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2016 | Book

Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2015

Smart Systems for Green and Automated Driving


About this book

This edited volume presents the proceedings of the AMAA 2015 conference, Berlin, Germany. The topical focus of the 2015 conference lies on smart systems for green and automated driving. The automobile of the future has to respond to two major trends, the electrification of the drivetrain, and the automation of the transportation system. These trends will not only lead to greener and safer driving but re-define the concept of the car completely, particularly if they interact with each other in a synergetic way as for autonomous parking and charging, self-driving shuttles or mobile robots. Key functionalities like environment perception are enabled by electronic components and systems, sensors and actuators, communication nodes, cognitive systems and smart systems integration. The book will be a valuable read for research experts and professionals in the automotive industry but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Table of Contents


Driver Assistance and Vehicle Automation

Autonomous Parking Using Previous Paths
This paper is about mapping the drivable area of a parking lot for autonomous parking. Manual map creation for automated parking is often impossible, especially when parking on private grounds. One aspect is that the number of private properties is very large and private parking should not be included in public maps. The other aspect is that an owner and operator of a car often has very specific ideas of where the car may be driven. Our approach creates maps using just the previously driven paths. We describe the drivable area through triangles using established methods from Computer Graphics. These triangles are generated by overlaying circles of a certain radius over the driven paths. These circles create a so-called alpha-shape and approximate the drivable area. The description through triangles (“Delaunay triangulation”) allows for fast retrieval and easy expansion with new paths. Finally, a simple conversion of the triangulation into a Voronoi diagram enables fast path searching. In this paper we thus present an efficient framework for determining drivable areas and allows searching for a drivable path. Finally, we show that this method enables real-time implementation in an autonomous car and can cope with new obstacles at planning time.
Christoph Siedentop, Viktor Laukart, Boris Krastev, Dietmar Kasper, Andreas Wedel, Gabi Breuel, Cyrill Stachniss
Dynamic eHorizon with Traffic Light Information for Efficient Urban Traffic
The electronic horizon (eHorizon) is an emerging technology supporting advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with respect to fuel efficiency and road safety. Using the static road attributes provided by the eHorizon, new kinds of ADAS applications become possible. Considering the factor that the traffic dynamics, especially in intersection areas, has also a significant impact to the fuel consumption and traffic efficiency, this paper is devoted to the extension of the current products of eHorizon with traffic light information. It introduces a concept for the presentation of the traffic light information in accordance to the ADASIS v2 specification, so that today’s subscribers of eHorizon, i.e. the ECUs with ADAS applications, can use the dynamic data with only minimal modification.
Hongjun Pu
Virtual Stochastic Testing of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
With Advanced Driver Assistance Systems becoming increasingly complex, testing methods must keep up to efficiently test and validate these systems. This paper focuses on a method of testing vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems on a state-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop test bench. Virtual driving scenarios are being used for functional testing. This paper suggests a framework where the driving scenarios are constructed using a stochastical approach. This allows the testing of the parameter combinations that might otherwise be forgotten or disregarded by a human creating the scenarios. The first step of this framework, a road generator, is introduced. Generic courses of roads are created using the Markov Chain and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods reconstructing real-life scenarios by analyzing map data.
Stephanie Prialé Olivares, Nikolaus Rebernik, Arno Eichberger, Ernst Stadlober
Shockwave Analysis on Motorways and Possibility of Damping by Autonomous Vehicles
Shockwaves are a boundary that shows discontinuity in a flow-density domain. The physical realization of a shockwave is a point in time and space at which vehicles change their speed abruptly. The formation and dissolving of congestion are phenomena that are important for the traveler information and congestion management perspectives. Shockwave analysis is the method to identify congested areas and estimate the rate of formation and dissipation of the congestion. The microscopic traffic simulation tool Vissim was used to address the main objective of this study, namely to determine if and to what extent the driving behavior parameters of the model used influence the shockwaves on motorways. After precise calibration of the car following behavior based on the detected shockwaves from data of the German research project sim TD , the possible influences on driver behavior through highly automated vehicles was sketched in order to figure out whether these applications can change the shockwave propagation speed on motorways, lead to suppression of shockwaves and improve the network performance as well as increase the traffic safety.
Nassim Motamedidehkordi, Thomas Benz, Martin Margreiter

Advanced Sensing Concepts

Driver Head Pose Estimation by Regression
Advanced driver assistance systems provide a significant improvement for road safety and effective driving. Integrating driver observation in such systems is a crucial step in striving to reducing traffic accidents. For improved robustness in the designed system, we have chosen to approach the driver head pose estimation problem through regression methods based on images from a stereo camera. Therefore, the system operates solely on the 3D head information and is independent of facial feature detection, color and texture information. The proposed system contemplates real driving situations along with the design dictated position of the camera inside the car. The proposed regression algorithms for this work are support vector regression (SVR), random regression forest (RRF) and extremely randomized trees (ERT). Carried experimental studies show high accuracies for the proposed methods. Their algorithmic simplicity and measured time-costs further indicate their suitability for embedded real-time applications.
Yodit Tessema, Matthias Höffken, Ulrich Kreßel
Future Computer Vision Algorithms for Traffic Sign Recognition Systems
For the assistance of drivers and for autonomous vehicles an automatic recognition of traffic signs is essential. Today’s traffic sign recognition systems are focusing on circular signs. Because speed limit signs are circular and because the recognition of speed limit signs deliver a high customer benefit, such systems have been realized primarily in series production. But for traffic sign recognition there are still many challenges to be tackled. This contribution presents how research and intelligent development of computer vision algorithms will enable much more advanced traffic sign recognition systems on embedded systems by reducing processing time while simultaneously enlarging functionality. The result is a reduction of hardware cost and energy consumption.
Stefan Eickeler, Matias Valdenegro, Thomas Werner, Michael Kieninger
Inertial Sensors Integration for Advanced Positioning Systems
Modern navigation systems for the automotive market do require accurate and reliable sensors for precise implementation of the dead-reckoning algorithms needed for accurate map positioning in all different driving situations and circumstances. STMicroelectronics has been developing inertial sensors for these applications since 2009, with the introduction of the first 3-axis low-g accelerometers and the first ever fully integrated 3-axis gyroscope, now accepted as market standards and adopted in a myriad of in-dash infotainment systems. As happened earlier in other segments such as consumer, sensor integration is emerging in automotive to optimize performance and costs. Complete integration of acceleration and rate sensors on the same die can be enabled only by an advanced planar silicon technology, which is capable of creating independent mechanical structures that are diverse by nature. The tiny ASM330LXH is the smallest and highest-performance 6-axis Inertial Measurement Unit qualified to AEC-Q100 for non-critical automotive applications like navigation and telematics. This paper addresses the major integration challenges and presents the new device, with focus on the benefits versus traditional discrete solutions.
Marco Ferraresi
Automotive LIDAR-Based Strategies for Obstacle Detection Application in Rural and Secondary Roads
The usage of a LIDAR-based obstacle detection system in agricultural environment, as developed in SOLCO project, has led to a novel detection strategy. The rural scenario can be rather complex in terms of background, type and size of the obstacles encountered. In the experimentation, a strategy was applied to several trials in rural scenarios, with the aim of finding and fine tuning an object filtering approach that can be later applied in runtime. This strategy could be transferred to passenger car applications to improve LIDAR system performances.
Andrea Carlino, Luciano Altomare, Marco Darin, Filippo Visintainer, Alessandro Marchetto

Networked Vehicles, ITS and Road Safety

Performance Evaluation of a Novel Vehicle Collision Avoidance Lane Change Algorithm
This study, proposes a methodology to evaluate the performance of a novel emergency lane change algorithm. The algorithm, defines a number of constraints, based on the vehicle’s dynamics and environmental conditions, which must be satisfied for a safe and comfortable lane change maneuver. Inclusion of the lateral position of other vehicles on the road, the tire-road friction, and real-time ability are the main advantages of the proposed algorithm. For performance evaluation of the developed algorithm, a set of driving scenarios were designed to consider different possible traffic situations that may appear in an emergency lane change maneuver. These scenarios were implemented later in IPG CarMaker, which is a vehicle’s dynamics platform. Based on the designed scenarios, the efficiency of the algorithm in collision free lane change maneuver was examined.
Sajjad Samiee, Shahram Azadi, Reza Kazemi, Arno Eichberger, Branko Rogic, Michael Semmer
COLOMBO: Exploiting Vehicular Communications at Low Equipment Rates for Traffic Management Purposes
While most standardized vehicular communication applications aim on increasing traffic safety, the exchange of messages between vehicles and the environment may be used for other purposes at no additional hardware costs as well. One possible area of such applications is traffic management. Traffic management requires data about the state of the road network before being able to predict or control traffic. The COLOMBO project, co-funded by the European Commission, examines the possibilities to use data gained via vehicular communications for traffic management purposes.
Daniel Krajzewicz, Andreas Leich, Robbin Blokpoel, Michela Milano, Thomas Stützle
Optimal Traffic Control via Smartphone App Users
A Model for Actuator and Departure Optimisation
For many years traffic control has been the task of traffic centres. Road congestion is reduced via traffic control based on the sensor information of the current traffic state. Actuators are used to create a better spread and throughput over the network. A powerful means to further reduce congestion is to shift from the classical reactive paradigm to a proactive paradigm. In this concept the traveller is included in the traffic control process in the sense that travellers are given advice about their travel scheme. This travel scheme presents the predicted travel time depending on time of departure and selected route. Today people use their smartphones to navigate. Via GPS and smart phone applications they optimise their route. Most of these applications use static traffic state information. In our research we develop a method to reduce congestion delay by including user decisions. According to the travel time preferences of the user a departure time/travel time curve is presented to the user. This curve shows the expected travel time corresponding to a specific departure time. Actuators are adapted according to the expected departure times of the app users. By including travellers information and preferences we want to analyse the resulting throughput and corresponding travel time in the network. To this end we study these effects for a small network with large peak arrivals in a short time period. Actuators in this network are adapted to the expected traffic flow and optimised accordingly.
Daphne van Leeuwen, Rob van der Mei, Frank Ottenhof
Results of Mobile Traffic and Environmental Measurement for Green Traffic Management in the INTEGREEN Project
The main objective of the EU LIFE+ project INTEGREEN is to introduce a demonstrative system for the municipal mobility management centre of the Italian city of Bolzano which can have the ability to provide distributed correlated traffic and air pollution information for the adoption of eco-friendly real-time traffic management policies. A new mobile probe with both traffic and air pollution monitoring units has been developed within the scope of the INTEGREEN project. The probe aims at overcoming the current limitation in the market of low cost measurement devices suitable for automotive use. The calibration of the air pollution monitoring unit has been performed in static conditions by comparison with official reference air quality stations, which can perform accurate measurements but at a low-speed. Several field measurement campaigns have been performed in the urban area of Bolzano and the most significant results are presented and evaluated.
Reinhard Kloibhofer, Franco Fresolone, Roberto Cavaliere

Electrified Power Trains and Vehicle Efficiency

Design and Fabrication of a SiC-Based Power Module with Double-Sided Cooling for Automotive Applications
The electrification of drive trains combined with special requirements of the automotive and heavy construction equipment applications drives the development of small, highly integrated and reliable power inverters. To minimize the volume and increase the reliability of the power switching devices a module consisting of SiC devices with double sided cooling capability has been developed. There are several benefits related to cooling the power devices on both sides. The major improvement is the ability to increase the power density, and thereby reduce the number of active switching devices required which in turn reduces costs. Other expected benefits of more efficient cooling are reductions in volume and mass per power ratio. Alternatively, improved reliability margins due to lower temperature swings during operation are can be expected. Removing the wire bonds on the top side of the devices is expected to improve the reliability regardless, since wire bonds are known to be one of the main limitations in power switching devices. In addition, it is possible to design the package with substantially lower inductance, which can allow faster switching of the devices. In this paper the design, simulations and fabrication process of a double sided SiC-based power module are presented.
Klas Brinkfeldt, Jonas Ottosson, Klaus Neumaier, Olaf Zschieschang, Eberhard Kaulfersch, Michael Edwards, Alexander Otto, Dag Andersson
Performance Evaluation of Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor for Micro Electric Vehicle
A 7.5 kW Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor (PMASynRM) that works with ferrite magnets has been designed for a micro electric vehicle. Finite element analysis is used to evaluate machine performances and to study the demagnetization effect of ferrite PMs. An experimental validation of the PMASynRM characteristics is made. The measured values of the back electromotive force and torque are compared with the numerical predicted values. The PMASynRM electromagnetic losses are investigated in order to increase the motor efficiency.
Bogdan Varaticeanu, Paul Minciunescu, Silviu Matei
Comparison of Energy Optimization Methods for Automotive Ethernet Using Idealized Analytical Models
With the number of Automotive Ethernet implementations increasing, the energy efficiency will eventually become an issue. While there have been various methods proposed, their implementation is not yet the main focus. In this paper two of these approaches are considered and analytically compared using idealized network traffic models. To accommodate different applications, various traffic models are considered and the influence of different parameters on the power consumption of an Electronic Control Unit is analyzed.
Stefan Kunze, Rainer Pöschl, Andreas Grzemba
Influence of the Design Parameters of Electric Vehicles in the Optimization of Energy Efficiency in Urban Routes
The analysis and decision making on design, behavior and use of a prototype electric vehicle is the main focus of this paper. For this purpose, a prototype electric vehicle was modelled. The dimensional parameters needed to create the model were obtained by measurements, calculations and approximations. Subsequently, a route to be travelled by the vehicle was determined and a simulation of the vehicle on that route followed. Different modifications in the model were performed to compare their results with the original model through simulation in software Adams/Car. In this paper, we show the design criteria for electric vehicles to optimize engine power, weight, battery and vehicle performance according to the characteristics of typical urban routes.
Alberto Fraile del Pozo, Emilio Larrodé Pellicer, Juan Bautista Arroyo García, Alberto Torné
Design and Systems Integration in the Electrification of an Electric Vehicle for Long Distance Travel. Hierarchical Multi-criteria Analysis for Designing the Vehicle Architecture
This paper describes part of the development of racing electric vehicle “Zytel-Zero” which was developed in the laboratories of the I3A (Aragón Institute for Engineering Research). The main objective of the paper is the description of the integration of all systems and components of this electric vehicle, designing and building the subsystems for correct operation, and commissioning and preparation of the control system. Special focus has been laid on the control systems, especially the batteries and several sensors of vehicle itself. In this work the design and integration of systems required in the electrification of a long-range vehicle is described allowing it to be used as a testbed for monitoring battery consumption as a function of the scenarios and the number of batteries on-board. In this paper the use of the methodology Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is presented, as a technique for multi-criteria decision aid to decision making in the process of the electrification of a vehicle.
Emilio Larrodé Pellicer, Alberto Fraile del Pozo, Juan Bautista Arroyo García
Opportunities for European SMEs in Global Electric Vehicle Supply Chains in Europe and Beyond
Smart electric mobility is being regarded one of the major paths to sustainable mobility at least for urban areas. Governments, societies and industry in many countries already pursue this path. Some promising markets for electric vehicles (EVs) are evolving and many more emerging. This development provides opportunities for European small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in global EV supply chains, especially since electric mobility requiring new technologies, services and business models, changes the traditional automotive supply chain and opens it for new players. The EU-funded Coordination Action GO4SEM is aimed at spreading awareness of global market trends and opportunities and on investigating matching innovation capabilities of European SMEs. This analysis results in strategic advice towards SMEs, but also policy recommendations towards public authorities for strengthening SMEs in this endeavor are derived.
Frauke Bierau, Pietro Perlo, Beate Müller, Arrate Alonso Gomez, Thierry Coosemans, Gereon Meyer

Safety Challenges for Electric and Automated Vehicles

A Smart Computing Platform for Dependable Battery Management Systems
An important acceptance criteria for electric mobility is the capability to efficiently use the energy stored into the battery cells over the vehicle lifetime. The battery management system (BMS) plays a central role by estimating the state of charge (current energy available) and state of health (degradation due to ageing effects) of the cells. Improvement of the estimation quality has a direct impact on the battery and thus vehicle range. It is the target of the INCOBAT project to improve the BMS by means of new electronic components, new control strategies and new development methods in order to achieve cost reduction and performance (driving range) increase. In this paper, the INCOBAT project is presented and important results with respect to computing platforms, control strategy and dependability analysis are discussed.
E. Armengaud, C. Kurtulus, G. Macher, R. Groppo, M. Novaro, G. Hofer, H. Schmidt
The Need for Safety and Cyber-Security Co-engineering and Standardization for Highly Automated Automotive Vehicles
A key long-term trend is towards highly automated vehicles and autonomous driving. This has a huge impact, besides comfort and enabling people not able or allowed to drive, on sustainability of environmental-friendly urban road transport because the number of vehicles and parking space could considerably be reduced if called on command and left behind after use for the next call. This requires a considerable amount of functionality, sensors, actuators and control, situation awareness etc., and the integration into a new type of critical infrastructure based on communication between vehicles and vehicles and infrastructure for regional traffic management. Both, safety and security aspects have to be handled in a coordinated manner, affecting co-engineering, co-certification and standardization.
Erwin Schoitsch, Christoph Schmittner, Zhendong Ma, Thomas Gruber
Is Software Coded Processing an Answer to the Execution Integrity Challenge of Current and Future Automotive Software-Intensive Applications?
In upcoming automotive systems, the high integration of safety-critical software and the use of high-performance controllers with limited integrity is a demanding challenge. Innovations like driving automation require significantly higher computational power than it is available via special-purpose controllers equipped with safety features. The qualification of high-performance commodity hardware for use in safety-critical systems becomes desirable. To cope with the dilemma of low integrity of such controllers, Software Coded Processing reliably shifts the detection of execution errors into the application software allowing high diagnostic coverage of processing units’ failures.
Majdi Ghadhab, Jörg Kaienburg, Martin Süßkraut, Christof Fetzer
Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2015
Tim Schulze
Beate Müller
Gereon Meyer
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