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About this book

This edited volume comprises select chapters on advanced technologies for 3D printing and additive manufacturing and how these technologies have changed the face of direct, digital technologies for rapid production of models, prototypes and patterns. Because of its wide applications, 3D printing and additive manufacturing technology has become a powerful new industrial revolution in the field of manufacturing. The evolution of 3D printing and additive manufacturing technologies has changed design, engineering and manufacturing processes across industries such as consumer products, aerospace, medical devices and automotives. The objective of this book is to help designers, R&D personnel, and practicing engineers understand the state-of-the-art developments in the field of 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Influence of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Additive Manufactured Polymer Parts Using Taguchi Method

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a powder-based additive manufacturing technology in which powder particles fuse using CO2 laser. In this work, the influence of various parameters at various levels is studied experimentally. In this work, the components were designed and fabricated as per ASTM standards. Experiments were designed based on Taguchi’s design of experiment. An L27 Orthogonal array of Taguchi design was used. In order to determine the significance and contribution of each factor on the tensile strength, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The results determine that layer thickness and fill scan spacing are significant parameters that cause appreciable improvement in tensile strength.
K. Swarna Lakshmi, G. Arumaikkannu

Determination and Comparison of the Anisotropic Strengths of Fused Deposition Modeling P400 ABS

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive layered manufacturing technique used to build prototypes and functional products out of thermoplastic materials. The properties of the FDM parts are affected by many factors like geometry of the material bead, process conditions, and orientation of the part and layers etc. The present study focuses on the effect of build direction on the mechanical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) P400 part specimens. Tensile, compressive, Izod impact, and hardness tests were performed on specimens built in the horizontal and vertical orientations with an intention to find the build direction that gives maximum strength in a particular working condition. Fractured specimens were then analyzed under the Jeol JSM 5600 Scanning Electron Microscope to study the impact failure pattern . The findings of this research can further be used to formulate product design rules for optimizing mechanical strength in layered manufacturing.
Kshitiz Upadhyay, Ravi Dwivedi, Ankur Kumar Singh

Estimation of the Effect of Process Parameters on Build Time and Model Material Volume for FDM Process Optimization by Response Surface Methodology and Grey Relational Analysis

In this study, a hybrid optimization approach is proposed for build time and model material volume in Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process on a FDM Maxum Modeler. A combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and grey relational analysis (GRA) is proposed and applied to optimize process parameters of FDM process. The significant input parameters such as contour width, air gap, raster angle, and spatial orientation are considered, and build time and model material have been taken as responses for this study. Thirty experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) P400 for conical primitives using full factorial central composite design. The optimum process parameter conditions were obtained from grey relational grade. The results obtained provide useful information of the method to control responses and ensure minimal build time and model material volume for prototyping requirements. The assessment outcome provided a scientific reference to obtain minimal values of build time and model material volume utilized, and it was found out that these correspond to a contour width of 0.654 mm, air gap of 0.0254 mm, raster angle of 0°, and orientation of 0°.
Manu Srivastava, Sachin Maheshwari, T. K. Kundra, Sandeep Rathee

Current Trends of Additive Manufacturing in the Aerospace Industry

Additive Manufacturing offers unmatched flexibility in terms of part geometry, material composition and lead-time. It is moving towards revolutionizing the aerospace manufacturing sector through production of highly complex, lightweight parts with reduced material waste. It can also be employed for repair of complex components such as engine blades/vanes, combustion chamber, etc. Complex geometry thin walled aircraft engine components and structures, difficulty in machining of materials are other main factors forcing aerospace sector to adopt the use of additive manufacturing technology. In this paper an attempt has been made to explore the additive manufacturing research and development activities in aerospace industry.
L. Jyothish Kumar, C. G. Krishnadas Nair

Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on Hydroxyapatite Coating of Additive Manufactured Component by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Additive manufactured polyamide substrate has a wide range of application in the medical field due to its good mechanical property and biological behaviour. The biocompatibility of this polyamide is further enhanced by coating Hydroxyapatite (HA) over the surface, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has become widely used technique to deposit HA, because the film obtained by this method will have better crystalline and required surface roughness which facilitates a better osseointegration. This work aims to deposit HA over polyamide substrate using PLD with different oxygen partial pressures of 2 × 10−4, 2 × 10−3 and 2 × 10−2 Torr. The characterization of coating was performed by Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). These results suggest that the surface microstructure, crystallinity and surface roughness has significant changes when the oxygen pressure was varied. Therefore, the oxygen pressure plays a key role in the quality HA layer developed using Pulsed Laser Disposition.
K. Hariharan, G. Arumaikkannu

Electro Discharge Machining of Ti-Alloy (Ti6Al4V) and 316L Stainless Steel and Optimization of Process Parameters by Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) Method

Increasing demand on micro-product leads to the development of innovative manufacturing process in nonconventional machining process to these micro-scale applications. In the medical field a huge variety of products can be found in prosthesis, surgery devices and tissue engineering, which required the application of the EDM process to manufacture micro cavities. Now-a-days the materials like Ti-alloy (Ti6Al4V) and 316L Stainless Steel are widely used in biomedical fields, which are very difficult to machine. These materials are also used in additive manufacturing process. Here it presents an experimental study of electro-discharge machining (EDM) of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and 316L Stainless Steel. The objective of this work is to study the effect and optimization of machining process parameters like pulse-on-time, discharge current and duty cycle on process performance parameters such as material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR) and Radial over cut (ROC). A Taguchi L9 design of experiment (DOE) has been applied and three levels of process parameters have been taken. The optimization method Grey relational analysis (GRA) method was used to optimize the parameters. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) also indicated the percentage contribution of machining parameters that influence response performance parameters. By the GRA method it was found that for Ti-alloy the machining parameter duty cycle (DC) has maximum percentage contribution on the output responses followed by discharge current (I p) and pulse on time (T ON). Similarly for 316L Stainless Steel the machining parameter discharge current (I p) has maximum percentage contribution on the output responses followed by pulse-on-time (T ON) and duty cycle (DC).
Anshuman Kumar Sahu, Pragyan Paramita Mohanty, Sarat Kumar Sahoo

Multi-objective Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium 7075-Based Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Using Genetic Algorithm

The present paper involves experimental study and multi-objective optimization of mechanical properties of Aluminium 7075-based hybrid metal matrix composite fabricated by stir-casting process. The composite is reinforced with Silicon carbide (SiC) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particulates. The mechanical properties that were considered in this work are impact strength, hardness and tensile strength. These properties of 7075 Al hybrid metal matrix composite are studied by performing Charpy impact test, Rockwell hardness test and tensile test, respectively. The experiments are conducted on specimens prepared by mixing the particulates in different percentage combinations such as (0, 10), (2.5, 7.5), (5, 5), (7.5, 2.5) and (10, 0) of SiC and TiO2, respectively by maintaining the percentage of 7075 Al constant at 90 %. Based on the experimental values, second-order regression equations are fitted between each of the response parameters and the casting parameters (fraction of SiC and fraction of TiO2) using Minitab 17 software. The equations are then optimized by defining them as the objectives of a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP). A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the MOOP . A single best compromise solution is also found from the Pareto optimal solutions obtained by NSGA II.
V. Durga Prasada Rao, V. Navya Geethika, P. S. Krishnaveni

A Review on Status of Research in Metal Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing is the essential technology in present near net shape manufacturing scenario in the field of aerospace, automobiles, electronics, medical implants, robotics, biomedical, etc., where near net shape manufacturing plays a prominent role in dimensional accuracy. Additive manufacturing has undergone drastic changes from plastics, polymers to metals. Additive manufacturing plays a key role in manufacturing of required components in short span of time without any defect. In this paper, the different research aspects of additive manufacturing are discussed on basis of two broad areas like design for manufacturing and process parameter control. The field of additive manufacturing has brought the manufacturing to next level were it made production and product development easier. An analysis is made on the published research articles and the research gaps were found and finally the future scope in the field of metal additive manufacturing is provided.
Ganesa Balamurugan Kannan, Dinesh Kumar Rajendran

Multi-response Optimization of Nd:YAG Laser for Micro-drilling of 304 Stainless Steel Using Grey Relational Analysis

The paper addressed an effective approach for the manufacturing of a product using multi-response optimization technique of Nd:YAG laser drilling process parameter of 304 stainless steel. Micro-drilling (diameter less than 1 mm) is a challenging task. Based on orthogonal technique the experiment carried out and grey relational analysis used to optimize the process parameter. The response characteristics, i.e. taper angle, spatter diameter and recast layer is significantly influenced by power, nozzle standoff and assisted gas pressure. The response table and response graph for each level of machining parameter were obtained from grey relational grade. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to percentage of contribution and significant process parameter during the micro-drilling process. The confirmation experiment has been performed on suggested optimal level of control factor to verify the result. To know the exact combination of Nd:YAG laser parameter, the multi-response technique of is very useful in additive manufacturing.
Alok Bara, Sarat Kumar Sahoo, Sunita Singh Naik

Additive Manufacturing at French Space Agency with Industry Partnership

As an introduction, the role of CNES (Centre National d’Études Spatiales, the French Space Agency) in France is defined as well as its involvement in the European context. The first part details the organization of research and technology activities dedicated to additive manufacturing (AM) for liquid-propellant rocket engines and its associated objectives, which are conducted together with SNECMA of SAFRAN group. This work is orchestrated around two axes, one dealing with design aspects, realization, justifications which are as much as possible transverse to the second one, which covers the applications of this technology. Our strategy aims at developing additive manufacturing mainly to reduce costs and manufacturing cycles. It results in some actions that will be developed in a second part. Among them, we find the characterization of materials, the related processes to improve surface finishing and to address issues related of anisotropy and porosity. Controllability aspects, deformation (by simulation), design rules (taking account residual stresses) are also presented. Next, examples of parts made by additive manufacturing for launchers are presented. To ensure these innovative technologies lead to significant benefits (both from cost and mass savings point of view, and from manufacturing flexibility and production cycle), key challenges must be overcome. These are presented in a dedicated part. Such challenges are related mainly to the design (design rules and tools), manufacturing (size machine, standardization of powders, new materials, simulation tools) and qualification (qualification methods, process optimization, range acceptable defects, surface treatment and normative framework).
Sébastien Begoc, Sandrine Palerm, Raphaël Salapete, Marie Theron, Jérôme Dehouve

Wear Characterization of Direct Steel–H20 Specimens Produced by Additive Manufacturing Techniques

Quality assurance and health monitoring of rotating and sliding components are very significant in order to prevent the catastrophic failures. One of the inputs for this process is wear rate of the materials at different working conditions. An attempt has been made to use additive manufacturing technology for aerospace components since this process is bring down manufacturing time, cost effective and flexible for intricate shapes and contours. Before the actual manufacturing of the components, test specimens were manufactured using additive manufacturing route (Rapid prototype technique-RP) for wear characterizations study. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was used for wear test study to find out the parametric effects with less number of experiments. The loads, speeds and track diameters were varied for wear test study in RP produced test specimens. The most dominant parameter contributing to wear was found to be load and less significant was speed. The load under the combination of 15 N-200 rpm-35 mm track diameter gave volume loss of 0.3262 mm3 and speed gave volume loss of 0.05978 mm3 with the combination of 10 N-200 rpm-30 mm track diameter. The track diameter (which affects the sliding distance) has negligible effect on the wear, this may be because after a certain point the surfaces become smooth and also the wear particles from the pin deposit on the disc, and hence, the roughness is reduced and causes negligible wear further on. The load was very dominant because it increases contact area of surfaces and very high stresses at peaks and valleys of the surface finish are resulted in higher order of wear rates.
Usaid Mohammed Baig, A. R. Anwar Khan, D. Ramesh Rajakumar

Rapid Manufacturing of Customized Surgical Cutting Guide for the Accurate Resection of Malignant Tumour in the Mandible

A case report of malignant tumour in mandible is discussed in this paper. The innovative rapid prototyping (RP) assisted customized surgical cutting guide (CSCG) has developed for the accurate resection of the malignant tumour in the mandible. Computer tomography (CT) scan data in DICOM format is utilized for the development of CSCG. Mimics 14.11 used for image processing to develop diseased model. 3Matics 6.0 software is used for the virtual surgical planning (VSP) and computer-aided design (CAD) of customized implant and CSCG. Finally, CSCG developed by using fused deposition modelling (FDM) , a technique of rapid prototyping (RP) in ABS material. The testing of the RP assisted CSCG was performed by mutually fixing it on the patient’s diseased model developed by the same RP. This paper describes the novel methodology for the development of the RP assisted CSCG and its application to accurately resect the malignant tumour in the mandible. This approach shows good results in designing and manufacturing of the CSCG. Using advanced tools like VSP, CAD and RP, manufacturing of CSCG for the accurate resection of tumour and placement of customized implant may possible easily in actual surgery.
Sandeep W. Dahake, Abhaykumar M. Kuthe, Mahesh B. Mawale, Ashutosh D. Bagde

Implant Analysis on the Lumbar-Sacrum Vertebrae Using Finite Element Method

Disc degeneration is a common phenomena occurring due to ageing and is observed as changes occurring in the anatomical and physiological functioning of the disc. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) occurs when the inner core leaks out through the outer portion of the disc which places pressure on nearby nerves or the spinal cord. Intervertebral discs deteriorate and grow thinner as age progresses, which cause lower back pain. In many cases this is treated with medication and in severe cases surgery is preferred. In surgical procedures, for the fusion of bone in degenerated regions, pedicle screw implant has gained more importance. But in post-operative condition, loosening of screw occurs in the lower lumbar spine L5-S1 region. This is due to the high stress developing on the screws post surgery. The objective of this work is to compare the stress developed in the normal and abnormal subjects for various loads using finite element analysis. The data was acquired from two subjects (Normal −1, aged 43 and the other abnormal −1 diagnosed with DDD aged 61). A 3D model was generated from CT images by identifying the regions of interest. In addition to it volume and surface rendering techniques were employed in obtaining a 3D model. Intervertebral disc for L5-S1region was generated and pedicle screw implant was designed. The screw along with the vertebrae was subjected to stress analysis using Finite element method . Analysis was carried out for various loads applied on the L5-S1 region. It was observed that the stress values varied from 1.979e+02 to 1.371e+04 without screws and from 5.831e+04 to 6.936e+05 with the screws for normal subject. For the abnormal subject, it has been observed that the stress values varied from 1.337e+02 to 6.269e+03 for mild degeneration and from 1.029e+02 to 5.051e+03 for severe degeneration without the screws. Further, it has been noted that the stress values varied from 1.792e+04 to 2.130e+05 for mild degeneration and from 5.831e+04 to 6.936e+05 for severe degeneration with the implant placed. This study proves to be clinically highly relevant in addressing post-surgery issues due to placement of implants and in analysing the subjective appropriateness of the implant being used.
A. Kavitha, G. Sudhir, T. S. Ranjani., V. Sarah Rajitha Thilagam, S. Vinutha

An Automated Acupressure Glove for Stress and Pain Relief Using 3D Printing

Acupressure  is the non-invasive form of acupuncture; a complementary and alternative medicine based on the concept of life energy which flows through “meridians” in the body and uses point pressure to stimulate acupoints instead of needles. Though acupressure is not a mainstream approach in medical treatment, its efficiency on providing effective relief from stress and strain has held its evidence for ages. There are a range of acupressure devices available, all with the fundamental design of having spiked surfaces; mostly rollers, rods or balls. Time required in achieving relief and manual mode of operation is hindering their popularity. Also as pressure needs to be applied for considerable time, stretching application of pressure by spiked roller/rod/ball causes discomfort and pain, thereby making individual reduce the periodicity of application of pressure leading to less effective relief. Hence the idea of developing an automated acupressure glove was conceptualised so as to develop a simple biomedical device that provides utmost relief from stress and pain with least effort by the user. This new design consists of a dual layered glove and a programmed electronic module. This smart bio medical wearable   device provides auto-stimulation of acupressure points on the hands-palm and fingers using pressure build up in the potential chamber developed in between the two layers of the glove. The inner layer is made from a combination of liquid resin material and generated using rapid prototyping based on PolyJet technology. The outer layer is an air proof material and creates a potential chamber for pressure build up in between as both the layers are attached along its margins. The concept design being very simple and smart can be used by anyone and anywhere as it does not require supervision of a medical professional. Following ergonomics at every level of design, the acupressure glove is a revolutionary yet simple biomedical device that is developed from a combination of 3D modelling, rapid prototyping and microcontroller programming.
Anjali P. Rajan, A. V. Mulay, B. B. Ahuja

Development and Optimization of Dental Crown Using Rapid Prototyping Integrated with CAD

Conventionally dental crown manufacturing was done by investment casting. This work presents the Rapid Prototyping as a best tool for dental prosthesis and crown manufacturing. It also represents the static structural analysis of dental crown with FEM software, ANSYS 14.5. Crown Models are constructed with dental wings client software and mimics . FEM compatible models were constructed using Remeshing and Volume meshing tool of 3-matic software. Masticatory force 350 N was applied downward perpendicular to surface of molar crown with boundary conditions. Five materials such as Ti-6Al-4V, Stainless steel, Cobalt-Chromium, Zirconia and Titanium are selected for analysis. Zirconia and Cobalt-Chromium are found to be the best materials amongst the five. ANSYS results show that the optimum crown thickness ranges from 1.75 to 2.25 mm. Directional deformation is very less for the crown model developed with dental wings. Tooth preparation is the main parameter which affects the strength of crown 3D printing is the most promising tool for Dental Prosthesis manufacturing. It can be manufactured with selective laser sintering, ink-jet printing. This model is manufactured with Desktop CNC milling in Cobalt-Chromium metal.
P. J. Kale, R. M. Metkar, S. D. Hiwase

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