive manufacturing (AM) technology in recent years has allowed the successful fabrication of complex and customized shape biomedical implants. However, the existing AM techniques for the fabrication of metal implants such as selective laser sintering/melting, electron beam melting, and laser engineered net shaping suffer some major limitations such as slow manufacturing speed, limited part size availability, lack of compatible working materials, and high capital cost. Therefore, to overcome these limitations, researchers have utilized the fundamental concepts of welding techniques for AM technology development. These techniques include wire and arc-based technologies such as gas metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and plasma arc welding (PAW). Generally, an electric arc is used as the heat source and a solid metal wire as the feedstock. Recently, with extension to AM with arc, researchers have also introduced a new power source with different waveform designs, known as cold metal transfer (CMT). CMT offers a unique advantage of a higher deposition rate with lower heat input as compared to other arc-based AM techniques. Hence, this chapter aims to discuss the fundamental concepts and principles of welding-based additive manufacturing (WBAM) technology for the manufacturing of complex and customized shape biomedical parts. Furthermore, an insight into the major developments in WBAM systems has also been discussed. The working principles of different WBAM processes such as wire and arc, cold metal transfer along with their advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. Details related to the technological concept, process variants, materials, and product characterization have been highlighted. Finally, current applications and future scope of currently developed WBAM technology have been discussed in this chapter.
Pawan Sharma, Gurminder Singh, B. N. Sahoo, Girish C. Verma, Pulak M. Pandey, Vishvesh J. Badheka
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Additive, Subtractive, and Hybrid Technologies
Editors
Dr. Chander Prakash
Dr. Sunpreet Singh
Dr. Seeram Ramakrishna
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-99569-0
Print ISBN
978-3-030-99568-3
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-99569-0

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