The water resources play a vital role in the lives of nations and peoples. Water is linked to food security and the comprehensive development process in all its dimensions. Thus, water has become part of the national security of any country. Therefore, all countries are concerned with the management of their water resources and how they are distributed into different uses and sectors, including the agricultural sector, which is the largest consumer of water globally, where agriculture uses about 70% of freshwater annually according to UN estimates.
The Egyptian situation is a special case, where Egyptians rely mainly on Nile water, accounting for more than 96% of Egypt’s total freshwater. Therefore, the Nile River – was and still – represents the backbone of Egyptian development in all its dimensions.
Throughout the ages, Egyptians have developed various laws, policies, mechanisms, and institutions to manage water resources and to manage agriculture in Egypt.
This study aimed to present and analyze the legal and administrative frameworks governing both water resources and agriculture in Egypt, to identify the strengths and weaknesses in the legal and administrative contexts of water resources and agriculture in Egypt and evaluate the disadvantages and reform.
The study is based on the historical approach to present and analyze the policies and laws of water management and agriculture in Egypt. It also relied on the legal-institutional approach in presenting and analyzing the most important institutions that play a role in water management and agriculture in Egypt.