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About this book

This book describes the discusses advanced fuels and combustion, emission control techniques, after-treatment systems, simulations and fault diagnostics, including discussions on different engine diagnostic techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), laser ignition. This volume bridges the gap between basic concepts and advanced research in internal combustion engine diagnostics, making it a useful reference for both students and researchers whose work focuses on achieving higher fuel efficiency and lowering emissions.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Introduction to Advanced Engine Diagnostics

In last two decades, advancements in automotive engines and after-treatment technologies have resulted in better engine performance, lower fuel consumption, and lower emissions; however, system complexity and higher number of control parameters have led to optimization issues. Implementation of advanced combustion diagnostic techniques/strategies in internal combustion (IC) engines further reduced the tail-pipe emissions, especially oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates; however, these combustion strategies have generated a new set of control parameters, which need to be optimized for superior engine performance and emission characteristics. To resolve these complex issues, researchers have combined different techniques such as advanced combustion strategies with after-treatment systems, and experimental research supported by simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools . This monograph covers all these topics including advanced fuels and combustion, emission control techniques, after-treatment systems, simulations, and fault diagnostics.
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Jai Gopal Gupta, Nikhil Sharma, Akhilendra Pratap Singh

Advanced Fuels and Combustion Techniques


Chapter 2. Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Using Alcohols

Rapidly increasing fossil fuel consumption along with increasing fuel cost and serious concerns about carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction from the transportation sector motivated the automotive researchers to explore new internal combustion (IC) engine technologies, which can deliver higher engine efficiency with a lower impact on the environment and human health. These issues can be resolved by using advanced combustion strategies, which are also capable of utilizing alternative fuels. In last few years, reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has attracted significant attention due to its capability of ultra-low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate emissions without any soot-NOx trade-off and superior engine efficiency compared to compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) combustion. RCCI combustion is a combination of dual-fuel and partially premixed combustion (PPC) techniques, in which a low-reactivity fuel such as gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), alcohols are injected into the intake port and a high-reactivity fuel such as mineral diesel, biodiesel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Blending of these two fuels in the combustion chamber controls the heat release rate (HRR) and combustion phasing. Premixed ratio and spatial stratification between these two fuels control the combustion phasing and combustion duration. RCCI combustion and emission characteristics are also dependent on fuel injection strategies such as fuel injection pressure (FIP), number of injections, start of injection (SOI) timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, and intake charge temperature. This chapter reviews all these factors and presents important features of RCCI combustion for application in future automotive engines. A separate section for use of alcohols in RCCI combustion is also included in this chapter, which shows various pathways for alternative fuel utilization in this advanced combustion technique. Roadmap for future research directions for RCCI combustion is also discussed in this chapter.
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Nikhil Sharma, Dev Prakash Satsangi, Vikram Kumar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Chapter 3. Effect of Hydrogen and Producer Gas Addition on the Performance and Emissions on a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

There is a global interest in the use of alternative fuels due to environmental concerns such as greenhouse emission, ozone depletion, air pollution. Also, the limited petroleum reserves invite the alternate solution for diesel engines. Several researchers have proposed various types of solutions. One among them is the use of different gaseous fuels with pilot diesel fuel. An experimental work has been done to find the performance of high-capacity diesel engine which uses diesel fuel with the variation of hydrogen and rice-husk-derived producer gas. The results of engine test with producer gas and hydrogen on brake thermal efficiency and emissions such as unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx are presented. Beyond 30% load, the brake thermal efficiency of dual-fuel operation is improved. Maximum efficiency of 38–43% is achieved with mixture of 10% PG and varying hydrogen from 5 to 25% and similarly for mixture of 40% PG and varying hydrogen gives the maximum efficiency of 43–48% at 60% load condition. It is found that specific energy consumption increases with the increase in PG and hydrogen flow through inlet of engine. The maximum fuel substitution has been found at 80% load with 10% PG and 25% hydrogen mixture. At higher loads, volumetric efficiency has been better as the oxygen or air intake would be more, but at mixture of 40% PG and 25% hydrogen, the volumetric efficiency reaches a level of 27% as there is sufficient amount of PG and hydrogen, but minimum intake of air took place. The higher CO and HC emission levels were recorded for increased producer gas content due to the CO content. Nox emissions were maximum at higher loads due to the presence of nitrogen in air as well as fuel. Overall smooth running of engine is found in all cases. One major finding of the experiment is that the mixture of PG and hydrogen is an alternative fuel with good efficiency.
Abhishek Priyam, Prabha Chand, D. B. Lata

Chapter 4. Characteristics of Particulates Emitted by IC Engines Using Advanced Combustion Strategies

Particulates emission is a common problem for both conventional compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) engines, and it creates issues related to environment, human health, and engine efficiency. For particulate reduction, the use of after-treatment systems/devices has been debated since last two decades; however, cost and system complexity issues are the main hurdles for adaptation of these systems in the engines. Therefore, advanced combustion technologies have been developed to achieve cleaner combustion, especially lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates. Most of these advanced combustion strategies are categorized as low temperature combustion (LTC). LTC is a novel combustion technology, in which simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates can be achieved without affecting the engine performance. LTC strategies include mainly homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), partially-premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion. In LTC strategies, early fuel injection provides sufficient time for fuel–air mixing before combustion, or a homogeneous fuel–air mixture is supplied to the combustion chamber, which results in complete absence of fuel-rich regions, leading to lower particulate formation. This chapter discusses all these advanced combustion technologies and describes the effect of different control parameters on particulate characteristics emitted from these strategies. A section including particulate formation mechanism and its structure has been included in this chapter for better understanding of the effects of different parameters on particulate emissions. This chapter presents the current technology status and the future research directions for these technologies so that these combustion concepts can be adapted for developing new generation vehicles.
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Emission Control Techniques and After-Treatment Systems


Chapter 5. Modelling and Experimental Studies of NOx and Soot Emissions in Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engines

Diesel engines have sustained with stringent emission limits and increased power demands due to the advancement in the fuel-injection systems. The injection process plays a major role in diesel engine combustion. In this regard, the common rail injection system has the potential of providing flexibilities in injection pressure and timing over a wide range of engine operating conditions. Common rail system is one of the modern variants of electronically controlled injection systems and offers flexibility in injection scheduling with sharp start and cut-off in injection process. It is reported that while the pilot injection is capable of reducing the initial rate of heat release and hence the NOx emission, the post injection enhances the rate of air fuel mixing in the later stages of combustion which promotes soot oxidation. Hence, multiple-injection offers simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emission. However, the reduction in NOx and soot emission depends on the judicious selection of the multiple injection schedules which comprise injection timing, fuel quantities in each pulse and the intervening dwell between the pulses for a given engine at a particular operating condition. This necessitates a great deal of parametric investigations to analyze the performance and emission characteristics. In this regard, modelling of diesel engines serves as a beneficial tool for the first order design estimates by avoiding exhaustive experimental works. Hence, this article addresses both the modelling and experimental investigations on CRDI engines. Further, this study highlights the effect of biofuel and their blends on NOx and soot emission of a common rail direct injection diesel engine. The potential of alcohols as oxygenated additives for realizing the emission reduction is also covered in this chapter.
J. Thangaraja, S. Rajkumar

Chapter 6. On-Board Post-Combustion Emission Control Strategies for Diesel Engine in India to Meet Bharat Stage VI Norms

Emissions from diesel vehicles are the main concern of air pollution-related deaths worldwide. Its impacts are growing in most of the developing nations especially India, in spite of the regulatory limits. In 2016, the Indian government declared that the nation would skip the Bharat Stage (BS) V norms completely and adopt progressively stringent BS VI norms by 2020 in which the level of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions will be reduced by 89 and 50%, respectively, from BS IV norms. Consequently, the exhaust control technologies will play an important role to achieve these reduced NOx and PM levels. The existing strategies to combat abatement of NOx and PM emissions would not be able to resolve these issues. This chapter provides an insight and suggests the ways and means to achieve BS VI emissions standards by the Government of India.
Rabinder Singh Bharj, Rajan Kumar, Gurkamal Nain Singh

Chapter 7. Non-Noble Metal-Based Catalysts for the Application of Soot Oxidation

Diesel engines have become very popular due to their durability and higher efficiency. In fact, diesel engines today are the backbone of the transportation. However, these engines are also one of the prime emitters of PM and NOx. These emissions are harmful to the living life as well as to the environment. After-treatment devices were being used nowadays in diesel engines, which are mostly coated with noble metal catalysts. These noble metal catalysts are costly and rare too. In last decades, some of the non-noble metal-based catalysts have also been considered for these applications. In this chapter, a discussion has been performed in order to provide the current level of progress in the application of non-noble metal-based catalysts for the application of soot oxidation. Details about the catalysts are explained in two subsections under the heading of (1) transition and alkali metal-based catalysts and (2) perovskite-based catalysts.
Pravesh Chandra Shukla

Chapter 8. Ceria-based Mixed Oxide Nanoparticles for Diesel Engine Emission Control

One of the effective methods for the control of harmful emissions from diesel engines is the use of fuel-borne catalyst. Ceria is commonly used as a redox catalyst, and the catalytic activity of ceria decreases due to particle sintering, especially at high temperatures. The catalytic activity of ceria nanoparticle can be improved by doping it with transition metals such as zirconium, yttrium. A comparative study on the catalytic activity and various physicochemical properties of CeyZr1−yO2, CeyY1−yO2, and CexZryY1−xyO2 mixed oxide nanoparticles, synthesized by co-precipitation method, is presented in this chapter. The synthesized mixed oxide nanoparticles of ceria were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. The catalytic activity of ceria and its mixed oxide nanoparticles was compared by means of temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (H2-TPR) technique. The catalytic nanoparticle-dispersed diesel was prepared by mixing mixed oxide nanoparticles in diesel, with oleic acid as surfactant by means of ultrasonicator. Stability studies were done to optimize the concentration of catalytic nanoparticles in diesel for maximum stability. Engine studies on a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine show a reduction in the engine exhaust emissions, especially smoke, which agrees with the TPR study.
P. K. Shihabudeen, Ajin C. Sajeevan, N. Sandhyarani, V. Sajith

Simulations and Fault Diagnostics


Chapter 9. Model-Based Fault Detection on Modern Automotive Engines

Engine control devices which are nowadays serving to improve the overall performance of modern automotive combustion engines involve both sophisticated digital control systems and complex electronic hardware such as input-output sensors, actuators, and processing units. Such complexity results in an increased probability of failure. To catch the failure, engine control units must have robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) capabilities that can prevent engine catastrophe and premature failure. For performing robust FDI, two approaches can be used either to have physical redundancy or to have analytical redundancy. Physical redundancy involves putting redundant physical devices such as sensors and actuators that can catch faults as and when they occur. However, analytical redundancy approach is based on a completely different principle. The basic idea behind analytical redundancy is to have accurate model of the real process behavior. When the fault occurs, the residual signal, difference between actual value and modeled value of a signal being measured, is generated. The residuals can be used to diagnose and isolate the malfunction. The main advantage of this approach with respect to having physical redundancy is that it is more economical. The disadvantage is that it needs high-fidelity process model of the real system to capture faults. This chapter focuses on technique used for model-based system diagnostics in automotive combustion engine.
Deepak Agarwal, Chandan Kumar Singh

Chapter 10. Study of Instability Nature of Circular Liquid Jet at Critical Chamber Conditions

Direct Injection (DI) technology that is used in the IC engines has gained significant interest over the last few decades. In DI engines, the fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber through an injector. The efficiency and the corresponding emission characteristics of DI, IC engines are dependent on the thermo-physical properties of the fuel and its corresponding spray dynamics and air/fuel mixing. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the process involving liquid injection, breakup and atomization, and combustion inside the engine environment is very essential. There are several theoretical and experimental studies carried out to understand the stability of the liquid jets, but there is not much literature available to understand the behavior of liquid jets near the injector at critical and supercritical conditions. This is largely due to the experimental and computational challenges associated with the process of high-pressure injection. The main objective of this paper is to study the instability nature on the liquid jet near the injector at critical conditions. Visualization using high-speed camera is used to capture the images of the disturbances to bring further insight into the jet dynamics at critical conditions. Experiments are carried out for different environmental pressures for both single component system and binary component system where the environment is a mixture of two fluids.
Dhanesh Ayyappan, Aravind Vaidyanathan, C. K. Muthukumaran, K. Nandakumar

Chapter 11. Transient Reacting Flow Simulations of Chemical-Looping Combustion Reactors

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has shown great promise in addressing the need for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture from fossil-fueled power plants. In recent years, there has been a focus on developing high-fidelity simulations of the CLC process in the literature to facilitate the transition of this technology from laboratory- and pilot-scale projects to deployment on an industrial scale. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of two CLC reactors are presented in this chapter. The first case employs the Eulerian–Eulerian approach to investigate hot flow behavior with chemical reactions in a packed bed reactor with ilmenite oxygen carrier and carbon monoxide simulating the exact experimental conditions. Previous simulations of this setup were conducted for cold flow without chemical reactions. After 60 minutes of simulation, the results are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The second case is an Eulerian–Lagrangian model of a bubbling bed CLC reactor with hematite oxygen carrier and methane. The experiment is modeled to scale and particle interactions are calculated using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) coupled with CFD to solve the flow field. Owing to the computational demands of DEM, only the simulation start-up is investigated and the results show reasonable agreement with the experiment.
Guanglei Ma, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ramesh K. Agarwal

Chapter 12. Tribological Studies of an Internal Combustion Engine

Industrial lubricants are invariably used with organo-metallic additives [such as complex sulphates and phosphates Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP)] for tribological performance enhancement of machines such as internal combustion (IC) engines. However, these additives are environmentally harmful and they also have damaging effects on the steel components of the engine. Hence, there is an urgent need to find alternative solutions for enhancing the tribological performance of lubricants and components without the application of such harmful additives. Epoxy-based composites are promising tribological coatings, which can provide low friction and high wear life under dry, as well as base-oil lubricated conditions. The present chapter focuses on reviewing the mechanisms of achieving improved mechanical properties with a low coefficient of friction (CoF) in typical demanding applications, such as IC engines. The applications of epoxy composite coatings can be in extreme contact conditions such as engine piston rings and bearings. The best suitable coatings, namely epoxy/graphene/SN150 with DLC and WC as the intermediate hard coatings, were applied on the piston rings of a diesel engine and experiments were performed in order to permit wear analysis of coated rings.
Vikram Kumar, Sujeet Kumar Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
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