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About this book

This book contains selected papers from the International Conference on Progress in Automotive Technologies (ICPAT) 2019. The contents focus on several aspects of the automobile industry from design to manufacture, and the challenges involved therein. The book covers latest research trends in the automotive domain including topics such as aerodynamic design, vehicle sensors and electronics, engine combustion modeling, noise and vibration in vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, automotive tribology, and battery and fuel cell technologies. The book highlights the use of emerging technologies to tackle the growing environmental challenges. This book will be of interest to students, researchers as well as professionals working in automotive engineering and allied fields.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

CFD Analysis of Automotive Radiators

Abstract
This paper of ours deals with the automotive radiators. We have shown a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling simulation of mass flow rate of air passing through an automotive radiator. Modelling has been done in Solidworks and exported to ANSYS for CFD analysis. In our paper, the main implication that we have drawn is that the heat which is been transferred by a radiator is a function of the airflow at different air velocity. We undertook this experiment on a single radiator of constant geometry on the basis of some parameters like the material of the radiator and the vehicle’s speed. The thermal analysis is done for different velocities of air mixture passing through different tube materials such as aluminium and stainless steel. The numerical results were compared and results obtained served as a good database for the future investigations.
Swapnil Kumar, K. Sai Kiran, Thundil Karuppa Raj Rajagopal

Ejector-Mechanical Compression Hybrid Air-Conditioning System for Automotives: System Configuration and Analysis

Abstract
Air conditioning systems are essential for modern automotives. It is reported that the power drawn for functioning the air conditioning system affects the energy performance of the vehicle significantly. Vapour compression refrigeration systems are widely used for conditioning the vehicle in warm and humid climatic conditions. They draw the power from vehicle engine to run the compressor. This compressor power consumption can be reduced by making use of a hybrid mechanical compression refrigeration system which utilizes freely available waste heat in the vehicle to share a part of compression power. Ejector mechanical compression hybrid refrigeration systems are suitable for this application because of its compact size and simple operation. A hybrid ejector-mechanical hybrid airconditioning system is configured for a passenger vehicle. The thermodynamic analysis of the same is done to arrive at its coefficient of performance.
M. Anoop Kumar

Investigation of the Combined Effect of Perforated Tube, Baffles, and Porous Material on Acoustic Attenuation Performance

Abstract
In this work, muffler with perforated baffles and pipes has been studied for noise attenuation characteristics. Transmission loss parameter is used to quantify the acoustic performance in the muffler. The purpose of our study is to find the optimum arrangement for getting the best optimized effects for absorptive material on porosity of baffle plates and length of perforation in the pipes. The computational acoustic simulation tool COMSOL Multiphysics is used for modeling transmission and predicting acoustics absorption behavior through the porous pipe of the muffler. In the present study, two different configurations have been analyzed. Out of these, one configuration is structurally different in respect of the effect of porosity of the perforated pipes at inlet and outlet on the TL performance. Effect of porosity of the perforated pipe with absorptive material and the other configurations differs regarding the presence or absence of absorptive material in third chamber. The most important and significant outcomes of this study facilitate an optimum design of the muffler in 3D, which having optimum absorption for the exhaust gases induced noise generated in the muffler. It had been shown that perforated baffles play a crucial role in making the configuration of very robust. It was observed that 5% porosity is higher counterproductive in comparison with the other values of the porosity. The presented muffler is effective in attenuating the low–medium frequency as well as higher frequency band noise. The analyzing of the intake and exhaust lines of the muffler helps in reducing the vibrational losses.
Sandeep Kumar, K. Ravi

Semi-autonomous Vehicle Transmission and Braking Systems

Abstract
In recent times, advancement in the automotive field has made major difference in the evolution of car over a decade. This evolution has made vehicles to move without a driver, and the vehicle performance has improved drastically. As autonomous vehicle is the future mode of transportation, nowadays, it plays a major role in research and development of an automotive industry. In this work, a semi-autonomous system which can be used in small electric vehicles has been built by operating a part of the transmission system and brake as automatic and rest as manual. In this system, the clutch, accelerator, and brake system are made to work automatically by predicting the obstacles using ultrasonic sensors. The shifting of gear alone is done manually. This system is built using a Bajaj CT100 engine, transmission systems, and drum brake. The engine power is transferred to the wheel through a modified transmission system. A Raspberry Pi controller and Python coding are used to control the system. By using an ultrasonic sensor, obstacles are detected, and according to the obstacle distance, the system will be made to start and run.
G. Paul Robertson, Rammohan A.

Comparison of Gaseous and Liquid Fuel Cells for Automotive Applications

Abstract
Elevating pressure on the automotive industry to significantly reduce harmful emissions has led to an increased focus on the research and development of alternative, ultra-low emission power sources, including batteries and fuel cells. To better understand how fuel cell systems could be integrated into automotive systems, it would be important to draw comparisons between different technologies. Two key fuel cell segments are compared for their suitability in automotive applications, gaseous and liquid fed fuel cells. Comparisons showed the inherent advantages and disadvantages of both technologies. Gaseous fuel cells, such as the increasingly popular polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, utilise hydrogen as a fuel and typically have very high-power densities. Liquid fuel cells are by comparison, less common. One up-and-coming technology is the direct methanol fuel cell. For use in automotive applications, this type of fuel cell shows potential as the storage of methanol is very similar to traditional internal combustion fuels such as petrol and diesel.
A. Thirkell, R. Chen

Lane Monitoring System for Driver Assistance Using Vehicle to Infrastructure Connection

Abstract
Vehicular ad hoc networks have gained importance since their advent in 1998 and the technology has been having an exponential growth in contribution towards its betterment and stability. VANET allows local communication between vehicles and infrastructure along the road. Every vehicle shares critical information with every other vehicle in its vicinity for ensuring passenger safety and also allows access to Internet for multimedia entertainment. With all such applications and features, VANET has its own share of insecurities and limitations. Many successful attempts have been made in the last decade to solve the identified problems, but with rapid advancements in technology, the complexity of security solutions and network architectures increase despite having a solution for all kinds of problems. Therefore, it is necessary to simplify the existing VANET and begin working on alternate concepts that use existing technologies and protocols. A concept called lane monitoring system uses passive infrastructure along roadway and attempts to evolve them to fulfil the needs of evolving mobility solutions.
Akash Kalghatgi, A. Rammohan

Integration of Area Scanning with PSO for Improving Coverage and Hole Detection in Sensor Networks

Abstract
Random deployment of wireless sensor network (WSN) leads to holes and coverage problem. Thus, the detection and healing of coverage holes have become major issues and obstacles for achieving the satisfactory coverage of the WSNs. For this purpose, comparison is made among tree-based coverage hole detection, Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi algorithm in terms of their performances. It helps to detect the coverage holes in WSNs. The area that is checked for holes may be more than necessary. A method is proposed that will reduce the number of sensors, so that only the desired area is checked for holes. The area that is checked for holes may be more than necessary. A method is proposed that will reduce the number of sensors, so that only the desired area is checked for holes. The proposal is to do this using image recognition technique. The image will be scanned and using the pixel occurrence of black and white colour in the image, and we should be able to identify the desired area and deploy the required number of additional sensors accordingly. We propose to compare the performance of existing tree-based algorithm and triangulation algorithms in this domain, with particle swarm optimization (PSO).
T. Shankar, Geoffrey Eappen, Shubham Mittal, Ramit Mehra

Optimized Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract
Communication systems have been progressed tremendously in the past two decades. A large part of this success can be attributed to the discovery of various new algorithms in the wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes three new algorithms for routing by modifying the existing algorithm known as A-star algorithm to find the optimal path between the source and the destination nodes. This paper places a special emphasis on reducing the path length between the source and destination nodes which in turn reduce the execution time as well as the resource spent in finding the optimal path between the source and the destination node. The new algorithms proposed are named as diagonal A-star (DA*) which gives the diagonal path search ability to the existing A-star (A*) algorithm, bidirectional A-star (BIDA*) which gives the ability of traversing from both source and destination nodes at the same time hence reduces the execution time and the third algorithm known as diagonal-bidirectional combined which combines the ability of both; the above newly proposed algorithms propose a more optimized routing solution between the source and destination nodes.
T. Shankar, Geoffrey Eappen, S. Rajalakshmi

Survivability Technique Using Markov Chain Model in NG-PON2 for Stacked Wavelength

Abstract
Survivability is the predominant major criteria for any fibre optical link during failure condition since it occurs frequently to disconnect several wavelength channels in the NG-PON2 system. The article proposes resilience in the protection mechanism for NG-PON2 network recommended by ITU-T G. 983.1 using Markov chain model. We analysed average downstream data loss for a 7:1 stacked NG-PON2 architecture where seven working lines can be protected by one protection line. The protection scheme allows protection to an architecture capable of a network throughput of 80 Gbps. Further, there is a comparison between the performance of 3:1 and 7:1 architecture for 40 and 80 Gbps data rate.
S. Rajalakshmi, T. Shankar

Effects of Different Membranes on the Performance of PEM Fuel Cell

Abstract
Nowadays, air pollution prevails as one of the major problems all over the world. Fuel cell is the recently developed technology to counteract air pollution. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity by the reaction of two gases such as hydrogen and oxygen. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the most economical one. The advantage of using PEM fuel cell is that they can operate at low temperature of about 50 ℃ to 80 ℃, and there is no emission of harmful gases to the atmosphere, thereby maintaining eco-friendly environment. The performance of the fuel cell is mainly influenced by various factors like material properties of components (like gas diffusion layer, membrane, catalyst layer), flow channel designs, operating conditions and water management. The main function of membrane which is made of polytetrafluoroethylene is to allow only the protons from anode to cathode and not allows electrons. So the membrane is called as PEM. The performance of the fuel cell is affected by different types of membranes. In this paper, the performance of PEM fuel cell with two different membranes such as Nafion 117 and Nafion 212 is analyzed. The serpentine flow field is chosen on both cathode and anode sides. The PEM fuel cell having active area of 11.6 cm2 is designed and analyzed with best-operating conditions. The results show that the PEM fuel cell with Nafion 212 membrane generates more power.
M. Muthukumar, A. Ragul Aadhitya, N. Rengarajan, K. Sharan, P. Karthikeyan

Design Analysis and Fabrication of Race Car Seat to Increase Driver Comfort

Abstract
The driver’s comfort and position are factors of utmost importance in motorsports, and these are key aspects in deciding the overall performance of a race car. This paper presents a strategy to increase overall driver comfort in a race car by providing design proposals for a comfortable seat. A prototype was built, as per norms and cockpit constraints, from which the design considerations for the driver’s position were decided. Vertebral and thigh impressions of four drivers were taken by using expandable two-part urethane foam. Three-dimensional scanning technique was used to convert these impressions into point cloud data. The data were refined to form surfaces of respective impressions. These scanned surfaces were converged to a single optimized seat design which was comfortable for all drivers. Using data acquisition (DAQ), a comparative study of lap timings was done on the experimental seat and existing seat design for validation. This methodology of seat design was implemented to improve driver performance. It was observed that from a graphical comparison of car’s timings on both seats, the timings of the car with existing seat design showed a steeper increase in timings than the car with new seating design.
K. Raja, C. D. Naiju, M. Senthil Kumar, N. Navin Kumar

Design Optimization of Lubrication System for a Four-Cylinder Diesel Engine

Abstract
Lubrication system plays a very vital role in engine durability. Engine designers show utmost care in designing and validating the lubrication system. If not properly designed engine components will be subjected to pre-mature failure in the field incurring loss to the manufacturer pulling down the “brand image” which is considered sacrosanct. In the current work, the authors carry design exercise of the lubrication system for a four-cylinder diesel engine. Concept design, design optimization and thorough validation activities are carried out and captured in detail. Oil pressure distribution is simulated for the concept design. Based on the simulated results, design optimization is carried out through simulation and extensive validation under various boundary conditions. Different design iterations are done to alter the oil pressure levels and validate it at various oil galleries. The results of oil pressure at various oil galleries are neatly captured to optimize the lubrication system design, the process of which is explained in this paper.
J. Ramkumar, George Ranjit, Vijayabaskaran Sarath, V. Vikraman, Bagavathy Suresh, Namani Prasad Babu, Malekar Amit

Investigation on Turbocharger Actuator for LPG Fuelled SI Engine

Abstract
The effects of turbocharger wastegate actuator upon engine performance and emission were experimented on a twin-cylinder spark-ignited engine fuelled by gas phase LPG. The load was given by setting the throttle wide open and the speed was varied from 1000 to 3400 rpm. Taking the base reference as naturally aspirated conditions, various performance and emission parameters were compared for the conventional wastegate system as well as electronic version focusing on manifold absolute pressure, knock and exhaust resistance. The manifold absolute pressure and wastegate position were calibrated for the electronic wastegate to optimally perform based on engine requirements. There was appreciable improvement in brake thermal efficiency as well as reduction of unburnt hydrocarbon emissions for the turbocharger with electronic wastegate.
K. Ravi, Jim Alexander, E. Porpatham

Stress Analysis of Automotive Chassis Using Hypermesh and Optistruct

Abstract
The automotive chassis is the fundamental and essential structure usually made of material like steel to hold the vehicle body and support all the subsystems of the vehicle, the passengers and aids in driver safety at all time. The different types of loads viz. static loads like payloads and mass of the vehicle, dynamic loads from wheel–road interface, braking, acceleration, etc., are stressed on the chassis structure. This work is focused to scrutinize the design of the chassis structure by carrying out stress analysis. The loads are calculated for various scenarios and applied on the chassis structure with proper constraints. For modelling of the chassis, Creo Parametric modelling software is utilized, for meshing the finite element pre-processor. Hypermesh is used and the structural analysis solver. Optistruct is the postprocessor used to obtain the solution.
Vijay Sharma, D. Mallikarjuna Reddy, Shreekant Patil

Development of Reaction Wheel Controlled Self-Balancing Bicycle for Improving Vehicle Stability Control

Abstract
This paper focuses on building a bicycle prototype which is can balance itself with the help of a reaction wheel. The bicycle prototype does not employ a rider for this task. This concept can be extremely helpful as a safety mechanism for future motorcycles wherein the rider can save himself from a crash, if he/she loses control over the motorcycle. The bicycle uses a controlling mechanism to prevent itself from falling on either sides in static condition. It uses an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor for detecting changes in the roll angle and reacts to maintain a constant vertical position. Reaction involves rotation of the reaction wheel by the motor which gets its input signal from a controller which works in conjunction with the sensor to analyze the data. Final aim is to build a prototype of the self-balancing bicycle and get an overview of the recent developments in the field of autonomous driving.
Omkar Patil, Sujay Jadhav, R. Ramakrishnan

An Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for Electric Vehicle Battery/Ultracapacitor Hybrid Storage System Using Machine Learning Approach

Abstract
Due to reduction in the non-renewable sources such as petrol, diesel and increase in pollution levels, we need to find an alternate way to drive the automotive. One of the best alternatives is to use pure electric vehicle which has zero emission and requires electricity as a power source instead of non-renewable sources. These electric vehicles get the required power from batteries but they face challenges like lower range and less battery life, and they fail to provide the same acceleration as of IC engines. If batteries are used with ultracapacitor, then they can meet the power requirements required by the driver. Regenerative braking is a way to restore power at the time of deceleration but it provides a lot of charge in a short period of time, but battery cannot accommodate higher amount of charge in less charge. Ultracapacitors, on the other hand, can be charged using this regenerative braking method while the automobile is in motion, and excess charge can then be transferred to battery for charging. An intelligent energy management system is necessary to take these decisions of discharging and charging of this ultracapacitor and battery HESS, in order to increase the range of vehicle and battery life. Machine learning will be used to design and train the controller for the vehicle to take decision of its own when facing real-time situations.
Geetansh Mahajan, Abhinav, R. Ramakrishnan

Low Velocity of Single and Multiple Impacts on Curved and Hybrid Curved Composite Panel for Aircraft Applications

Abstract
The use of composites from the past few decades has been outstanding. Composites are becoming very popular due to their high specific strength. The main aim of this research is to analyze the behavior of the composite structure under low-velocity impact. In this paper, curved composite panels were studied under single and multiple impacts where impact analysis is done numerically. Numerical analysis includes finite element modeling and finite element analysis of the structure through Abaqus software. Different parameters were obtained, and the results of which include deformation, stress distribution, contact force, and energy absorbed by the structure. Numerical results were compared for different materials as well as impacts and are validated with literature data.
D. Mallikarjuna Reddy, Shreekant Patil, Kiran S. Matti, Nemmani Abhinav

Aerodynamic Study of a Three Wheeler Body

Abstract
A three-wheeled mode of transportation other than just in India is common in most developing countries. Proving to be a cheap and effective way of transportation, their small size, easy bike-like manoeuvrability, due to its single front tire control and low cost of both purchase and maintenance make it nearly ideal as a method of public transportation. Despite all their benefits, updates to this vehicle have been few and far between. Three wheeler faces many tough tasks with more demands being made of its usage in ergonomics, exhaust and performance parameters. New designs have to be made to take three wheeler into the twenty-first century. The original three wheeler used in India was introduced in 1956, and there have been few changes to that original design, and while it has proved good over the years, it fails to live up to the current consumer expectations. The aim of this paper is to study three wheeler design and validate its limitations using aerodynamic study of the drag and lift forces that it faces. It calculates the theoretical maximum velocity to be 77 km/hr with the coefficient of drag to be 0.4975. The design of three wheeler needs more than a face lift, and hopefully, this study acts as a guide to other research.
C. Bhaskar, Krishna Rawat, Muhammed Minhaj, M. Senthil Kumar, C. D. Naiju

Evaluating the Hardness and Microstructural Analysis of Reinforcing the Nano Silicon Carbide and Nano Zirconium Oxide in Hybrid Al6061 Metal Matrix Composite

Abstract
Aluminium alloy (Al6061) matrix composite is reinforcing of β phase APS silicon carbide nanoparticle at scale range of 50 nm in the weight percentage of 2% along with β phase APS zirconium oxide of nanoparticle at 45 nm scale range in the weight % of 2.8, 3.0 and 3.2%. By progressing, the reinforcement element is carried out using the stir casting method to form the hybrid aluminium-based metal matrix nanocomposite samples. Microstructure and hardness properties are analysed in fabricated aluminium-based metal matrix nanocomposite samples. These metal matrix nanocomposites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness tests are carried out in order to identifying hardenability in the aluminium-based metal matrix nanocomposite. The results revealed that Al metal matrix nanocomposites are containing 2% of nano silicon carbide along with 3.2 wt% of nanoparticle of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) samples to improve the hardness strength among the other samples of hybrid aluminium (Al6061) metal matrix nanocomposite.
V. Deepakaravind, P. Gopal

Exploratory and Performance Analysis of Solar Refrigeration System Using Nanofluids—A Review

Abstract
In this day and age refrigeration, frameworks assume a crucial job to satisfy the human needs. A persistent research is being done by numerous specialists so as to enhance the execution of these frameworks. Directly utilized, vapor pressure refrigeration framework does not work effectively because of lack of electric power. This examination covers an expansive diagram of sun-based photovoltaic innovation, which utilizes effectively accessible sun-oriented vitality for refrigeration reason. It incorporates an engine, a blower, an inverter and battery, a photovoltaic controller, and boards. This should be possible by changing over sunlight-based vitality into power by methods for photovoltaic gadgets, which can be used by the electric engine to drive vapor weight refrigeration structure. The principle goal of the examination is dealing with the deficiency of electric power, in living situations by utilizing a cooling framework coupled to a sun-oriented establishment. In this sunlight-based refrigeration framework, when traditional refrigerants like (R22, HFCR134a, R600, and so forth.) are utilized, it prompts low warm conductivity, heat exchange rate, and COP level, and a portion of alternate effects is corrosive downpour, softening of ice sheets, ocean level raising, well-being impacts, air contamination, ozone consumption, which is exceptionally risky to the earth. To maintain a strategic distance from these dangers, one of the routes is to utilize nanofluids which are not destructive to nature. The utilization of nanofluids results in high warm conductivity and heat exchange rate and gives a better COP level. The accompanying three nanofluids Al2O3, ZrO2, and Cu2O have been now utilized in the refrigeration framework. A portion of the properties of given nanofluids will be changed to advance new nanofluids. The improved nanofluids will be utilized in refrigeration framework and a similar will be contrasted and different nanofluids like R22, R134a, R290, and R600a. Despite the fact that Al2O3, ZrO2, and Cu2O give great outcomes, the new nanofluids have been advanced for better outcomes.
M. Sivakumar, S. Mahalingam
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