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About this book

The development of computer science is now so rapid that we, the readers, in-creasingly receive technology news about new solutions and applications which very often straddle the border between the real and the virtual worlds. Computer science is also the area in which cognitive science is witnessing a renaissance, be-cause its combination with technical sciences has given birth to a broad scientific discipline called cognitive informatics. And it is this discipline which has become the main theme of this monograph, which is also to serve as a kind of guide to cognitive informatics problems.

This book is the result of work on systems for the cognitive analysis and inter-pretation of various data. The purpose of such an analytical approach is to show that for an in-depth analysis of data, the layers of semantics contained in these sets must be taken into account. The interdisciplinary nature of the solutions proposed means that the subject of cognitive systems forming part of cognitive informatics becomes a new challenge for the research and application work carried out.

The authors of this monograph hope that it will guide Readers on an interesting and accurate journey through the intricacies of information and cognitive science.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Beginnings of Cognitive Science

The first mention of cognitive science can be found in the works of Aristotle, who proposed two dominant categorisation methods describing all varieties of cognitive science in different ways. Aristotle’s considerations, also of the concept of a category, led to distinguishing accidental and substantive categories based on the differences Aristotle saw between the subject of a sentence treated as the substance and the predicate treated as an accidental category. The substantive category includes concepts that describe something and present something concrete, so they were a ‘concrete substance’, the subject of a sentence, something material. Within the accidental categories, Aristotle distinguished nine basic notions, which included quantity, quality, relation, place, time, location, property, action and sensation.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

2. Fundamentals of Cognitive Informatics

Cognitive informatics (CI) is a concept which combines the subjects of both the cognitive science and informatics (computer science) based on information mechanisms and processes taking place in the human brain. So cognitive informatics uses natural intelligence merged with engineering applications in interdisciplinary research and science. It covers the use of mathematical theories and descriptions to describe and analyse data and information presented in the form of broad knowledge bases, as well as engineering disciplines including computer science, cognitive science, neuropsychology, system science, cybernetics, computer engineering, knowledge engineering as well as computational engineering.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

3. Cognitive Information Systems

Cognitive information systems were developed on the foundation of intelligent information systems whose purpose was not just the simple analysis of data consisting in recording, processing and interpreting it, but primarily an analysis by understanding and reasoning about the semantic contents of the processed data.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

4. Intelligent Cognitive Data Analysis Systems of the UBMSS Type as an Example of Cognitive Categorisation Systems

UBMSS systems, as cognitive data analysis systems, can be used not only to analyse the economic figures of a company, but can also complement the analysis of data for information in healthcare. Thus these systems become start supporting the financial and strategic analysis of medical establishments (hospitals, clinics, healthcare companies providing various medical services). A feature of UBMSS systems is that they conduct the financial analysis of a company using elements of cognitive data analysis.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

5. UBIAS – Intelligent Cognitive Systems for Visual Data Analysis

UBIAS image analysis systems are used to analyse data in the form of images and have been developed for a number of years as part of work to apply cognitive data analysis systems in practical, automated meaning interpretation tasks.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

6. E-UBIAS - Cognitive Systems for Image and Biometric Data Analysis

UBIAS systems which conduct semantic analyses are also capable of biometric identification using the following characteristics:
  • individual;
  • physical;
  • behavioural
The main individual characteristics are determined for every image analysed. However, if they concern a specific case, then they have to be identified in the base in which they are defined as identifiers of that case. For instance, if what is analysed is an image of the hand of someone with one finger much shorter in the right hand, then the definition of the pattern for that person should contain a correctly defined pattern of that person’s hand covering finger lengths, including the unusual length of one of them.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

7. Cognitive Systems and Artificial Brains

Cognitive systems founded in the fields of artificial brain design and operation show the direction in which computer science is developing hand in hand with cognitive science.
Various applications of artificial and automatic solutions more and more often delight the world, but we are also increasingly wondering about the extent to which science can catch up with the reality and nature, which in an individual, unique and not fully comprehensible way creates us and the world around us. To what extent can we build an artificial brain and an artificial robot? How far can we make that robot imitate human action? And the last, possibly the most crucial question, to what extent is a robot able to imitate human skills and feelings?
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

8. Summary

Cognitive informatics developed in the direction of broader and broader alliances between technical computer science and cognitive science represents a very interesting and promising field of science. Combining the whole range of solutions and mechanisms that can be developed by cognitive science with computer science opens wider and greater application opportunities. The solutions shown for problems presented herein also demonstrate further development opportunities for the proposed solutions due to the constant development of cognitive informatics.
Lidia Ogiela, Marek R. Ogiela

Backmatter

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