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About this book

This book (Vol. I) presents select proceedings of the conference on “Advancement in Materials, Manufacturing, and Energy Engineering (ICAMME 2021).” It discusses the latest materials, manufacturing processes, evaluation of materials properties for the application in automotive, aerospace, marine, locomotive, and energy sectors. The topics covered include advanced metal forming, bending, welding and casting techniques, recycling and re-manufacturing of materials and components, materials processing, characterization and applications, materials, composites and polymer manufacturing, powder metallurgy and ceramic forming, numerical modeling and simulation, advanced machining processes, functionally graded materials, non-destructive examination, optimization techniques, engineering materials, heat treatment, material testing, MEMS integration, energy materials, bio-materials, metamaterials, metallography, nanomaterial, SMART materials, bioenergy, fuel cell, and superalloys. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals interested in interdisciplinary topics in the areas of materials, manufacturing, and energy sectors.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Computational Investigation of Chatter for Face Mill Tool on VMC Using Different Shim Material with Experimental Validation

This paper presents the concept, design and development of shim (passive damper) to improve the stability for high spindle speed machine operation of face mill tool. High spindle speed milling machines cause high vibrations and chatter during milling process. Damping and stability of cutting tools is very much essential nowadays in VMC—vertical milling centre operations. The purpose of this study is to understand and improve efficiency of face mill tool by using different types of shim (material). In the research work, we carried out computational analysis (by ANSYS) and experimented with Without shim operation followed by SS—Stainless Steel shim and Carbide shim to observe reduction in chatter. The purpose of this paper is to study static and dynamic operations of face mill tool with different shims (material) which cover analysis of dynamic motion behaviour of face mill tool, behaviour of different types of shim (material) and vibration. SS—Stainless Steel shim has the lowest damping ratio, and SS—Stainless Steel shim has Fc ≤ Fr (chatter frequency is equal to or less than rotational frequency), in all cutting condition. It is concluded that using SS—Stainless Steel shim, we can improve damping capacity of the face mill tool by reducing chatter during vertical milling centre process.

N. B. Gandhi, D. H. Pandya

Multispectral Imaging for Identification of Water Stress and Chlorophyll Content in Paddy Field Using Vegetation Indices

The characteristics of the agricultural plants can be identified with the help of multispectral imaging technique. The wavelength of the light determines the color of the object in scene. The proposed method uses multispectral imaging to access paddy crop quality parameters such as chlorophyll content in leaves and water stress. A qualitative analysis is made through comparison with the reference methods, and the necessary correlation is obtained. The proposed method provides a reliable, non-destructive, flexible, and fast quality assessment technique for improving the yield of the paddy crop. Based on the results, the variability in the field is identified, and input materials are suggested as needed. The data can be mapped to identify the chlorophyll content in the leaf, wherein the vegetation indices and the color mapping was found to successfully identify the water stress during the different month of cultivation.

S. Madhura, T. V. Smitha

Condition Monitoring of Used Engine Oil by FTIR Spectroscopy—A Review

For maintenance of engine, analysis of used oil plays an important part. It not only provides us with the information about the condition of the oil and its suitability for further use, but it can tell us about the condition of the machinery lubricated by the oil. In this review paper, comparison is made of the previous findings and work done on used engine oil by FTIR spectroscopy, and also various spectral locations of the impurities and parameters are determined.

Afreen Nissar, M. Hanief, Fasil Qayoom Mir

Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Based on Three-Dimensional Nanostructures with Improved Performance: Insights and Perspectives

Among the various nanostructures, 3D nanostructures have exhibited as optimistic materials for diverse applications as well as have drawn a lot of attention as building materials to create high-end nanodevices. Though significant research has been made based on 3D nanostructure, the performance of electrochemical energy devices by virtue of energy storage, power conversion, and device reliability still need remarkable improvement to fulfill the requirements of various functional applications. Instead of simply describing and comparing different 3D nanostructures, this article specifically describes the common and future benefits of the 3D nanostructure of 3D electrochemical energy conversion, focusing on photoelectrochemical water, renewable iron-ion batteries, solar-to-fuels converting from nitrogen to carbon dioxide by photoelectrocatalytic means, and supercapacitors. The interpretation of these advantages, disadvantages, as well as challenges will provide necessary perspectives with insights facilitating fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructured materials and to procure technologies for energy conversion and storage having high efficiency for the development of a sustainable energy future.

Shubhadip Paul

Algae Biofuel as a Substitute for Compression Ignition Engine: A Review

Combustion of diesel releases greenhouse gases which results in global warming and also leads to air pollution. Several respiratory problems and chronic diseases are connected with diesel exhaust exposure. Looking for a stand-in that has less impact on the environment as well as human health biofuels is a great choice. Biofuels fall into the heading of renewable energy which holds dominance over diesel, depleting non-renewable energy at a time when there is a continuous surge in fuel consumption due to a climb in energy demand. The surge in energy demand can be fulfilled by biofuels. The biggest downside of edible and non-edible biofuels is land usage and low yield. Quick growth, high lipid content, and excellent yield make algae a substitute for biofuel production in contrast with non-edible and edible biofuels. Overview of algal types, various stages that are involved in biodiesel extraction from algae, and its impact on the CI engine are presented.

S. Charan Kumar, Amit Kumar Thakur, J. Ronald Aseer

Economic Growth in Maharashtra and India with Particular Reference to Electricity Consumption

Maharashtra may be regarded as one of the fast and advancing states in India leading with huge industrial growth; nonetheless, it struggles with regular power cuts and further additional problems in the power sector, thus making it an honest study for the country’s energy sector. This manuscript analyzes the electricity usage pattern and economic, financial growth in Maharashtra and comparing it with the country as electricity plays a key role in the development and its progress. The overall trend reflects larger use of electricity by the farmers for agricultural yields other than revenue and jobs generating industrial consumers mainly due to providing subsidized power to the agriculture sector. Outlining the use of electricity pattern, it reveals the relationship between economic progress and utilization of electricity in Maharashtra by the both agriculture and industries. Lastly, power demand is projected to be 1690 billion units by 2022. Policies in the future must consider total metering, minimizing subsidy, supplying superior and dependable power supply to all regions, and usage of available resources to realize sufficient, dynamic, and effective consumption of electricity and economic progress along with it.

Anand Vijay Satpute, E. Vijay Kumar

Analysis of Centrifugal Pump Impeller Guide Vane by Using CFD Technique with Different Materials

Centrifugal pump is a machine that imparts energy to a liquid. This energy can make a fluid stream or ascend to a more elevated level. Centrifugal pump is an incredibly straight forward machine which is comprised of two essential parts, the first part is impeller that spins, and the stationary component is casing. In this paper, the effect of vane angle variations on impeller pump systems is analyzed. By modifying, the vane angles 12°, 14° and 18° of the different models of the radial impeller of a solitary stage siphon are utilized. In CATIA, 3D modeling is performed. Static and model analysis is done on the impeller to calculate stresses, strains, total displacements and frequencies by applying the rotational speed or velocity for different materials like stainless steel, aluminum metal matrix composite (AMMC) and Kevlar 49. Also, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is examined by applying liquid or fluid velocity to determine developed mass stream or flow rates.

Seshaiah Turaka, P. Chiranjeevi, K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Satishkumar

Study of Kinematic Chains of Group IV-D, E, and F: Part-Distinct Mechanisms

The author's basic aim is to prepare all the information at one place of all similar, dissimilar bars, and the similar as well as different mechanisms of 10 bars kinematic chains, 13 kinematic pairs, single degree of freedom closed chains of Group IV-D, E, and F using a simple, reliable, and efficient [A] matrix method. Two identification numbers namely ‘absolute sum’ [AS] and ‘absolute maximum’ [AM] of polynomials are determined for every matrix knowing similar or dissimilar. If both identification numbers have same numerical values, then both the matrices are similar and therefore, both the mechanisms are considered similar, and is counted as one mechanism. But, if the numerical values of both the identification numbers are different then, both the mechanisms are different and called distinct mechanisms. The study is extremely useful for new researchers/design engineers and scientist for their research work in the beginning sate of any project. The study is shown step by step with case study.

Ali Hasan

Intermittency Reduction Techniques in Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems: A Review

Due to the fluctuations in supply and demand in energy generated through hybrid renewable sources, there will be an intermittency leading to an impact on the productivity and utilization of grid-connected systems. These fluctuations are caused due to the nature of variability of renewable energy systems. The variable irradiance on solar panels and the wind speed along with air density changes leads to huge variations in output power generations through hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). The present paper gives an insight about the various conventional and modern approaches which are utilized to reduce the intermittency within a hybrid renewable energy-based system. This paper also highlights the usage of optimization techniques and predictive analytics for the forecasting of energy demand.

Neil Singh, Krish Patel, Krishi Patel, Siddhi Vinayak Pandey, Pankaj Singh, Anoop Kumar Shukla, Gaurav Dwivedi

Multi-objective Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Turning Process for Minimization of Carbon Emission and Processing Time

In the world, India stands 12th in production and 7th in consumption of machine tools. Machining is one of the energy and material intensive processes. To reduce the emission of CO2 and other bad effects to environment energy and material consumption in machining should be reduced. This is one of the measures of sustainable machining. In this paper, energy consumption, material consumption and dispose of wastes have been studied under various cutting conditions in dry and wet run. Optimization is done to minimize carbon emission along with processing time. This will lead to conservation of resources, reduction of CO2 emission and sustainable machining. Design of experiments technique using response surface methodology has been used to conduct the experiments.

Gunjan Agarwal, M. K. Khare, Ankit Kumar Singhal, Ravi Prakash

Numerical Heat Transfer Analysis of a Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink with Graphene-based Nanofluids

The advent of new technologies demands small integrated circuits which eventually increase heat dissipation per unit area. Therefore, microchannel heat sink with nanofluid as a coolant has emerged as a promising candidate for this purpose. In this manuscript, thermal performance and flow characteristics of graphene nanoplatelets (Gnp) suspended in distilled water (base fluid) as nanofluid have been studied for concentrations and mass flow rate in a rectangular microchannel. The geometry of the model and the simulation analysis were done in CATIAV5R20 and Ansys R19.2, respectively. The analysis was performed by solving a couple of governing equations for a set of input parameters and required boundary conditions. From the simulation, it is evident that the pressure drop of fluid increases with the increase in both mass flow rate and volumetric concentration of nanoparticles in the base fluid. An increase in the volumetric concentration of nanoparticles increases the total heat transferred from the base plate and conducting fins, resulting in higher outlet fluid temperature. An increase in the heat load on the base plate results in an increased temperature difference between the inlet and outlet. A significant gradient in the heat transfer coefficient could be observed along the length of the channel.

Sasmita Bal, Koustav Bandyopadhyay

Study on Design and Performance Specifications of the Prosthetic Hands

Advancements in cognitive robotics have led to the development of the prosthetics industry which provides applications similar to human body parts. There are many novel developments taking place in this particular field which strive on making life easier. Prosthetic hands have undergone a great degree of development in the last decade. This paper reports an extensive review on the performance of commercially available and research-oriented prosthetic hand models developed in the last decade, and paper includes ability, Illinois, biomimetic, hero arm, Vincent, dextrus, and bebionic hands. The kinematics, finger design, and actuation method of these commercial hands are investigated in this paper. Based on different parameters, i.e., the degree of freedom, grasp force, actuation, etc., ranges of these prosthetic hands are evaluated and discussed. Both prototype research and commercial prosthetic hands are considered in this paper. Various surveys are cited in order to validate statements made in this paper. After evaluating the hands-on rigorous parameters, valid conclusion is derived and also shares light on the future of prosthetic robotics.

Mohd Azeem, Aasiya Parveen

A Multi-stage Evolutionary Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm Using Ultrasound Time-of-Flight Projections

Various tomographic reconstruction algorithms are introduced, for testing engineering materials in a non-destructive manner. Majority of the genetic algorithms utilized in reconstruction methods are based on the principles of binary-coded genetic algorithms. These algorithms solve the reconstruction problems using a single-stage strategy. They start with initial solutions of the resolution, same as that of the final desired resolution of reconstructed solution. This article focuses on the improvised evolutionary tomographic reconstruction procedure, which is designed on the principles of real-coded genetic algorithms. A multi-stage strategy is proposed for solving the reconstruction problem, and the pseudo-code outlining the significant hierarchical steps in the multi-step real-coded genetic algorithm reconstruction approach is presented and implemented. The reconstruction algorithm starts initially with randomly initialized solution guesses of lower resolution, which evolve at intermediate stages towards finally yielding solutions of required resolution. Efficacy of the proposed methodology is demonstrated, through several simulations using ultrasound time-of-flight projection data.

Shyam Prasad Kodali, Boggarapu Nageswara Rao

Recent Trends on Furnace Design and Stirrer Blade Geometry Used in Stir Caster: A Focused Review

In the recent few years, aluminum metallic composites (AMCs) have evoked keen interest for several potential applications such as automobiles and aerospace sectors owing to their enhanced strength-to-weight ratio and superior thermal stability. However, the extensive use of such composites is still greatly unrealized due to inferior knowledge of the processing routes and thus needs to be addressed properly. Stir casting route has been recognized as one of the most appropriate production methods for the production of AMCs owing to their easiness, proven process, reduced processing cost, and capability for mass production. In this review article, a critical assessment has been carried out to provide an intensive overview of the furnace design and stirrer blade geometry associated with the synthesis of AMCs through stir casting method. Subsequently, appropriate recommendations and potential research opportunities to encourage upcoming researchers have also been presented that lead this review article toward uniqueness and novelty.

Ashish Kumar Singh, Sanjay Soni, R. S. Rana

Design Consideration for e-Rikshaw with Regeneration Capability

Automobile sector plays a very important role in the vision of eco-friendly environment. Continual reduction of reserve of fossil fuel and increased level of pollution has further forced us to think of an alternative that is an electric vehicle. Mission 2030 for Government of India—“All vehicles will be Electric Vehicle” has given a boost to Electric vehicles as it will lead to generating cumulative savings of 846 million tonnes of CO2 over the total deployed vehicle’s lifetime. Many corporates have already jumped to this sector as it is future of automobile sector. Therefore, a lot of research is going on for effective and efficient implementation of electric vehicles in the transportation sector. In the Indian environment, e-Rikshaw plays a very important role and proper selection of components and a small design improvement can lead to large benefit to society, users and most importantly to mother nature. The design consideration for e-Rikshaw with regenerative capability is rarely considered for research. Therefore, author has made an attempt to cover the design consideration for the selection of components of e-Rikshaw with regenerative capability. With deployment of proposed critical design aspects by author, vehicle efficiency can be improved by 5% and proposed regenerative braking may results around 20% improvement in running per charging of battery. Lower running cost of e-vehicle is one of the most attractive features of modern e-Rikshaw and use of e-Rikshaw in public transport will results in eco-friendly environment in high density cities in India.

Manoj Kumar, Amit Ojha

Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of 2D-MoS2 Nanostructures at Varying Sonication Times and Their Subsequent Analysis

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been a topic of research for decades now, owing to the significant change in their overall properties when brought down to the nanoscale. Among these, 2D-MoS2 has been of special interest and been studied thoroughly over the years. 2D-MoS2 is a direct bandgap semiconductor with tunable properties. However, effectively producing high-quality MoS2 nanomaterials on a large scale remains a challenge. This study employs liquid-phase exfoliation in an attempt to obtain pristine 2D-MoS2 structures efficiently. The nanomaterials were synthesized from their bulk form in a mixture of acetone and isopropanol, which are solvents with high solubility and low boiling points. The prepared mixture of MoS2 and the solvents was then ultrasonicated for different periods of time in a bath sonicator. Further, the samples were subjected to UV irradiation at short wavelength. They were then centrifuged for a specific time interval. Finally, the exfoliated samples were characterized using FE-SEM, XRD, and Raman for further analysis.

Mariam Gada, Mohammad Zaid, Mohd. Mudassir Husain, S. S. Islam

Grid Synchronization Techniques: A Review

Recently, grid synchronization attracts large concern due to the integration of renewable energy sources with the power utility grid. In order to remain interconnected while maintaining grid stability, an appropriate control technique is needed. Various RES are synchronized by monitoring grid voltage, frequency, and phase to ensure proper operation. Over the year, various grid synchronization techniques have been presented to address problems like variation in frequency and unbalanced grid condition. In recent years, grid-tied photovoltaic system has become prominent with its reliability, simplicity, and endurability. This paper includes a review of past studies on grid-connected converter synchronization techniques. The basic structure of the phase-locked loop (PLL) with grid synchronization methods for 1-phase and 3-phase is discussed in brief.

Pragya Gawhade, Amit Ojha

Removing Error and Estimating an Accurate Finite Element Model of Graphite–Epoxy Composite Laminate Structure Using Direct Updating Method

Finite element model updating is a technique to improve the analytical or simulated finite element (FE) model of any structure from its experimental modal test data. The main purpose to apply finite model updating (FEMU) on structures is to remove the uncertainties present in the finite element model. In this paper, finite element model updating method is applied on the composite structure to remove the error present in the finite element models. The main objective of this paper is to accurately estimate the modal analysis characteristics such as the spatial model, modal –model, and the response model of the composite structure laminates. The uncertainties present in the analytical or simulated finite element model of any composite structure may be due to its in-plane elastic properties, fiber orientations, and incorrect dimensions and most probably due to the uncertainty present in the boundary conditions of the structure. In this paper, direct updating method has been used to improve the finite element model of the composite structure laminate. A graphite–epoxy composite material laminate is taken for the validation of direct updating method. It will be observed from the proposed study that direct updating method is fast and easy to implement because it directly updates the simulated finite element model by removing the uncertainties.

Abhishek Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, Ashok Kumar Bagha, Shashi Bahl, Devaki Nandan

Human-Powered Flywheel Motor (HPFM): A Review

Human-powered flywheel motor has been used for various rural-based applications. The existing HPFM has the capacity to develop 8 to 12 HP power. This paper is discussing the varied literature on human-powered flywheel motor system. It also addresses the generation of design data for the human-powered flywheel motor through the development of generalized experimental data-based models. As can be seen in detail in the paper, HPFM is a novel energy source. One should think about developing influence of more than one peddler to elevate energy storage quantum so that higher power process unit can also be energized.

H. K. Baitule, P. B. Maheshwary, J. P. Modak

Finite Element Analysis-Based Geometry Optimization of a Disk Brake

A disk brake is a mechanical component consisting of calipers to squeeze a pair of disk pad. These disk pads apply a pressure on the rotating disk and create friction. This friction generates the heat and slows the rotation of the shaft. Nowadays, disk brake is used in entire automobile vehicle and its performance was influenced by the geometric shape and heat dissipation. The main objective of present study is to optimize the design of disk brake. A CAD model of disk brake was designed in Catia and analyzed by Ansys. The disk was subjected to pressure and rotational velocity to perform the topology optimization under applied boundary condition. The simulation result shows that the mass was reduced to 10.7% and 10.5% for aluminum and carbon–carbon material made disk, respectively, under same loading condition. Furthermore, old and new optimized disk was analyzed for temperature loading. The result concludes that optimized frame can sustain the deformation and stress without failure.

Faraz Ahmad, Vishvajeet, Viveksheel Yadav, Shalini Chauhan

Modeling and Simulation of Electrical Discharge Machining—A Review

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an unconventional machining process which is widely used in machining of complex geometries. There is localized heating and vaporization in the machining zone due to which the workpiece is eroded, and modeling of this erosion process helps in better evaluation of the material removal rate and temperature distribution which are difficult to interpret otherwise. This review paper aims to provide a review of the various EDM models developed considering various important parameters such as percentage of heat distribution, type of dielectric fluid used, thermal conductivity, and other machining parameters. Specific emphasis has been laid on analytical, empirical, and semiempirical models. Further, a brief discussion on the future trends has been done to help improve the models in the future.

Abhishek Verma, Sudhanshu Kumar

Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanomaterials, Synthesized by a Green Technological Approach Using Lemon Juice

Green synthesis of nanomaterials is considered to be the cost-effective and eco-friendly method of synthesis. With the intention to use green synthesis approach, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were successfully prepared using lemon juice and metal nitrates as a precursor material. The synthesized ceramics were structurally characterized by XRD and cubic structure was identified with crystallite size of 41 nm, approximately. SEM was used to see the surface morphology of prepared samples, which revealed agglomerated grain distribution. FTIR spectroscopic analysis confirmed the existence of Fe–O, Co–O, etc. vibration bands. Direct band gap was evaluated using UV–Vis spectroscopy, where it was measured equal to 3.65 eV using Tauq equation A broad and strong emissions between 457 and 493 nm (predominantly blue emission) was observed during photoluminescence studies. The magnetic parameters like coercivity displayed systematic increase with rise in annealing temperature. The saturation magnetisation (Ms) found significant improvement with annealing temperature. The present research study opens a new window that large production of Cobalt ferrite nanomaterial using green approach can be produced for various applications.

Shashank Bhushan Das, Vivek Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Nishant Kumar, Harendra Kumar Satyapal, Atul Jyoti

Automation in Inventory Management in MSME (Micro, Small, Medium Enterprises) Warehouse by Use of Robots

In today’s fast-moving world, inventory is a crucial element of an organization operating on any scale. Therefore, its proper and sophisticated management is vital for the efficiency as well as the profitability of an organization. Companies need to have inventory for various reasons namely seamless manufacturing of products and timely delivery of goods as per the order. Inventory warehouses occupy an enormous space subsequently needing a whole lot of funds. This paper demonstrates the altered racking arrangement, which eliminates the intermediate space required for loading and unloading of the products and instead utilizes an overhead 3-axis robot for its accessing purpose. This ideology helped in not only squeezing the actual space required by 57% as compared to the conventional racking system but also eliminating the human errors and fatigue associated with a manual system. Moreover, this configuration allows achieving 100% accessibility of the bins. In a true sense, the role of inventory management is to have a proper track of data regarding concerned inventory thereby ensuring sufficient quantity every time to fulfill ever-changing client requirements, but at the same time overstocking should also be given the utmost attention and be avoided. This study showcases the utilization of robots to introduce automation in the warehouse, whose job is to control the actions to handle the inventory. They were programmed to introduce concepts like FIFO and KANBAN to maintain optimum inventory levels.

Meet Savla, Amar Pandhare, Shubham Gulunjkar, Pranav Pandit, Prathamesh Dhawale

A Review of the Mechanical Properties and Erosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Nanocomposite Coatings

High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nanocomposite coatings are widely used to increase the erosion resistance of the metal components in various applications. Novel characteristics of nanostructured materials motivate a worldwide interest to synthesize nanocomposite coatings. Nanocomposite coatings have been extensively investigated because of their application in the hydro turbine industry, usually with respect to erosion resistance requirements. This investigation focuses on the erosion behavior of HVOF sprayed nanocomposite coatings. The HVOF sprayed nanocomposite coatings with reinforcement of nano powders such as Al2O3, TiO2, Y2O3, ZrO2, SiO2 and SiC results in high hardness, low porosity, improved surface properties, toughness, and higher value of erosion resistance. The major causes of erosion of the uncoated material like de-bonding, micro-cutting, spalling, micropores, cracks, craters, pullout, etc. can be reduced effectively by using HVOF sprayed nanocomposite coatings. In the present paper, extensive analysis has been done on existing research of nanocomposite coatings deposited by HVOF. The findings of the various researchers revealed that the erosion of conventional coatings can be mitigated successfully by depositing HVOF sprayed nanocomposite coatings.

Rajinder Kumar, Deepak Bhandari, Khushdeep Goyal

Kitchen Waste Utilization Using Biogas Plant—Need of the Hour

Kitchen waste is a preferable source for biogas production at community level owing to its high biodegradability, calorific values and high organic content. Kitchen waste is generated in bulk in community places due to improper waste management. Biogas is one of the sources of renewable and eco-friendly energy which is produced by decomposing organic waste by the anaerobic digestion process. It has high methane content up to (55–60% by volume) so is the most favoured source of bioenergy. In the present paper, the analysis of the biogas plant based on kitchen waste from the restaurants is presented. An analytical calculation of biogas output and the payback period of the biogas plant for a different quantity of the input kitchen waste is revealed. Comparative study between biogas and LPG gas is analysed on the main parameters of calorific value and cost of fuel per kg. After the comparative study, the cost of LPG saved per day is calculated and collated with the installation price of a biogas plant which gives payback period. This paper guides on food waste management and the utilization of renewable energy resources as alternatives to LPG gas.

Bhamre Hrishikesh, Shimpi Abhishek, Gadhe Prakash

Biosensor Based on One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal for Poliovirus Detection

Poliovirus (PV) is a highly contagious disease that can affect the nervous system causing muscle weakness and paralysis. The eradication of virus is very important for public health and economic growth of the country. The frequent testing of water is required to prevent the risk of infection. A biophotonic sensor based on one-dimensional photonic crystal has been proposed for the detection of poliovirus in environmental water. Transfer matrix method is used to investigate the transmission spectra of a multilayered crystal designed as (AB)5/D/(AB)5. AlN is used as higher refractive index material, and air is used as low refractive index medium. Here, defect layer is taken as water sample contaminated with poliovirus. The transmission spectra exhibit resonant peak within the photonic band gap which depends on concentration of virus. The proposed sensor is designed to work at wavelength of 260 nm. The sensor has a sensitivity and quality factor of 110.34 nm/RIU and ~2.4 × 104, respectively. Proposed structure can be useful in early detection of virus in water and to prevent transmission in humans.

Sapna Dinodiya, Anami Bhargava

Assessment of Local River Sand Mould Property at Different Curing Temperatures

The consumption and cost of silica sand increase day to day, due to which the raw material cost of the foundry industry rises. In the present investigation, locally available river sand was used as a primary mould material. Moisture in moulding sand increases the risk of gas defects in casting. Therefore, mould samples were heated at various temperatures for one hour and evaluate mould hardness, compressive, and shear strength. The moulding sand heated above 100 °C has no moisture. The mould property of river bed sand increases on increase in temperature. The maximum mould properties were obtained at 200 °C.

Jatin Sadarang, Ramesh Kumar Nayak, Isham Panigrahi

Microstructure and Interfacial Characterization Near Grain Boundary of Al2O3/SiC Reinforced AA 6061 Semi-solid Squeeze Cast Composite

Aluminium matrix composite was fabricated for dual-mixed slurry for AA 6061 alloy with the reinforcements of Al2O3/SiC with varying percentage volume fractions x%-Al2O3 and y%-SiC (x, y = 2, 3 and 4%) by semi-solid processing with the help of squeeze casting. The first slurry was produced by melting of AA6061 chill bricks, whilst the secondary slurry was produced by intermixing of AA 6061 powder and the two reinforcements in given weight ratio by ball milling. Further thick mixed slurry was prepared by a combined effect of liquid reinforcement addition and liquid–liquid dispersion. Further squeeze casting was done in the semi-solid stage of mixed slurry. The squeeze casting ensures superior characteristics such as refined microstructure as a result of rapid cooling, good bonding between the base alloy and the reinforcement nanoparticles and low porosity. Observations were made for interfacial and intergranular characteristics as well as dispersion and wetting behaviour of reinforcements with the AA6061 matrix. Incorporation of nanoparticles of Al2O3 and SiC into the molten matrix alloy was studied. The microstructural characteristics have been studied by the combination of reinforcements with the matrix as well as individual reinforcement with the matrix have been studied. The tensile behaviour has been analysed with the help of fractography.

Nitin Srivastava, Mohd Anas

Utilization of Stone-dust in Sand Mould Casting Process

Foundry industries use silica sand for metal casting process. Silica sand is used in various industrial applications, due to which the cost of silica sand increases. Therefore, in the present investigation stone dust is used as a sand mold material for the sand casting process. Moisture present in sand mould increases the risk of gas defects. To properly remove moisture/water, stone-dust c mould samples were heated at different temperatures. The effect of heating temperature on stone-dust mould hardness, compressive, and shear strength was evaluated. At 100 ℃, no moisture is present in the stone crush mould. The stone crush mould property at 100 ℃ has 98 mould hardness number, 3.40 kg/cm2 compressive strength, and 0.67 kg/cm2 shear strength.

Jatin Sadarang, Ramesh Kumar Nayak, Isham Panigrahi

Effect of Fe-Cr Mold Temperature on Mold Hardness, Compressive and Shear Strength

In the present investigation, Fe-Cr slag is used as an alternative mould material in place of silica sand. Fe-Cr Slag mould samples were prepared as per American Foundry Society (AFS) slandered. The moisture present in the sand mould may lead to creating gas defects in casting. The samples were heated at different temperatures for one hour to remove water from the mould and evaluated the effect of heating at the different temperatures on mould hardness, compressive and sharing strength. The moisture present in slag mould samples is completely evaporated at 100 ℃. Mould hardness, compressive and shear strength increase on increasing temperature. At temperature 100 ℃, an optimum value of mould hardness, compressive and shear strength is obtained, which is 98, 6.0 kg/cm2 and 0.76 kg/cm2, respectively.

Jatin Sadarang, Ramesh Kumar Nayak, Isham Panigrahi

A Comprehensive Study on Electrical and Electronic Waste Management

Electrical and electronic waste is scrap and generated out of various sources which include data processing equipment, household equipment, and other devices. These wastes of electrical and electronic equipment comprise several precious metals and toxic, heavy metals. In India, we generate over 50 million tons of E-waste each year excluding imports and it is expected that it would double up in the next few years. Over 90% of E-waste is recycled by methods like backyard recycling, open burning, and acid leaching. These primitive, informal methods can cause huge effects on the environment, and human health while the hazardous materials react with the atmosphere or water. Parallelly, in formal recycling, the materials of a different nature are sorted properly and treated with appropriate methods, as it does not affect our surroundings. Hence, this waste can be collected by setting campaigns and practicing extended producer responsibility or other take-back systems for formal recycling. Then, dismantled properly to reuse the precious metal and to cautiously recycle the toxic and radioactive metal with advanced methods like biological leaching, thermal plasma treatment, and converting it to energy. E-waste has a larger influence on the economy of our country, as it is composed of huge metal resources. Urban mining from electronic waste mitigates the need for mining plants to obtain metal ores. This study encompasses the best methods to dispose and recover electronic waste, its pros, and cons, and the impact of the electronic waste on our environment and well-being while disposed it to informal sectors or dumping it in landfills.

V. Iswarya, T. Yuvaraj

Investigating the Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural, Luminescence, and Magnetic Properties of Nickel and Zinc Aluminate

Nanosized metal aluminates’ (ZnAl2O4 and NiAl2O4) powders were synthesized by citrate precursor method and annealing at 650, 750, and 850 °C. The XRD patterns reveal that the formation of single-phase cubic spinal ZnAl2O4 and NiAl2O4 nanoparticles. The crystallite size of the zinc aluminate nanoparticles estimated by using Scherer’s equation was found 18 nm, 28 nm, and 30 nm at 650 °C, 750 °C, and 850 °C, respectively. Similarly, the crystallite size of nickel aluminate nanoparticles was obtained 8 nm, 12 nm, and 14 nm at 650°, 750°, and 850°, respectively. The M-H curves of aluminate nanoparticles reveal that NiAl2O4 is paramagnetic at room temperature and their coercivity and retentivity increase with increasing annealing temperature. ZnAl2O4 diamagnetic in nature and their saturation magnetization increases with increasing annealing temperature. The maximum coercivity was found 909.86 G at 850° for nickel aluminates. The PL spectra reveal that both aluminate nanoparticles annealed at different temperatures are in the visible range. Aluminate nanomaterials are broadly used in water purification, manufacturing in zeolites, petrochemicals industries, photocatalysts etc.

Sampurnanand, Nishant Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Atul Jyoti, Vikash Kumar

Review of Battery Technologies Available for Promoting Electric Mobility in Urban India

Urbanization coupled with rapid economic development especially in booming economies, like India, has resulted in enormous increase in travel demand. Growing income levels have given urban populations access to personalized modes of transport like cars and two-wheelers, which has led to higher levels of congestion and pollution in cities. As per a recent study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) out of the 20 most polluted cities in the world, 14 are from India. Electric vehicles (EVs) can to a great extent are capable of reducing the local pollution concentration, and if the right battery technology is chosen, the transport energy requirements can be carbon neutral. In the same light, this paper reviews various battery technologies available to be harnessed by the transport sector across the world and then studies in detail Indian conditions like the EV sales, scenario, government policies and programs along with technological advancements in order to develop a set of policy and implementation recommendations for the federal and state governments

Rahul Tiwari, Umang Patel, Atmagya Raj

Application of Combined Compromise Solution Method for Material Selection

For a specific application, material selection for the production of a product plays a crucial role in the efficiency of the product. It is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) issue to choose the appropriate content, as the selection depends on different criteria that are usually opposed in nature. This paper aims to address the issue of material selection using a combined compromise solution (CoCoSo). This method combined a compromise decision algorithm with an aggregation strategy to obtain a compromise solution. Two illustrative examples related to material selection, i.e., for a cryogenic storage tank and wagon wall material selection, are considered in this paper, and CoCoSo method is applied to rank the available substitute materials to select the best one.

Farheen Jahan, Manoj Soni, Aasiya Parveen, Mohammad Waseem

Analysis of Performance and Emission Parameters in Direct Injection Diesel Engine by Using Biodiesel Blended with Additives

Diesel engines are used in many sectors like transport vehicles, agricultural purposes, industrial sectors, and for power generation. Due to the redundancy of fossil fuels and the adverse effect of the engine emission to the environment, there are so many research works going on alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the most widely used alternative fuel because of its better engine performances and reduction of exhaust gas emissions as compared with diesel. This present work deals with the engine performances and emission characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection dual fuel diesel engine using Argemone Mexicana biodiesel blended with diesel and di-methyl carbonate (DMC) as an additive. Here, Argemone Mexicana methyl ester (AMME) prepared by transesterification process followed by esterification process was used as a fuel in DI diesel engine. Initially, experiments were conducted by taking biodiesel blended with diesel of B25, B45, B65 and compared the engine performance shown by neat diesel at various engine loads. It was found that the additions of additives in biodiesel blend enhance the engine performances and reduce the exhaust gas emissions. The test fuels B25 + 2.5% DMC, B45 + 5%DMC, and B65 + 7.5%DMC were tested in DI diesel engine for various load condition to evaluate the brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and exhaust gas temperature (EGT). The experiments were also conducted for various load conditions to evaluate CO, HC, and NOx emission by exhaust gas analyzer, and the results were compared between the above-written fuel blends. The investigation shows that there is an improvement in the values of BTE, BSFC, and EGT, and the HC and NOx emissions are also reduced by using DMC in biodiesel blended fuel.

Mamuni Arya, Akshaya Kumar Rout, Samiran Samanta

Femur Bone Implant Plate Design Analysis Under Varying Fracture Conditions

The femur bone is the toughest and longest bone in human body. It is the most proximal bone of human leg that bears the highest percentage of body weight during daily activities. Its fracture disables routine functions and daily activities for human beings. If an implant plate supports femur successfully, it is more than likely to support any other bone fracture that may exhibit itself in different scale forms. Conventionally, bone plates made up of titanium alloy (Ti6A14V), cobalt–chromium (CrCo) alloy and stainless steel alloy have been used extensively in orthopedic applications, and they are found in many different designs for different types of fractures. This work mainly focuses on design and dynamic analysis of three designs of femur bone implant plate using the three mentioned materials and employs finite element method (FEM) for the same. FEM is used for analysis of these designs based on realistic boundary conditions. It is observed that titanium alloy grade-II has the lowest value of equivalent stress, deformation and maximum principal stress, for similar loading conditions taken for all three designs of the implant plate.

Nilesh Tipan, Ajay Pandey, Girish Chandra

Study of Electrical and Mechanical Parameters of Electromagnetic Railgun

In defence applications, instead of using of conventional weapons (missiles) the use of electromagnetic railguns reduces the overall cost warfare by reducing or eliminating the need for highly expensive conventional chemical propellants and warheads. This paper presents a brief overview of the study of the electrical and mechanical parameters of an electromagnetic railgun, along with a mathematical derivation of force, acceleration, speed of the projectile shot from the railgun and the electrical and mechanical losses involved in an electromagnetic railgun.

Shreyas Maitreya, Ritwik Mishra, Ayush Vatsa, Amit Ojha

Performance Analysis of Optimal Designed Photovoltaic/Diesel Generator-Based Hybrid Energy System Coupled to Utility Grid

Concerns of global warming, fast depletion of fossil fuels and rapidly increasing energy demand motivates the world towards sustainable power generation. In the present paper, a performance analysis of optimum configuration of solar photovoltaic/diesel generator-based system coupled to utility grid has been investigated. Cost of energy generation is recognized as the key factor for the techno-economic feasibility of the hybrid system. Cost of energy of the considered system has been modelled in the paper, and further, it is optimized with the HOMER. Optimum configuration of the system has been obtained which meets the demand of the area with zero unmet load at user end. Finally, performance indicators of diesel generator, PV array and utility grid have also been analysed in the paper.

Anurag Chauhan, Ashish Srivastava, Mohd Tauseef Khan, Altaf Alam, Subho Upadhyay

Effective Control of Response of a Reinforced Concrete Building Under Seismic Loads Using Tuned Liquid Damper

Earthquake forces are arbitrary in nature and flighty, incite vibrations in structures, which upsets the structure by expanding the energy inside the structure framework. This energy can be dispersed by the vibration control framework. With the progress in the discipline of structural engineering in the construction sector, there is a need for a skyscraper and lightweight system to reduce increasing room problems in metropolitan areas. These systems are versatile and have low damping values. Dampers of these days are pursued for vibration regulation of structures due to their protected, efficacious, and prudent design. This work is based on analytical analysis on ETABS to evaluate the optimal TLD depth ratio for an existing structure. The structure is G + 15 reinforced concrete construction with 1 basement and a TLD placed on the terrace. The TLD is used as a passive damper to reduce a structure's seismic activity when it is subjected to horizontal sinusoidal excitation. In this paper, a distinction is made using ESA and THA approach on the structure without TLD (the normal structure) and with TLD. In this work, four depth ratios 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, respectively, are used for estimating base shear, maximum storey displacement, storey drift, spectral displacement, and spectral acceleration have been compared. The results of this work reveals that the usage of TLD with optimum depth ratio narrow downs, the key parameters such as base shear, storey displacement, storey drift, spectral displacement, and spectral acceleration in a significant amount.

Mukul Srivastava, Shailja Bawa, Ujjwal Sharma

A Review on Tribo-Mechanical Behaviour and Corrosion Performance of AA8000 Based Composites

Aluminium matrix composites are low density, highly resistive to corrosion, high strength-to-weight ratio, good tribological behaviour with low friction coefficient, etc. Aluminium metal matrix composites contribute to various applications in the aeronautical, automotive and marine industries due to these characteristics. Different experimental investigations was carried on AA8000 fabricated by using the stir casting method, powder metallurgy and advanced processing techniques. Researchers have been observed that the addition of reinforcements considered are synthetic ceramic materials and industrial waste, etc., to significantly improve the mechanical strength at elevated temperature. This paper attempts to review the work done by various investigators in the field of tribo-mechanical and corrosion response in different environment of AA8000 based composites.

Rajesh Sharma, Mohan K. Pradhan, Pankaj Jain

Plasma Processing of Carbon Dioxide

The world is facing huge environmental problems due to the increasing emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industries and various resources. Therefore, immediate attention is required for the utilization of CO2. Fortunately, CO2 can be converted to value-added products and fuels by various processes. Out of these processes, plasma has the highest potential, ascribed to the high bond stability of CO2. Out of the existing plasmas, non-thermal plasma is a promising area to convert CO2 to various chemical products and fuels, at temperatures as low as room temperature and pressures around/lower than atmospheric pressure. Therefore, there is an immediate need to pay attention to the recent progress of various non-thermal plasmas. The review brings both researchers’ and industries’ attention to the critical non-thermal plasmas like microwave, dielectric barrier discharge, and gliding arc discharge, with particular attention to microwave plasma. These plasmas have a high potential for producing value-added products having high market values. There is an immediate need from researchers and industries to carry out further studies in this emerging area for sustainable development with due attention to the environment.

Kali Charan Sabat, Archana Singh, Satyabrata Das

Metal-Inorganic Nickel Complexes-Derived Nanostructured Nickel Oxide as an Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst

Hydrogen production by electrolysis of water is a potential method for generating hydrogen as a future fuel. In electrolysis reaction, the water oxidation reaction is an energetically demanding reaction and often needs a catalyst to accomplish this reaction at lower overpotentials. The present work demonstrates nickel inorganic complex [Ni(NH3)6]2+ as an efficient precursor for the nickel hydroxide synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. Nickel hydroxide synthesized using metal salt [Ni(NO3)2] and ligand (-ammonia; NH3 in separate experiments) under similar experimental conditions results in metal hydroxide with different morphology and surface area. The obtained nickel hydroxide was characterized using X-ray diffractogram, scanning electron microscope, BET, and electrochemical methods. Nanostructured nickel hydroxide obtained from the different metal precursors showed electrocatalytic performance following trend [Ni(NH3)6]2+ > [Ni (NO3)2].

Kamlesh, Deepika Tawar, Kali Charan Sabat, Archana Singh

Synthesis and Morphological Study of Ethylene Diamine-Based Nickel Oxide Flower-Like Nanostructure

Metal coordination complex has been used to synthesize nanostructures with defined morphologies. Nickel hydroxide complex is a coordination complex crystalline material whose structure depends on the adopted method of preparation. The previous investigations have confirmed different structures of Ni(OH)2. In the current study, we demonstrate a synthesis process for the development of β-Ni(OH)2 flower-like nanostructure using Ni(II) metal inorganic complexes by one-pot hydrothermal method. Using a mixture of –en (ethylene diamine) ligand and metal salt as a precursor to synthesize nickel hydroxide, many agglomerated structures were obtained. Using predefined [Ni(en)3]2+ complex, a very well-defined flower-like structure with no agglomeration was found. The prepared samples were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering techniques. It was found that the use of pre-synthesized metal inorganic complexes and the reaction temperature are the influencing factor for the development of the flowers.

Deepika Tawar, Kamlesh Goyre, Diksha Choudhary, Kali Charan Sabat, Archana Singh

Automated Real-Time Transformer Health Monitoring System Using the Internet of Things (IoT)

The transformer is one of the most essential components in a power system, and its failure may result in significant interruptions in the power transmission system. Thus, it is necessary to continuously monitor the transformer’s health to prevent possible damage due to sudden voltage sags, swells, or overloading, causing heating of the windings and insulations. The transformer health is monitored primarily by tracking the voltage, current and temperature of the windings. However, in the existing model, an engineer must be on-site to examine the values of the parameters and act on the same. This is not feasible as there is enormous scope for human errors if the engineer is absent on-site. To overcome the flaws mentioned above, a system uses the Internet of things (IoT) to send real-time data from the transformer to a data center, where the engineer can track the performance and health of the transformer. The engineer is required on-site only in case of emergencies; however, the system alerts the engineer using a GSM module via SMS on any violation of limits. Further, automation is introduced to the transformer cooling mechanism, where the working capacity of the cooler is controlled by a feedback system supported by a microcontroller, hence reducing human dependence by a large margin. Results from experiments and simulations performed are analyzed to predict the performance of the automated IoT-based transformers and compared with the existing model, and the practical hurdles in implementing the same are discussed.

P. Venkat Subramanian, Venkatesh Boddapati, S. Arul Daniel

A Comprehensive Study on Adaptive MPPT Control Techniques for Efficient Power Generation

The variable conditions like partial shading, changing irradiance, irregular load lead to reduction of efficiency of solar PV systems and because of this lower proficiency to convert and expensiveness of solar photovoltaic, it is requisite to extract the power at maximum power point, and hence, this paper presents a study on various adaptive control techniques used for impedance matching and tracking of power generation from solar PV so to reach and hold at maximum power point, minimize the effects of nonlinearities and performance improvement. The aim of the study is to address the advances made in this field for the future research purposes.

Pushpendra Dangi, Amit Ojha, Shiv Pratap Singh, Suresh Kr. Gawre, Sangharsh Meshram, Arvind Mittal

Preliminary Design and Flow Analysis of Domestic Chimney for Water Boiling Using Finite Volume Analysis

A domestic chimney is used to provide the exit to the hot exhaust gases. Large amount of heat generated from domestic chimney is lost as waste heat to the surrounding. Efforts have been made to recover this heat and use it for useful purposes like for water boiling. The current study deals with the recovery of this waste heat from the chimney by making it as double pipe heat exchanger. The CAD model of the double pipe heat exchanger-type chimney was designed in “CATIA”, and CFD analysis of that water flow was simulated using “ANSYS”. Circular fins were provided on both cylinders so that maximum heat lost from chimney can be recovered, and the fins were arranged in such a manner that it increases the heat transfer area and also creates water turbulence. The simulation result helps the researchers in calculating the outlet temperature of the water in domestic chimney as well as in double pipe heat exchanger.

Faraz Ahmad, Shubham Pal, Viveksheel Yadav, Vimlesh Bijalwan

Revivification of Spent Lubricating Oil by Ecofriendly Extraction Flocculation Method

The present study focuses on the regeneration of spent engine oil using the cheapest and most effective solvent extraction flocculation processes. Re-refining of waste lubricating oil was thoroughly examined utilizing recoverable solvents, including different classes of solvents like 2-propanol (alcohol) and ketone like methyl ethyl ketone. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the various effects of numerous variables, including refining time, refining temperature, solvent-to-waste oil ratio on percentage yield of recovered lube oil. The percentage yield was studied at a varying solvent-to-waste oil ratio. The present investigation shows that extraction with methyl ethyl ketone gave the highest yield of 97% of recovered oil, followed by 2-propanol (94%) as an extraction solvent. It was also showed that optimum parameters for revivification were (i) refining time 60 min, (ii) refining temperature—48℃, (iii) solvent-to-waste oil ratio—3:1. Physicochemical properties of recovered oil have been estimated out, and results show that, with methyl ethyl ketone, there is close proximity of result with fresh lubricating oil.

Sayantan Sarkar, Deepshikha Datta, K. S. Deepak, Bimal Das

Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Properties of the Copper Synthesized by Powder Metallurgy Route

Present work is a focus to get the optimum value of the sintering temperature of the Cu by conducting a comparative study of the microstructure and properties. The specimens of the Cu were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy route for different sintering temperatures. Surface morphology and phase formation were characterized by FESEM and XRD techniques. The micrograph of the Cu surface at a low sintering temperature of 700 °C depicts the poor surface integrity and presence of pores. It may refer to the improper diffusion of the Cu atom. The viscous and plastic flow is dominating diffusion mechanisms at low sintering temperatures. Whereas, the sintered Cu depicts the superior interface adhesion and surface integrity for 1000 °C sintering temperature. It may refer to the proper diffusion of the Cu atom. The volume and surface diffusion are the dominating sintering mechanism of the Cu at elevated temperature. It significantly improves the interface adhesion and densification. Results highlight the high value of density (8.73 g/cm3) and micro-hardness (73.50 HV) at a high sintering temperature of 1000 °C which attribute to the proper diffusion of the Cu atoms at 1000 °C.

Manish Dixit, Rajeev Srivastava

Assessment of the Chambal River Quality at Kota Metropolis Through the Drinking Water Quality Index and Irrigation Water Quality Index

With a population greater than 2 million, Kota metropolis primarily depends on the Chambal River for its regular water demand for drinking, irrigation, commercial, and industrial requirements. The assessment of water quality has been performed at Kota metropolis on the Chambal River for drinking and irrigation purposes seasonally and annually. Twenty-three parameters namely, Ammonia, BOD, COD, Boron, Calcium, Chloride, Electrical Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Fecal Coliform, Fluoride, Magnesium, Nitrate, pH, Phosphate, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfate, Temperature, Total Alkalinity, Total Coliform, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness, and Turbidity were analyzed regularly during the study period at two sampling locations namely, Akelgarh (Upstream) and Rangpur (Downstream). Water quality index (WQI) is estimated to access water quality status for drinking purpose, while Sodium Absorption Ratio, Soluble Sodium Percentage, Kelly Ratio, Sodium Percentage, Magnesium Hazard, and Permeability Index is calculated to determine the irrigation water quality index (IWQI). The safe limits of monitored parameters were given in Indian standards of potable water “IS 10500:2012.” All the monitored parameters were within safe limits during the study period, making water quality suitable for drinking and irrigation at both sampling locations. The estimated WQI and IWQI provide the best rating tool for the quality of water. Various aspects of river water quality may be accessible with these estimated indices providing ultimate decision-making tools to stakeholders to implement the best management programs of the Chambal River’s water.

Kuldeep, Sohil Sisodiya, Anil K. Mathur

Virtual Plan of the Domestic Enlistment Warming Framework to Reproduce Electromagnetic Boundaries

A 5 A (rms), 28 kHz domestic induction heating system was developed for the analysis of the distribution of the heat in the work piece. Finite element analysis of the IH system was carried out efficiently by EM simulation software for evaluating the magnetic parameters of the system which are key factors for temperature distribution. Ferromagnetic materials with various thicknesses are taken for study and performance of 1.5 mm thickness work piece suited for domestic heating application.

V. Geetha, M. Pushpavalli, P. Abirami, P. Sivagami, R. Harikrishnan

Assessment of Urban Air Quality for Jodhpur City by the Air Quality Index (AQI) and Exceedance Factor (EF)

Reduction in air quality in urban areas is a concern due to increased emissions from vehicles, and commercial and industrial activities. The high concentration of air pollutants can cause various adverse health effects. This study aims to characterize urban air pollution levels by measuring NO2, SO2, and PM10 in Jodhpur city, the Sun City of Rajasthan (India). Air quality index (AQI) and exceedance factors are also calculated to determine the current air quality status and relate possible health impacts associated with air pollutants’ existing levels. Raw data is collected̄ from 10 air quality monitoring stations situated in the critical city’s areas, namely DIC Office, Housing Board, Kudi Woman Police Station, Maha Mandir, RIICO Office Basni Industrial Area, Sangariya Police Sub-station, Shastri Nagar Police Station, Sojati Gate, Soorsagar Police Station, and Collectorate Office for the study period from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019. Seasonal and annual variations in the levels of concentration of the three criteria pollutants have been studied along with AQI. The annual average concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) were 6.76 and 24.82 μg/m3, respectively. The concentration of NO2 and SO2 was well under the NAAQS prescribed limits defined by India’s CPCB. PM10 was revealed as the primary pollutant with an annual average concentration of 219.67 μg/m3. The concentration of PM10 was violating the NAAQS in all seasons, making it responsible for the bad air quality of the Jodhpur city during the observation period. The monthly and seasonal data analysis indicates significant variations in the concentration level of all selected parameters for the study. The computed AQI reveals a gradually increasing trend with a range of 71.00–430.0, signifying the prevalence of moderate to heavy pollution levels. Comparing the exceedance factors (EFs) divulges that suspended and respirable particulate matters are the most significant polluting agents, causing maximum deterioration in the ambient air quality. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that significant air pollution in Jodhpur city was due to particulate matters.

Kuldeep, Sohil Sisodiya, Anil K. Mathur, Puneet Verma
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