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About this book

This book “Advanced Engineering for Processes and Technologies II” provides a good platform for participating researchers and academicians to share their latest innovation, technology and research findings in the areas of marine engineering technology and applications, sea management as well as engineering education. It offers an opportunity for academicians of the Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology (UniKL MIMET) to exchange ideas and establish a professional network. There are more than 30 papers covering a wide range of topics related to technologies and education including simulation, intellectual discussion, environmental awareness, enhancement of knowledge and skills. The aim of this book focuses more on the numerous technological methods used for the establishment of engineering innovation and productivity through their competitive research findings and the exposure of their relative merits and limitations. The papers shared in this issue will enable other researchers to generate interest and novel ideas that can lead to the discovery of new engineering knowledge.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. The Potential of Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sea Patrol: Case Study at Royal Malaysian Navy, Lumut Base

This paper analyzes the potential of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for sea patrol purposes at the Royal Malaysian Navy, Lumut base. Nowadays, there is a growing need for flying drones or unmanned aerial vehicles with diverse capabilities for both civilian and military applications. UAVs are utilized in carrying out a variety of operations including military tasks, search-and-rescue missions, reconnaissance, and load transportation. This study is using a qualitative approach by conducting an in-depth interview. Purposive sampling was applied by meeting with navy officers who are involved in UAV activities. The data is analyzed by the content analysis method based on the semi-structured question of the interview. As a result, there is a significant interest in the development of novel drones which can autonomously fly in different environments and locations and can perform various missions. In the past decade, the broad spectrum of applications of these drones has received the most attention which led to the invention of various types of drones with different sizes and weights. This study concluded that the potential of using unmanned aerial vehicles for sea patrol purposes, benefits in terms of the maritime sector, and challenges of the existing UAVs with various navigation and control approaches.

Aizat Khairi, Ali ‘Izzat Sa’ari

Chapter 2. The Determinants for Successful Ferry Operation: A Delphi Study at Penang Port, Malaysia

Ferry passenger vessels have been used as a sea transportation that were designed to carry passengers from one place to another place. The focus of this research is on the Penang port. This transportation system is an alternative conveyance to transport people to both sides, i.e., mainland and the island. The dissatisfaction of passengers with the service had been immense, and no sign of improvements by the ferry organization at Penang port has been discovered. Thus, this research aims to investigate the key for a successful operation of the ferry passenger vessel at Penang port and to determine the relationship between key factors toward a successful ferry operation at Penang port. The purposive sampling method is used, and seven competent expertise and experienced respondents in the maritime sector at the Penang port have been contributed to this research. A Delphi survey has been conducted for this research to identify any key factors and access their opinion on the relationship of all key factors involved. Two rounds of the Delphi questionnaire survey have been used as a research instrument with the Likert scale. In conclusion, the finding revealed that the key factors that have been analyzed play an important role in realizing the successful ferry operation at the Penang port.

Amayrol Zakaria, Aminuddin Md Arof, Ain Nur Najwa Nor Sabinja

Chapter 3. The Commercial Success Factor Towards Ro-Ro Operation at Port Klang, Malaysia

Ro-Ro ships are a specialized form of sea freight transportation. The combination between different types of cargo that are transported together with Ro-Ro ship leads its service to be one of the highest competitors in the industry. Despite providing a door-to-door service, there are a number of advantages that Ro-Ro provides such as the most known one of these advantages is the speed of charging and discharging cargoes. Mainly, the intention of this research is to investigate the influence of commercial success factor towards Ro-Ro operation at the Port Klang, Malaysia. Basically, this study employed the Delphi technique to obtain the concrete and solid data from the respondents. An interview supported by well-designed seven Likert scale questionnaires was disseminated to the seven expert respondents involved by the top management level of Port Klang and local Ro-Ro companies. The finding revealed that the commercial success factor has a significant relationship toward Ro-Ro operation at Port Klang, Malaysia.

Amayrol Zakaria, Aminuddin Md Arof, Bisiakri Mohamed Khalifa

Chapter 4. Hybrid Composite Fiberglass Structure with Embedded Aluminum Phosphate New Fire Retardants Additive: Effect of Fiberglass Types

Composite fiberglass is a common material used in marine industry to fabricate marine sport equipment, boats, yachts and others. The material is expected to have a performance such as high strength, economic and safety especially related to fire incidents. However, in composite fiberglass, the resin in the system has high flammability properties and becomes the acceleration factor of fire propagation after ignition. The current system is a combination of ATH and APP and produces optimum fire-retardant performance. The mixture with a fire-retardant additive leads to an extra procedure and risk to the mechanical properties of the structure. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the mechanical and fire retardants performance of various hybrid multilayer fiberglass composites embedded with aluminum phosphate (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%), a new fire-retardant additive. The highest mechanical strength was observed in samples with in all samples with 5wt% of aluminum phosphate additive. A combination layer of CSM, WR and CSM shows the optimum result for mechanical strength and fire-retardant properties.

Asmalina Mohamed Saat, Syarmela Alaauldin, Asmawi Malik, Md Salim Kamil, Abdul Latiff Mohd Zaini

Chapter 5. The Effective Elements in Responding on the Oil Spill Occurrences by Selected Marine Companies in Lumut, Perak

This study aims to study the effective elements in oil spill responses from the selected marine companies in Lumut, Perak. The scope of the companies covers oil and gas, import, export and logistics companies, and other sectors. This study has analysed the effective elements of the oil spill response. The effective elements that were identified equipment, regular training and management practices. A method of question survey has been conducted in this study by 32 sets of questionnaires received from respondents. The closed-ended questions comprised the respondent demographical background, the effective elements and response towards the oil spill incidents. The descriptive and frequency analysis, normality test, and multiple correlations were utilized for the data analysis. The outcome has indicated that the effective elements for the oil spill response are substantially correlated on the response in oil spill.

Ismila Che Ishak, Muhammad Khalil Aminudin Sulaiman, Muhammad Kasffi Ramli

Chapter 6. A Study on Tool Directions of an Underwater Friction Stir Welded AA5083 Plate Butt Joint

Underwater friction stir welding (UFSW) is a joining technique with an important role. This present study investigated the effects on the AA5083 plate butt joint configuration from various tool directions that were carried either as forward or as backward during the UFSW process. Experiments were conducted using different travel directions and welding parameters. Based on the results, the travel tool at forward with a tilt angle of 2° in a water temperature of 100° C gives an improved joining capability. This result showed that the tool direction will determine the quality of UFSW specimen.

Iliani Mohd Ikram, Azman Ismail, Ahmad Zakaria, Muhammad Fadhli Makhtar, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin

Chapter 7. The Challenges of the Oil Spill Preparedness and Responses

Once an oil spill incident happens, it produces serious long-term effects on environmental, social, economics, marine ecosystems, coastal communities, and human life. Thus, this paper reviews the challenges on the oil spill incidents in Malaysia faced by main government agencies such as the Marine Department, Department of Environment, and a key player private organization named PIMMAG. The reviews are from related journal, articles, and other online references, respectively. It is vital to analyze the challenges in the oil spill management as Malaysia is facing oil spill cases. The findings disclosed that the main challenges are human mobility, miscommunication, insufficient equipment, and unknown sources of the oil spill incidents.

Ismila Che Ishak, Aminuddin Md Arof, Md Redzuan Zoolfakar, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam, Nurain Jainal

Chapter 8. Ship Crash Prevention Toward Oil Spill Incidents

The elements that contribute to the oil spill incidents can be separated into human factors, technical factors, and natural factors. The human factors consist of fatigue, unsafe behavior, illegal releasing the oil to the sea, poor emergency planning response, and human activities. Meanwhile, the technical factors covered ship collision, vessel condition, engine oil problem, pipeline leak, loading and unloading activity, oil digging, and shipwreck. Besides, the natural factors cover tidal-flow, ocean-stream, and wind speed-driven advection, mechanical stretching, turbulent dispersion, and bad ocean environment. There are several precautionary steps to avoid and lessen the proportion of oil spill incidents at sea. This research concentrates on recognizing the effective precaution steps in protecting the marine environment from oil spill pollution. It covered two important elements such as ship operations and ship design. The choice of the respondents involved staff from one port at various levels, senior experienced respondents from the marine academic institute, and selected residents. A 70 questionnaire survey has been performed to accumulate significant and precise figures. The data is analyzed by using SPSS from 53 respondents. The findings reveal that the ship operations are granted the most important element in the efficiency of the precaution step to avoid the ship from the crash with the residual value at 25.5. Meanwhile, the ship design is the second criterion of the important precaution steps in the reduction of ship collision with the residual value at 20.5.

Ismila Che Ishak, Shahlin Johan, Aminuddin Md Arof, Md Redzuan Zoolfakar

Chapter 9. Analysis on Wave Generation and Hull: Modification for Fishing Vessels

This paper analyses the fishing vessel design in terms of wave generation and hull modification. The objective is to distinguish the fishing vessel designs between an existing hull and a modified one. This is then used for simulation via a CFD software to determine the better layout. The design is created in the Autodesk Inventor software based on the vessel particulars from the designated design. These designs are then transferred to the Flow3D software for the result. The configuration is done via a multi-block feature. Based on the literature, the deep V hull is proven to be more advantageous in rough conditions as it is more efficiently operational at a preferred velocity as opposed to the round bottom hull. The successful simulation outcome of this study is influenced by the different total number of mesh elements. The distinct sum of mesh elements impact on precision of the outcome, simulation outcome, mesh execution and resolution is achieved. Several suggestions are recommended on ways to run a CFD simulation successfully.

Norfadhlina Khalid, Aqil Azraie Che Shamshudin, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina

Chapter 10. Technical Vocational Education Training Pathway for Post-secondary Autistic Students in Malaysia

The Malaysian Ministry of Education aims for 75% of children with special needs to be enrolled in inclusive programmes by 2025 which are specially designed for autistic children aged 5–17. However, this rehabilitation programme is disadvantageous to a certain extent as it only caters for children below 18 years old with no clear post-secondary educational pathway for autistic learners between the ages of 18–25. The significantly growing number of children suffering from learning deficits such as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is now globally researched with more importance being given to addressing this issue in countries around the world [1]. The number of children in special needs programmes has also increased greatly between 2006 and 2013 in Malaysia. Mentally challenged individuals are unique as they have skill sets that are valuable for their well-being and society at large. This awareness justifies their inclusive development movement and global efforts. Malaysia needs a clearer path for post-secondary technical vocational educational training (TVET) for autistic learners in Malaysia as an alternative to the purely academic-based education. This review of related literature in the TVET setting for the autistics will provide a deeper understanding of the needs of our autistic youths to ensure that they are not sidelined in their pursuit of higher education.

Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Sairul Izwan Safie, Mohd Yuzri Mohd Yusop, Cordelia Mason, Wardiah Mohd Dahalan

Chapter 11. Maritime Students’ Perception of Mental Wellness

Students at the tertiary institutions are commonly faced with numerous phases of transition and challenges. University life may present young students with multiple stress factors linked to transitional effects from high school to a new environment. Literature has proven numerous symptoms indicating common mental and psychological health problems such as stress, anxiety and depression experienced by tertiary students. One’s psychological state may influence his/her perception about life. Adolescent wellness comprising that of the university students is a research area that is gaining an increased focus on. Being adolescents, these students are bound to undergo a critical stage of psychological and biological transformations which are normally influenced by the continuation or adoption of health-related behaviours. Nevertheless, a thorough analysis of the present literature reveals the dearth of coverage on adolescents’ perspectives on the definition of wellness. This research is thus aimed at investigating the perception of a group of maritime bachelor’s degree students in the northern part of Malaysia regarding their mental health and well-being as university students. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 90 undergraduates at a maritime university in northern Malaysia. By exploring the undergraduates’ understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being, they can be guided to seek assistance for handling difficulties related to their well-being.

Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Saramurni Haryanti Abdul Hamid, Wardiah Mohd. Dahalan, Nurain Jainal, Aminatulhawa Yahaya

Chapter 12. Optimization of Route Selection and Carbon Emission Release for Waste Collection Systems

In general, transportation is important to any industry in the world that involves the movement of goods from one destination to another. In waste collection systems, the movement of waste collectors using transportation is one of the main activities in handling waste management today. The activity of collecting waste involves the waste generated by the residential area, industrial area, and port area that consists of many types of waste such as domestic waste, food waste, plastics, industrials waste, metals, and waste that is generated by the manufacturing processes. Then by choosing the best route for collecting waste which is to define the shortest way that merges with the time of operation will reduce the operational cost of the company and at same time reducing the quantity of carbon emission release that impacts the environment. Thus, this research is a preliminary study to analyze the actual route that is usually selected and used by truck drivers by using optimization method called the traveling salesman problem (TSP) method. This method is used as a tool to decide the optional route for collecting waste by Majlis Perbandaran Manjung (Sitiawan district) to collect the waste generated by the Sitiawan residential area and Kg Acheh industrial area to the final destination which is located at Segari Landfill. The final result shows that by optimizing the routes selection, the suggested routes will show a lower distance of about 28.3% (29.18 km) and release only 15.95 kg Co2 of carbon emission. The result shows a slightly significance and benefit to the company in reducing the cost of operations and time-consuming without underlook on the environmental aspect. However, this result depends on several variables that need to be considered such as the rest time, road closure, number of traffic lights, congestion, accident, peak time, and current situation during the process of collecting the data. All of these variables are different for any location and number of vehicle in one time.

Shaiful Bakri Ismail, Dzulhaqeem b Dzulkifli

Chapter 13. A Design of a Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Higher-Order Mode in the Shape of Rectangle for 5G Application

In this paper, the rectangular-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) operating on higher-order mode for the fifth generation (5G) communication applications is designed and presented. The millimeter-wave band was considered as a potential carrier frequency that is important to be one of the 5G technologies. The millimeter-wave band around 20–300 GHz was chosen to offer a large bandwidth, high gain, and minimum size to support higher data transmission in wireless communication. The proposed DR antenna is excited by using a microstrip feed line and designed at the operating frequency of 28 GHz. The Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 material having a thickness of 0.254 mm and a dielectric constant of 2.2 is used for the substrate. The commercial CST microwave studio (CST MWS) software is used for the optimization and simulation of the antenna design. In this research, the result is based on different dimension of the rectangular-shaped antenna by decreasing 2.9% and 1.1% the value of height and width respectively, but the value length is increased about 3.6% from the benchmark antenna design. The results indicate that the proposed antenna design produced a better performance about in the range of 1.5% to 7.2% in regard to return loss, bandwidth VSWR, gain, and directivity. Thus, the proposed antenna design is suitable for future 5G wireless communication applications.

Shaiful Bakri Ismail, Muhammad Farihin b Abdul Aziz, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin

Chapter 14. Development of a Solar Tracker Using Servo Motor and Light Dependent Resistor for Electrical Boats

Solar power is one of the natural sources available in most countries. This gives a definite advantage to the tropical countries that experience hot weather to use solar energy to generate electrical power supply. However, the generation of electricity using solar irradiation is costly and it can produce its maximum capability only at peak hours which is 12 pm to 3 pm in a day. In order to overcome this disadvantage, researcher has developed a mechanism called the solar tracker. The solar tracker will track or trace the position of the sun from the morning until evening and manoeuver accordingly to get maximum exposure. By doing so, the solar panel can obtain its maximum capability in the morning and evening although the time is not in peak hour. A solar tracker can also increase the solar output from 5% to 20% depending on the tracker and weather. This project extends the development of the solar tracker by building a portable solar tracker by using a servo motor and a light-dependent resistor (LDR). The average voltage, current, and power output between this solar tracker and a fixed solar panel show more than 50% improvement. The percentage of the output between these two panels has been calculated to show the rate of improvement.

Wardiah Mohd Dahalan, Arif Fikri Kamil Firdaus, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Noorazlina Mohamid Salleh

Chapter 15. Barnacles Growth Monitoring at KL Paus Hull Using Scilab Programming

The aim of this research is to monitor the growth of barnacle at the KL Paus hull vessel part using Scilab programming (image processing). Barnacles paste on the hull of a ship might effect the resistance of the vessel, increase friction and can reduce the vessel’s speed. The ship must then be put in a dry dock to have the bottom scraped. From the results, it is shown that barnacle grew drastically for three consecutive months and the analysis form the Scilab Blob analysis found the indicated grey, dark and red intensity with true pixel increased by 30%. The edge detection image was also able to find the starting of the barnacle growth with small size. The monitoring of the barnacles is difficult if no proper instrument and analysis processes are used. It is now commonly accepted that using computers simulation and data analysis have become widespread throughout differences areas of engineering applications. By using the Scilab software, we analysed the photos of barnacle growth that were taken frequently for 3 months.

Zulzamri Salleh, Abdul Rahman Harun

Chapter 16. Mitigating Engine Exhaust Emission Using Solenoid as Replacement for the Engine’s Block

The emissions produced by hydrocarbon engines are one of the main sources to air pollution and climate change. In order to mitigate those problems, the emission produced by the engine can be eliminated by replacing the fuel in the engine’s block with solenoid. The model operates on solenoid with various speed settings of the engine. No emission was generated during the operation and the combustion-related part of the engine are removed, thus, reducing the overall weight of the engine. Waste heat is dissipated at the power transistor, solenoid, and piston due to losses such as ohmic resistance and eddy current. Due to nature of the solenoid which is similar to an inductor, this engine is expected to best operate as low-speed engine.

Md Redzuan Zoolfakar, Muhamad Ammar Muhsin Din

Chapter 17. Underwater Noise Study Toward Propeller Rotation

The public concern about the effect of underwater noise toward marine life has been increasing for years where the main contributor of anthropogenic noise is commercial shipping. This has a negative impact on the marine life where the responsible body such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and others have set a certain guideline for reducing underwater noise. This report will discuss how the rotation of propellers affects the underwater noise. The primary objective of this study is to analyse the effect of underwater noise generated from rotation of propellers by using a suitable method to carry out the experiment. There are several parameters used in this experiment such as the number of propeller blades, the propellers size, the speed of the motor (rpm), the depth of the measuring device, the horizontal and vertical position of the measuring device.

Md Redzuan Zoolfakar, Mohammad Shafiq Mohammad Khairul

Chapter 18. A Water Hyacinth Harvester

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a free-floating plant, which grows up to three feet in height. It has thick, waxy, rounded, glossy leaves, which rise well above the water surface on stalks. Water hyacinth is among the major problems currently facing lake Victoria which is the second-largest freshwater lake in the world by area and directly supports a population of more than 40 million East Africa’s (Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) inhabitants. In addition to that, the lake is source of the river Nile. Navigation, eco system, fishing industry, tourism, crop production, and livestock keeping are among the socio-economic impacts resulting from invasion of water hyacinth on lake Victoria. In this paper, a manual water hyacinth harvester is constructed, tested, and analysis.

Md Redzuan Zoolfakar, Ismail Ibrahim Chacha

Chapter 19. On the Hydropower Energy Generation from Pipelines

The primary objective of this study is to analyse the electrical power output generated from water flow in pipelines by using a suitable method to carry out the experiment. Hydroelectric power generation is widely used in Malaysian to generate electricity for consumer. As it comes with the function of a dam that collects water and the water flows from high level to low level that passes through turbine to generate electricity based on their capacity. For ship usage itself, the electricity is generated using diesel generators. If one applies the principle of hydroelectric power generation on ship, one can reduce the fuel consumption and dependency toward the generator. As pipelines are widely used in ship systems, there is always pressure in it no matter type of fluid in it. Moreover, only little alteration must be made to the system when applied by ship owners. The system consists of a turbine inside the pipeline connected to the shaft that rotates the rotor to generate electricity that can be stored using batteries or distributed for ship usage.

Md Redzuan Zoolfakar, Muhammad Haziq A. Majid

Chapter 20. Anti-fouling: Affection and Efficiency

This paper studies the efficiency of a self-polishing anti-fouling paint when subjected to different parameters. Results and mechanism of the self-polishing anti-fouling paint are presented and described. Different types of binders for paint were used for the understanding and parameters such as underwater depth, thickness of paint and sun-orientation were compared over 60 days.

Md Redzuan Zoolfakar, Muhammad Amirul Afiq Jesmin

Chapter 21. Green Port Indicators: A Review

Unlike the shipping sector that has witnessed concerted international efforts to address sub-standard ships, similar action has not been seen in the port sector. Other than the efforts taken by the European Sea Ports Organisation that has produced various environmental guidelines to seaports located in the European Union, most efforts to become green or environmentally sustainable are arguably unilateral in nature. As interest in ensuring greener shipping began to accelerate after the implementation of Annex VI of the International Maritime Organization’s MARPOL Convention in 2003, the interest to extend its effect on greener seaports has begun to be seen. This resulted in an increase on green port studies beginning 2010. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the accessible literature on green ports and to identify the indicators or determinants that were normally addressed to ensure their green performance. Literature search was done through the google scholar search engine using the keywords “green port” and “sustainable port” to identify the relevant literature. Subsequently, a qualitative content analysis technique was used on the 27 identified articles in order to merge the various findings into suitable categories.

Aminuddin Md Arof, Amayrol Zakaria, Noorul Shaiful Fitri Abdul Rahman

Chapter 22. Experimental Study of Friction Stir Welding on Dissimilar Thickness of Aluminum Plate Butt Joints

The joint is made by two different plate thicknesses: 1.5-mm thickness of AA5052, and 3-mm thickness of AA5083. The tool used is surface-hardened H13 so that it can soften and be mixed with a solid phase weld mechanically. The travel speed is in the range between 340 and 695 mm/min and the rotational speed in the range between 352 and 653 rpm. The tool tilt angle is tilted at 2°. The research output demonstrates the relationship between the welding parameters and mechanical characteristics of these joints. This study aims to determine the suitable parameters and configuration for joining two dissimilar plate thicknesses together with the friction stir welding process.

Achilles Enchangan Ulak Anak Mancha, Azman Ismail, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin

Chapter 23. An Improved Simple Sweep Line Algorithm for Delaunay Refinement Triangulation

This paper is focused on simple sweep line algorithms with Delaunay refinement triangulation to create 2D triangulation. A new algorithm is proposed where the main idea is to add circumcircle properties into the simple sweep line algorithm. Since the Delaunay triangulation itself still generates poor quality of triangles, this paper applies the Delaunay refinement to enhance the triangulation. Next, this paper observes the percentage of bad angles to analyze the quality of the triangles and the flipping number required for each set of points to analyze the efficiency of the algorithm. At the end of this research, all objectives are achieved where an improved simple sweep line algorithm with Delaunay refinement triangulation is obtained.

Normi binti Abdul Hadi, Anis Farhani, Wardiah Mohd Dahalan

Chapter 24. The Effect of Increasing Travel Speed at Constant Rotational Speed on the Formation of Friction Stir Welded AA5083 Butt Joints

In order to find out the optimum input in terms of travel speed, the experiment was conducted by having a constant rotational speed with the increment of travel speed. These variables were selected based on the pre-setting speed available on a universal milling machine of Milko 37. Different welded specimens were produced by employing travel speeds of 29, 44, 54, 67, 86 mm/min, and constant rotational speed of 910 rpm. The tilt angle of tool at 3°, tool shoulder diameter of 20 mm, and threaded cylindrical tool pin were utilized in this experiment setting. With the increment of travel speed at a constant rotational speed (RPM), varying contact conditions at the material interfaces were created. The result obtained for this research were taken from visual analysis on surface and cross section of every joint. Based on this result, the optimum travel speed for constant rotational speed (910 rpm) is 29 mm/min.

Ahmad Fatihi Azhar, Azman Ismail, Darulihsan Abdul Hamid, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Achilles Enchangan Ulak Anak Mancha

Chapter 25. An Experimental Study on Friction Stir Welding of AA5083 Tee Lap Joints

The present work investigates the feasibility of the friction stir welding on the tee lap joint configuration using a conventional milling machine, Milko 37. The experiment was conducted in order to analyze the joining capability with different rotational and transverse speeds. In this experiment, a customized jig had been used to tightly clamp the specimens altogether with a tool of 20 mm shoulder diameter and 7 mm cone shape pin length. The results showed that the joining made by the lowest rotational and transverse speeds give better joining capabilities compared to the highest speeds.

Muhammad Fadhli Makhtar, Azman Ismail, Iliani Mohd Ikram, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharuddin, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Darulihsan Abdul Hamid, Achilles Enchangan Ulak Anak Mancha

Chapter 26. Experimental Study on Mechanical Characterisation of Hybrid Material Lamination (HML) Subjected to Flexural Strength

Composite materials have been a subject of interest with various special types of advanced materials during the last decades. Hybrid material lamination consists of layers of fibreglass and thin layers of aluminium sheets bonded by epoxy resin. The main objective of this research paper is to study the mechanical behaviour of hybrid material lamination (HML) under flexural loads. This research material is mainly focused on marine applications. Hybrid materials were investigated by experimental approaches based on the ISO standard and compile with the Det Norske Veritas (DNV) rules and regulations. The results were compared. The experimental results were found to exceed and met the requirement of the DNV rules and regulations.

Muhammad Afiq Mohd Shuhaimi, Azman Ismail, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Darulihsan Abdul Hamid, Achilles Enchangan Ulak Anak Mancha

Chapter 27. Experimental Study on Self-Supported Friction Stir Welding on AA5083 Plate Butt Joints

Friction stir welding (FSW) has initially been introduced by the TWI in England as an alternative welding method. This research is carried out to determine the optimum welding parameters that contribute to the least root deformation. The rotational speeds of 910 rpm, 1280 rpm and 1700 rpm are used. Meanwhile for the edge preparation, butt, stepped and angle are considered. The selected pin profiles are cylinder, square and triangle shapes. The experiment is tested with nine trials by changing the various combination of welding parameters. A 5 mm thick AA5083 plate was used as specimen materials. The result is gained by measuring the root deformation under the optical microscope at the joining part. This study is determining the optimum welding for the self-supported friction stir welding at less effect of root deformation for AA5083 plate butt joints.

Mohamad Aidil Azrul Abdul Razak, Azman Ismail, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin, Mohamad Azlan Khalili, Mohd Yusri Mohd Rahim, Mokhtar Awang

Chapter 28. Optimization of Welding Parameters for Self-Support Friction Stir Welding (SS-FSW) on AA6063 Pipe Joints

The use of the friction stir welding (FSW) process with the needs of inner mandrels or backing plates will limit the further application for industrial needs. Therefore, the self-support friction stir welding (SS-FSW) technique is used to run the joining process without the inner mandrel or backing support especially for pipes. In order to execute the experiment, the AA6063 pipe with 89 mm of outside diameter and 5 mm of wall thickness was utilized in this experiment setting. Several edge preparations were used such as butt, scarf and stepped joint. In addition, the different pin profiles were also used: cylindrical, rectangular and triangular shape. The selected rotational speeds were 910 rpm, 1280 rpm and 1700 rpm. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was used to minimize the number of experiments as it is difficult to conduct a high number of experiments to find out the level combinations. The height of deformation was measured and analyzed further by the use of a statistical tool, i.e. analysis of variance (ANOVA) via Minitab 19. As a result, the optimum parameters were 910 rpm of rotational speed, rectangular pin profile and stepped joint of edge preparation, with the minimum height of deformation at 542.25 μm. The pin profiles were the major factor that can affect the output with a 62.38% of contribution. The future works will be continued until the elimination of the requirement of inner mandrel or backing plate in the use of FSW process can be achieved.

Mohammad Azhan Mohd Najib Lotpy, Azman Ismail, Fauziah Ab Rahman, Megat Khalid Puteri Zarina, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin, Mokhtar Awang, Darulihsan Abdul Hamid

Chapter 29. Experimental Study of Friction Stir Welding on AA5052 (1.5 mm) Thin Plate Butt Joints

In this study, a detailed practical investigation to determine the tensile strength of a thin aluminum plate joint and to produce a good thin aluminum plate joint. The purpose of this study is to run and find the right formula of rotational speed (rpm) and travel speed (mm/min) for the friction stir welding (FSW) process on an aluminum thin plate AA5052 1.5 mm plate joint. The optimum parameters for this research are at 910 rpm rotation speed with 340 mm/min travel speed and 2° angle. The tensile strength that had been collected can achieve up to 85% of the base metal (BM). The tool geometry was design with a pin diameter of 1.4 mm, shoulder diameter of 6 mm, and length of 20 mm. The results show that FSW improves the mechanical properties of welded joints compared to other welding processes.

Tuan Muhammad Nurkholish Tuan Anuwa, Azman Ismail, Bakhtiar Ariff Baharudin, Fauziah Ab Rahman

Chapter 30. 5G: Performance on the Enhancement of the Asymmetric Arithmetic Coding with Space Time Frequency Block Coding MIMO

The rising demand of 5G technology in the year 2020 has a priority to provide high-speed user capacity with minimum probability of error (noise interference) in wireless communication services. The 5G system model should deploy a unique channel coding technique so-called the enhancement asymmetric arithmetic coding (EAAC) to compress the data and gain signal efficiency as new-found block codes that is related to the traditional arithmetic coding (AC), at which the received signal is expected to have an ultrafast speed transmission, good voice quality, and high network capacity. The EAAC coding technique is embedded with multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system which is formulated to the increase spatial diversity and is considered in measuring the performance of the space–time–frequency block codes (STFBC) system model that supports wireless communication technology efficiently.

Mohamad Zuhairi Saleh, Noorazlina Mohamid Salih, Hazwani Mohd Radzi, Mohd Shahrizan Mohd Said, Izanoordina Ahmad, Azlina Idris

Chapter 31. Lane Detection Using Image Processing for Driving Assistance

The number of traffic accidents and injuries continues to increase year by year which causes loss of life and assets. The key facts from the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 1.35 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. Under this condition, to reduce the number of deadly accidents, the lane detection system is applied in an autonomous vehicle to increase the vehicle safety and passenger safety. The lane detection is one of the computer vision-based systems for driver assistance, as it uses an existing lane marking where the image is captured by the onboard camera mounted in the rear-view mirror facing the front of the vehicle. The proposed algorithm that has been created can detect a lane marking under variable condition of the road such as in the case of urban roads or highways with different printed marks as solid or dashed lines. Furthermore, the algorithm is designed for real-time applications.

Atzroulnizam Abu, Mohd Rohaimi Mohd Dahalan, Ahmad Zawawi Jamaluddin, Dzul Fadhli Hisyam Mat Daut
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