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About this book

This book summarises the advanced CO2 capture technologies that can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, especially those from large-scale sources, such as power-generation and steel-making plants. Focusing on the fundamental chemistry and chemical processes, as well as advanced technologies, including absorption and adsorption, it also discusses other aspects of the major CO2 capture methods:

membrane separation;

the basic chemistry and process for CO2 capture; the development of materials and processes; and practical applications, based on the authors’ R&D experience.

This book serves as a valuable reference resource for researchers, teachers and students interested in CO2 problems, providing essential information on how to capture CO2 from various types of gases efficiently. It is also of interest to practitioners and academics, as it discusses the performance of the latest technologies applied in large-scale emission sources.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
As an introduction, this chapter describes the importance of CO2-capture technologies in the context of limiting the global temperature increase.
Shin-ichi Nakao, Katsunori Yogo, Kazuya Goto, Teruhiko Kai, Hidetaka Yamada

Chapter 2. Chemistry of Amine-Based CO2 Capture

Abstract
Amines are the most widely utilized chemicals for CO2 capture in a variety of capture methods based on the reversible reactions between amines and CO2 since their moderate interaction allows effective “catch and release.” In this chapter, the chemistry related to the CO2-capture technology is reviewed with a special focus on amine–CO2 reactions. Physical and chemical properties of the amines used in CO2 capture are described at the molecular level.
Shin-ichi Nakao, Katsunori Yogo, Kazuya Goto, Teruhiko Kai, Hidetaka Yamada

Chapter 3. CO2 Capture with Absorbents

Abstract
This chapter presents CO2 capture with absorbents, especially a gas separation using a solvent, “absorption.” Gas separation of absorption is a commercialized technology in industries such as natural gas production and fertilizer plants. Also, the new application field emerges in these days. That is CO2 capture for CCS (CO2 capture and storage), which is a promising solution to the greenhouse gas issue. The chapter consists of seven subchapters: General theoretical description is located at the beginning (Sect. 3.1). Process flows for post-combustion CO2 capture and pre-combustion CO2 capture are shown in Sect. 3.2. CO2 capture for CCS and its current research and development (R&D) will be traced in Sects. 3.3 and 3.4. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) leads R&D of CO2 capture with absorbents and develops high-performance solvents for CO2 capture from a blast furnace gas in steelworks. Section 3.5 will outline the RITE’s activities. RITE also contributes to the practical application of CO2-capture technology to various emission sources in industries and spawn a new R&D field (Sect. 3.6). The last subchapter of Sect. 3.7 summarizes topics of CO2 capture with absorbents.
Shin-ichi Nakao, Katsunori Yogo, Kazuya Goto, Teruhiko Kai, Hidetaka Yamada

Chapter 4. CO2 Capture with Adsorbents

Abstract
The adsorption method for CO2 capture is described in this chapter. The several types of absorbents including amine-based adsorbent and other ones are reviewed. Then, the advanced absorbents, i.e., “solid sorbents” developed in a project in RITE are described. The solid sorbents are composed of amine absorbents for chemical absorption and porous materials. They have similar CO2-adsorption characters with liquid amine absorbents. Furthermore, they make it possible to significantly reduce the energy consumed as sensible heat and evaporative latent heat in the regeneration process. Novel amines synthesized in this project have been employed for their developed solid sorbents to successfully fabricate innovative, high-performance solid sorbents capable of low-temperature regeneration with high-adsorption capacities. Using the novel amines obtained by the improved-synthesis method for a large scale, the moving-bed bench-scale plant test was recently started.
Shin-ichi Nakao, Katsunori Yogo, Kazuya Goto, Teruhiko Kai, Hidetaka Yamada

Chapter 5. Membrane for CO2 Separation

Abstract
Among various CO2-capture technologies, membrane separation is considered as one of the promising solutions, because of its energy efficiency and operation simplicity. Many research and development are conducted for the (1) CO2/N2 (post-combustion: CO2 separation from flue gas), (2) CO2/CH4 (CO2 separation from natural gas), and (3) CO2/H2 (pre-combustion: CO2 separation from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes). In this chapter, research and development of various types of membranes (polymeric membranes, inorganic membranes, ionic liquid membranes, and facilitated transport membranes) for these applications are briefly reviewed. In the latter part of the chapter, the development of “molecular gate” membrane modules by the authors for the pre-combustion to separate CO2 from H2 at the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are reviewed.
Shin-ichi Nakao, Katsunori Yogo, Kazuya Goto, Teruhiko Kai, Hidetaka Yamada
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