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About this book

This book examines real-time models and advanced online applications that enhance reliability and resilience of the grid in real-time and near real-time environments. It is written by Peak Reliability engineers who worked on the creation of the West Wide System Model (WSM) and the implementation of advanced real-time operation situational awareness tools for reliability coordination function. The book looks at how a single Reliability Coordinator for the Western Interconnection did its work under normal and emergency conditions, providing a unique perspective on best practices and lessons learned from Peak’s modeling and coordination efforts to create, maintain, and improve state-of-art new technology and algorithms to improve real-time operation situational awareness and Bulk Electric System (BES) grid resilience. Coverage includes practical experience of implementing real-time Energy Management System (EMS) Network Application, real-time voltage stability analysis, online transient stability analysis, synchrophasor technology, Dispatcher Training Simulator and EMS Cybersecurity & Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol (ICCP) implementation experience in a Reliability Coordinator Control Room setting.

Explains how to operate a “green” grid and prevent new blackouts against uncertain operation conditions;Written by Peak Reliability engineers who worked on the creation of the West Wide System Model (WWSM);All material verified in practical system operations, or validated by real system measures and system events.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter introduces the history, operational objectives and practical challenges of the NERC’s Reliability Coordinator(s) responsible for the Western Interconnection. It provides an overview on both creation process and implementation experience of the West-wide System Model (WSM), advanced EMS applications and other real-time analytical tools running with the WSM and using real-time measurements. The metrics of the WSM improvements and advanced EMS Network Applications performance in reality are covered in the chapter.
Hongming Zhang

Chapter 2. Real-Time Contingency Analysis for Post-contingency SOL Exceedance Monitoring

Abstract
This chapter introduces the implementation of Peak RC’s Real-Time Contingency Analysis (RTCA) function with hundreds of RAS models included for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system security assessment for every 5 min. It presents some custom features developed for Reliability Coordinator (RC) to intelligently sort out the important, actionable information. In addition, this chapter discusses the Peak RC’s monitoring methodology and procedures, and how they shape the RC’s actions when dealing with post-contingency System Operating Limit (SOL) exceedances and risk of cascading outages. Finally, the RTCA software enhancements for autonomous cascading analysis and Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL) monitoring are proposed to improve detection and validation of potential IROL conditions.
Hongming Zhang

Chapter 3. Real-Time Voltage Stability Analysis for IROL Assessment

Abstract
This chapter introduces Peak RC’s experience, in collaboration with vendor and impacted operating entities, on implementation of a Real-Time Voltage Stability Analysis (RT-VSA) tool in the control rooms to calculate the Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROLs) across the Western Interconnection (WI). Major technical challenges and technical resolutions, including modeling aspects, software improvements, validation approaches, and integration efforts, are presented in detail. A number of RT-VSA case studies and some lessons learned are reviewed in the chapter. Key findings and several recommendations for future work are summarized in the end.
Hongming Zhang

Chapter 4. Real-Time Transient Stability Analysis Implementation

Abstract
Implementation of real-time transient stability application in the control room covering the Western Interconnection is a tremendous task. Some of the prerequisites are real-time steady-state model of interconnection, dynamic models, development of clearly defined user cases, and defining stability criteria together with operation procedures. This chapter addresses these industry needs and provides a framework for the implementation of real-time transient stability application for the Western Interconnection based on Peak Reliability experience and efforts.
Slaven Kincic, Hongming Zhang

Chapter 5. Implementing a Advanced DTS Tool for Large-Scale Operation Training

Abstract
The Western Interconnection has experienced several major blackouts over the last 32 years. To train Reliability Coordinators (RC) and system dispatchers of operating entities for restoration skills, a West-wide System Model (WSM)-based Dispatcher Training Simulator (WSM-DTS) is used since the west-wide system restoration drills started in 2011. This chapter reviews the Peak Reliability WSM-DTS tool which utilizes a Cloud connectivity in connection with restoration training drills.
Sherrill Edwards, Hongming Zhang

Chapter 6. Implementing Synchrophasor Applications for Grid Monitoring

Abstract
This chapter introduces a framework of PMU Registry, online oscillation monitoring systems and forced oscillation detection and source location tools that Peak RC has implemented for the Reliability Coordinator (RC) function of the Western Interconnection. The framework consists of four main components: (1) Montana Tech’s Modal Analysis Software (MAS) engine; (2) Washington State University’s Oscillation Monitor System (OMS) software; (3) Forced Oscillation Detection and Source Location Algorithms (FODSL); and (4) Peak RC in-house visualization tool and alarming logic built in PI Processbook. The framework was validated and applied for real system oscillation studies. Implementation experience and lessons learned are reviewed in this chapter.
Hongming Zhang

Chapter 7. Bringing EMS Node-Breaker Model into Offline Planning Tools

Abstract
Power Systems Operations and Planning historically use different models. Online operations model is based upon node-breaker representation of the system whereas offline planning models are based upon bus-branch representation. Power industry is in need of a unified model that would eliminate the modeling differences to the extent possible between these models. The chapter describes development and testing of the tool allowing to use full topology model in traditionally planning tool. The chapter summarizes the challenges in reconciling the difference between operations and planning model, areas where more work is needed, and provides recommendations to help planning entities to gradually transition from traditional bus-branch planning model to node-breaker model. Finally, full topology and bus branch-model are tested against each other and system events.
Slaven Kincic

Chapter 8. EMS System Architectures, Cybersecurity, and ICCP Implementation

Abstract
This chapter describes the Peak RC’s EMS system architectures and its best practice in implementing cybersecurity features in the EMS environment to meet the requirements of NERC’s Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) standards. The chapter also gives an overview on the Peak RC’s ICCP network settings and Open Access Gateway (OAG)/ICCP model build procedures.
Hongming Zhang

Chapter 9. Conclusion

Abstract
This chapter describes the life cycle of the single Western Reliability Coordinator (RC), highlights its main achievements and technology innovations, and shares our viewpoints on future work and directions on reliability coordination with rapidly increasing renewable energy resources in the Western Interconnection (WI).
Hongming Zhang

Backmatter

Additional information