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2024 | Book

Advanced Materials for Multidisciplinary Applications

Editors: Marinda Wu, Wei Gao, Lei Li, Yingchun Lu, Jingbo Louise Liu

Publisher: Springer International Publishing


About this book

This book provides an overview of recent research in the area of advanced materials for improving human healthcare, protecting the environment and alternative energy resources. The authors analyze and deliver viable technical solutions, demonstrating how chemistry and engineering can collectively solve technical and societal challenges. The book explores innovative technology for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates & glycoproteins, new drug development & delivery, theragnostics of infectious disease and cancer. It also provides insights into the nature of energy extraction, management and usage related to fossil fuels and sustainable energy. The book brings together a group of dynamic and productive scientists, engineers, and other professionals in celebration of the 40th Anniversary of Chinese American Chemical Society. It is a valuable resource for all readers interested in the study of materials to address society's increasing need for electrical and chemical energy.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Leadership and Resiliency in the Global Chemistry Enterprise
Celebrating the 40th Anniversary of Chinese American Chemical Society
Chinese American Chemical Society (CACS) is a non-political and non-profit professional organization.
Marinda Li Wu, Wei Gao, Chu-An Chang, Lei Li, Yingchun Lu, Jingbo Louise Liu

Biomedical Applications

Chapter 2. Recent Advancement of Nanotechnology in Bio Applications
Nanotechnology is the production, design, and research of useful materials and devices with sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique features with a wide range of applications due to their small size and large surface area. Nanoparticles are employed in a variety of biological applications, including treatments, diagnostics, imaging, and drug administration. Besides these, nanomaterials are also used in tissue engineering as schaffolds and as biomaterials in medicinal applications. In this chapter, we focused on these various applications of nanotechnology in bio-applications to update the readers on the most recent discoveries as well as the existing challenges. Nanotechnology has significant potential for providing different multimodal diagnostic platforms and therapeutic applications that will drastically alter the human health scenario. Thorough investigation of these complex nano-applications may encourage progressive research and development in future biomedical sectors. Attempts are currently underway to convert these scientific advances into clinical practice, which should usher in a new paradigm of biomedicine.
Ashraf Abedin, Jhonattan David Manosalvas Mora, Adiba Azad, Srikar Bhattar, S. M. Rezwanul Islam, Mohammad Hasibul Hasan
Chapter 3. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Gene Carriers
This chapter covers discussion of the history on the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the updates on their modifications and applications as gene carriers. In the first part, it concentrates on the illustration of methods for graft of various functional groups and ligands on the surface of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively). Emphasis is placed on the types of bond formation during the functionalization of pristine CNTs. Many established ligands are presented. The second part concentrates on the discussion of interactions between functionalized CNTs (f-CNTs) with genes or oligonucleotides. These include electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, π–π stacking, etc. The third part outlines the gene targets of f-CNTs. Factors associated with the design on the formation of hybrids of genes@f-CNTs and deploy of the genes from the hybrids are depicted. The entire strategy and practical methods for the hybrid formation and dissociation are the keys to the success on their applications to modern gene therapy.
Jih Ru Hwu, Shwu-Chen Tsay, Uttam Patil, Animesh Roy, Wen-Chieh Huang
Chapter 4. Selected Recent Work on Endo-Functionalization of Cylindrical Macrocyclic Artificial Receptors for Mimicking Protein–Ligand Interactions
In medicinal chemistry, a significant part of the process involves modifying the way a small molecule interacts with a target receptor, which is typically a protein. The objective is usually to enhance or dampen these interactions to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, researchers have utilized functionalized macrocyclic receptors as models for mimicking protein binding pockets. Recent advancements in the functionalization of synthetic cylindrical and vase-shaped cylindrical macrocyclic receptors, including cavitands, calixpyrroles, naphthotubes, and pillar [1] arene-derivatives, among others, have been noteworthy and thought-provoking. In this short review, we present selected examples from a medicinal chemist’s perspective, with an emphasis on the endo-functionalization of cylindrical and vase-shaped cylindrical macrocyclic receptors and their binding features in model protein–ligand interactions.
Yahu A. Liu, Zhuo Wang, Weibo Hu, Mingliang Ma, Hui Yang, Ke Wen
Chapter 5. Singlet Oxygen Photo-Generation by Light Irradiation Using Metal–Organic Frameworks as Photodynamic Therapy Agents
A metal–organic-framework zirconium (pyrene-1,3,6,8-tetryl)tetrabenzoic acid (Zr7Pr) was fabricated and evaluated in retinal pigmented epithelial cells in vitro for singlet oxygen inactivation of cell function. Cellular health was evaluated through the measurement of stress biomarkers. It was shown that increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) activity are consistent with singlet reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as possible reactive nitrogen species (RNS) were evaluated to identify the site of Zr7Pr’s inhibitory function. The analysis indicates that singlet oxygen generates superoxide and nitric oxide, which generates peroxynitrite. The most likely site of action of Zr7Pr is through the inactivation of mitochondrial pore transitions (MPTs) rather than complete membrane peroxidation. The exposed cysteines or histidine in the molecular targets of MPTs are modified, which affects the cell’s ability to regulate apoptosis-inducing MPTs under oxidative stress. Cells tolerant to hydrogen peroxide poisoning are still susceptible to the actions of Zr7Pr, whose efficacy is most likely through impairment of mitochondrial function and modification of the pore within the adenosine nucleotide translocase protein family (ANT) domain of the MPT.
Sajid Bashir, Jingbo Louise Liu

Energy and Fuels Applications

Chapter 6. Chemical Looping for CO2 Conversion and Utilization—Recent Advances and Perspective
A massive increase in the emissions of CO2 is contributing to global warming and negatively impacting Earth’s ecosystems. To achieve CO2 removal or carbon neutrality, significant development of CO2 conversion and utilization technologies is needed. Chemical looping is an emerging clean energy technology with inherent CO2 separation. It involves the reaction and regeneration of solid materials termed as looping carriers. In recent years, the novel chemical looping processes and looping carriers were proposed, aiming at CO2 utilization as a partial substitute for hydrocarbon feedstock or a soft oxidant for looping carrier regeneration. This article describes the advances on this subject with a focus on the fundamentals of CO2 conversion during the redox reactions. It is expected that these new advances will accelerate the large-scale deployment of CO2 utilization technologies.
Zhuo Cheng, Pinak Mohapatra, Anuj Joshi, Rushikesh K. Joshi, Liang-Shih Fan
Chapter 7. Diversity Oriented Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks
Metal‒Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of novel porous materials bearing unique high surface area and structural tunability. Post-synthetic functionalization plays a pivotal role not only in facilely diversifying MOF structures but also in meeting the requirement in practical applications. Herein, we explore the utility of diversity oriented synthesis (DOS) in the MOF field, summarizing the various post-synthetic modifications and pore engineering techniques and discussing how they regulate the pore environment and sizes of MOFs.
Yu-Chuan Hsu, Kun-Yu Wang, Kui Tan, Joshua A. Powell, Hong-Cai Zhou
Chapter 8. The Promise and Reality of Sustainable Fuels
Challenges of world’s energy supply and fuels consumption are highly dependent on the use of fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, and natural gases. The depletion of these resources is a major challenge as it leads to an increase in prices and a decrease in the availability of energy. Therefore, renewable energy sources, particularly sustainable fuels become critically demanding. Renewable sources of energy and fuels are abundant and do not emit greenhouse gases or contribute to climate change. The promotion of efficient energy use techniques promises to reduce energy consumption, thereby conserving fuel supplies. The diversity of sustainable fuel supplies is another driving force for the stakeholders to explore in this direction to fostering development and commercialization. The exploration and production of more diverse energy sources like natural gas, nuclear power, and biofuels help to sustain a diverse and secure energy supply. This chapter summarized the background of energy development, different families of fuel supplies, Geopolitical instability and grand challenges of sustainable aviation fuels.
Robert Luckett, Jingbo Louise Liu
Chapter 9. Thermal Analysis During Metallic Additive Manufacturing
Due to its ability to produce 3D parts with anfractuous and complex structures with limited post-processing and minimal wastage of raw materials, additive manufacturing (AM) technology opens a new route for manufacturing without tooling and/or machining limits. Therefore, it is constantly used in industrial and research sectors all over the world with expanding prospects. However, the temperature distribution and heat transfer during AM processes directly affect the properties and structures of the printed parts, especially for metallic components. Herein, a comprehensive summary of thermal analysis and heat transfer during metallic AM processes is presented. Metallic AM methods are divided into several categories, including powder bed fusion (PBF), direct energy deposition (DED), and other metallic AM processes. The challenges of heat transfer in each metallic AM process are fully discussed, and the energy insertion and material thermal properties are also discussed for better fundamental understanding. Finally, the experimental and computational studies of thermal analysis in different metallic AM methods are summarized, and a view of the future research is provided.
Gaoqiang Yang, Zheng Chen, Yaji Huang, Jingke Mo, Zhenye Kang, Feng-Yuan Zhang

Environmental and Spectroscopic Application

Chapter 10. Single Atom Catalysts for Environmental Remediation
Single-atom catalysts (SACs) represent an advanced class of catalysts that contain well-dispersed metal atoms on a support material. Recent studies have demonstrated the enormous potential of SACs in environmental applications. In addition to the metal atoms, the supporting material also plays an important role in the catalytic properties of SACs. The most commonly employed support material for SACs in environmental applications is the nitrogen-doped carbon due to its active chemoelectrical property, adjustable surface functional groups, porous structure, and eco-friendly nature. In environmental applications, SACs are mostly used as an activator of hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfate and peroxydisulfate, extending the reaction pH limitation from less than 4.0 to a wider range of 4.0–10.0 and generating highly reactive radicals. This chapter briefly discussed the common characterization technics of SACs, the role of supporting materials and focused primarily on the activation mechanisms of common oxidants by SACs. At the end, research gaps and future needs are discussed. Overall, the unique properties and exceptional catalytic performance of SACs offer great potential for addressing the persistent environmental challenges that threaten our planet.
Jieming Yuan, Xingmao Ma
Chapter 11. Topological Interpenetrative Covalent Anchored Network (TIP CAN) for H2S Detection, Storage, and Remediation Relevance to Shipboard Wastewater
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) can be generated on ships from seawater with sulfates storage or oil-bilge tanks containing hydrocarbons with sulfur and sulfur-containing detergents or gray- and blackwater storage tanks, where H2S is generated microbiologically. This workplace hazard requires carefully venting these tanks before inspection and maintenance. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of iron peroxide (FeOOH), silver reduced with ascorbate [Ag(ASC)], copper tricarboxylate metal–organic framework (CuMOF), chromium terephthalate metal–organic framework doped with silver [MIL101(Cr)Ag) or silver and magnesium [MIL101(Cr)AgMg] demonstrated excellent removal of H2S from an offline slurry reactor, eliminating 100% of 100 ppm H2S under 35 min, at 90 °F. The adsorbents were evaluated for different concentrations of H2S using pulsed injections. The time was taken to reach 0 ppm, including regeneration using hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the surfaces of this catalyst. Regeneration after 5 cycles showed H2S effectiveness of around 75% relative to the new catalyst averaged over the top five adsorbents. The sulfur binding capacity of at least 78 mg/g was shown, and a catalyst mass of even less than 100 mg was effective at removing 100 ppm of H2S. The slurry reactor workflow has the advantages of speed of operation, simplicity of design, and ease of use. It would suit a ship with a general crew who would not require a specialist degree to operate the offline slurry reactor to remove H2S. The kinetics of the reaction were modeled on a shrinking model, and the lowering of the effectiveness of H2S was attributed to the formation of elemental sulfur and sulfate indirectly confirmed using x-ray photon electron spectroscopy which could block active hydroxyl sites that are avenues for attracting the H2S molecule. The surface adsorption of H2S by the exchange with oxygen is suggested as the main mechanism whereby H2S is removed, followed by surface area and catalyst porosity. This study also suggests guidelines for developing filter-based ceramics that could be deployed on ships to remove H2S from tanks without venting or exposing the crew to possible exposure.
Sajid Bashir Liu, Jingbo Louise Liu
Chapter 12. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Re-Engineered 2, a 5-Dihydroxypheny Acid Derivative
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has been a mainstay in protein mass spectrometry, imaging, and proteomics. The common approach to matrix design and selection has been empirical. The most common matrices used are 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic (2,5-DHB) and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (aCCa). Using the known relationship between 2,5-phenyl carboxylic acid and tyrosine amino A 2,5-dihydroxyphenylcarboxylic acid molecule based on the hydroquinone core of 2,5-DHB was designed and synthesized (M10) by using the known relationship between 2,5-phenyl carboxylic acid and tyrosine amino acids. The two matrices (aCCa and M10) were compared and contrasted using neuronal peptide mixtures, tryptic digests from two-dimensional gel spots from culture Escherichia coli, and mature green tomato fruit. The peptide mixtures or mass fingerprints were analyzed similarly, except only a 30 s analysis time window per sample was allocated for M10, whereas 3 min per sample were allocated for aCCa. The results are that M10 generated greater ion yield, sequence coverage, and probable Mascot identification scores over aCCa, or the scores were comparable with less sample acquisition time for M10. The n-decanoic acid side chain promotes matrix-to-analyte interactions and proton transfer during crystallization. Our findings support the hypothesis of pseudo proton transfer from the excited matrix species during crystallization as a dominant mechanism for generating protonated and deprotonated analyte ions due to the lower proton affinity of M10 that is computed using density functional theory and the 6–311G** basis set for the protonated matrix species. The enhanced performance of matrix M10 will positively impact MALDI research and will extend the lifetime and operability of older instruments at hospitals, laboratories, and teaching-intensive universities where instrument budgets are stretched. By using M10 as a matrix, the sampled runtime is reduced, ion yield is increased, and potential instrument usage lifetime is increased.
Sajid Bashir, M. Gomez, K. A. Beran, J. L. Liu, P. J. Derrick
Chapter 13. Hydrophilic/Phobic Tailored Multi-laned/Layer Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (HTML-MALDI)
This study aimed to enhance ion yield from a protein mixture using hydrophobic and hydrophilic structured surfaces to enhance analyte solubilization and the spatial separation of matrices to enable multi-matrix desorption and ionization of the peptide mixtures. The use of solid-stated anchored compounds can aid in sample cleanup and digestion, further improving the signal intensity of digests. However, this research suggested that the results were partly dependent upon the protein's basicity. The more basic lysozyme was found to generate the highest sum peptide intensities under the dried drop methods. On the other hand, the less basic myoglobin produced the highest sum intensities with anchor support. It was critical to use the matrix species in the middle lane for optimizing analyte peak intensities, although using matrices in peripheral lanes did lead to signal enhancements.
Sajid Bashir, Jingbo Liu, Peter J. Derrick
Chapter 14. Achievements Made by Professionals with Diversified Backgrounds
The Chinese American Chemical Society (CACS) was founded in 1981 as a nonprofit, professional organization with no political affiliation. The CACS aims to bridge chemistry & chemical engineering communities in Asia and America. The membership is open to professionals and students in chemistry, chemical engineering, and related fields, individuals and corporations supporting the objectives of the society. In 2023, the CACS renewed the ACS-CACS partnership for 2023–2028 since established in 2016.
Marinda Li Wu, Wei Gao, Chu-An Chang, Lei Li, Yingchun Lu, Jingbo Louise Liu
Advanced Materials for Multidisciplinary Applications
Marinda Wu
Wei Gao
Lei Li
Yingchun Lu
Jingbo Louise Liu
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