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About this book

This book addresses a range of topics in design, such as universal design; design for all; digital inclusion; universal usability; and accessibility of technologies regardless of users’ age, financial situation, education, geographic location, culture and language. It especially focuses on accessibility for people with auditory, cognitive, neurological, and visual impairments, ageing populations, and mobility for those with special physical needs.

The book explores some of the overlaps between inclusive design and web accessibility to help managers, designers, developers, policy makers, and researchers optimize their efforts in these areas. Based on the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Design for Inclusion, held on July 24-28, held in Washington D.C., USA, it discusses new design technologies and highlights the disparate needs of the individuals within a community. Thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, it provides readers with various backgrounds with a timely, practice-oriented guide to design for inclusion.

Table of Contents


Designing for Inclusion in Learning Experiences


Inclusion in Danish Architectural Education and Design Practice

In wishing to make our physical environment inclusive, this paper investigates the complexity and challenge of design process, focussing on the Danish distinction between architect and bygningskonstruktør (constructing architect) in both qualifications and practice. The paper looks at the division of the roles in relation to the knowledge acquired during their education; and discusses the kind of knowledge on inclusion they gain, mobilise and share during the actual design process. The findings from nine qualitative interviews highlight two key areas. Firstly, there is a need to develop shared knowledge on inclusion between architects and bygningskonstruktører; secondly, team structure and communication strategy needs to be critically reviewed and appropriated to optimise knowledge allocation and dissemination within a team and practice at large.

Masashi Kajita

Green for All. A Didactic Experience on Design for All Applied to Gardening Earthenware Objects

The Design for All approach, enhancing human diversity, promotes the spread of a social conscience oriented towards inclusion. This seems particularly useful for the training of young designers, because it obliges them to consider the complex system of constraints and opportunities arising from the extreme variability of the design targets, that more and more contemporary society requires to design activity. Here are described the development and results of a teaching experience, entitled “Green for all”, developed at the University of Chieti-Pescara, in which students designed a product for gardening, referring to specific and original use contexts, through the DfA approach. Starting from the dimensional and productive restriction of earthenware, the projects had the purpose to favor the cultivation of ornamental plants or domestic spices even in contexts of original use (in the kitchen, in the bathroom, in the office, but also on the desk, in gym or on the train).

Giuseppe Di Bucchianico

Designing of Inclusive Learning Experiences: Preliminary Outcomes of a Pilot Project Tailored to SLD

Thanks to the knowledge related to Ergonomics in Design and Inclusive Design, the present work aims at finding and providing an opened and integrated approach to the disciplines of cognitive psychology, pedagogy and human-computer interaction by presenting field experiments on learning and case studies. The latter show novel co-design practices through the use of Human-Centered Design and Inclusive Design methods, which were pointed out by means of experiments conducted in collaboration with professionals, end users and people with Specific Learning Disabilities. Through the presentation of a pilot project dedicated to the SLDs, the final output of the work was to illustrate a developed inclusive learning platform and its operating rules. Moreover, the research highlighted the need for systems based on social networking, supporting not only accessibility but also autonomy, socialization and the ability to collectively build new meanings.

Alessia Brischetto, Alessandra Rinaldi

Universal Signaling Based on the Articulation Between the Ergonomic Practices and the Perception of the Visually Impaired

Every signaling system involves a range of issues of communication, visual perception, semiotics, pictograms, signage, writing, among others, in order to guide and inform, offering the necessary accessibility conditions for anyone, regardless of their condition. The present work proposes to continue to rethink the construction of inclusive educational environments from the integrated reflection of research related to ergonomics, participatory practices in design and sensory experiences that allow the development of alternatives for a universal signaling system centered on the user, including the visually impaired user, of the São Luís - Monte Castelo Campus of the Federal Institute of Maranhão.Priority to understand the experience lived by the visually impaired in a theoretically open environment for all was the starting point to see the difficulties faced by this public. However, the user’s participation in the process consolidates the opening of new paths that achieve the most significant results. Thus, considering the participation of the visually impaired user with the intention of proposing improvements in existing methodologies or in the process of creating the solution gains more and more strength as a strategy to promote intelligent and accessible environments.

Luís Rocha, Thaíla Santos Lima, Lays Campos Brito

Industrial Design for Inclusion


Accessibility Evaluation of Automated Vending Machines

Electronic vending machines are a wide-spread system for delivering and accessing goods: the possibility of operating in a completely automated fashion and independently from business hours makes them extremely convenient for serving public and private locations. However, they fail their purpose in serving individuals with special needs: their lack of accessibility prevents users who are blind or have severe visual impairments from autonomously purchasing products. In this paper, we focus on the ergonomics of electronic vending machines and their automatic payment systems: we discuss their human factors and, specifically, usability to individuals who have severe low vision. Furthermore, we present a user experience analysis of their components and we detail the results of a study that evaluated the performance of different common types of commercially-available vending machines in the three steps of a purchase, that is, product selection, payment, and collection. Our results demonstrate that poor design, lack of tactile information, and absence of non-visual feedback have a significant impact on accessibility and prevent most customers who are blind from being able to independently select, pay, and collect a product.

Nicholas Caporusso, Kingsley Udenze, Asibi Imaji, Yangyang Cui, Yanjun Li, Spencer Romeiser

Human-Centered Design and Quality Function Deployment: Understanding Needs on a Multidisciplinary Automotive Research

The paper reports the activities of a specific design research integrated into multidisciplinary automotive project funded by Emilia Romagna region, Italy. The main goal of the overall project is to design the concept of a high-performance vehicle. In particular, this contribution presents a qualitative user analysis that has been carried out specifically to design the vehicle interface. This work lays on a methodology that points out the importance of inclusive and human-centered design approaches that are used throughout the automotive product development. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD), namely an inclusive decision-making tool, has been utilized into the product planning process in order to obtain measurable design parameters for improving the quality of the expected project through a correlation with the user needs. The outputs derived by QFD tool are used as a strategy to develop a possible design solution for the vehicle interface.

Gian Andrea Giacobone, Giuseppe Mincolelli

A New Approach for an Inclusive Yacht Design

The paper focuses on the definition of a new approach for the design of accessible sailing yachts that takes into account not only the physical problems of users affected by permanent and temporary motor disabilities, but also the presence of architectural barriers on most boats built to date. Through an analysis of the current state of the art of modern sailing yachts is possible to determine a series of cases in which the user, depending on his physical limits, may encounter problems while boarding or using external and internal spaces. The research aims to define the most suitable solutions, in order to create a reference standard in the field of nautical design for accessibility. The research leads to the drafting of a technical instrument useful to promote accessibility and inclusion on board.

Paolo Ferrari

The Effect of Sliding Door Hardware Design on Opening Operation

Usability of sliding door was tested with different door hardware designs, i.e., a grab bar, a vertical door pull, and a recessed door pull. Three levels of force necessary for operation (10 N, 20 N, and 30 N) were compared. Sixteen subjects of different ages participated in the experiments. They reported the ease of use, and their behavior was also observed. Results suggest that no more than 20 N force is desirable for easy operation, and depth of 15 mm would be necessary for a door pull to apply the force effectively.

Satoshi Kose, Yoshiaki Goto, Ken Nunota, Shinji Tanaka

Designing for Inclusion in the Information Society


Collaborative Quality Function Deployment. A Methodology for Enabling Co-design Research Practice

The Quality Function Deployment, was born in Japan around 1965 as a method to deploy functions forming quality and measurable parameters concerning products, service or processes based on user needs. QFD is normally used in business contexts by multidisciplinary teams that, after significant training, collaborate to compile and to interpret user requirements embedded in a matrix with characteristics and attributes. However, the design discipline is changing, along with methodologies, approaches, multidisciplinary teams and working practice. The rise of recent co-designed methodologies, flexible and holistic approaches in to design research lead to a decreased use of QFD among new designer generations. It has been noticed that when people are not adequately trained, and there is no opportunity to have face to face meetings, some methodological issues can arise while using QFD. The aim of this explorative work is to investigate the key factors that limit the use of QFD in the current multidisciplinary design research practice. A methodological literature review along with holistic experience fostered the development of a manifesto for a collaborative QFD methodology that stimulates collaborative multidisciplinary design research. This research impacts on developing a stimulating approach in to design research and practice, which shall be collaborative, inclusive, flexible, adaptable and open source, following the recent paradigms in cross-disciplines research practice.

Giuseppe Mincolelli, Silvia Imbesi, Matteo Zallio

Inclusive Design Methodology in Practice: Turning a Prison into an Inclusive Civic University

This paper outlines the importance of contextual theoretical, empirical research and research by design in order to create inclusive concepts at the start of a design process. 26 master students were invited to reflect upon an old prison site in order to create a new entrance for Hasselt University representing an open university for all. Whereas many student excercises in Design for All (DfA) often focus on the needs and disabilities of people, this excercise focused on the abilities of people on site and on the opportunities of the architectural site itself. By means of linking both results, the excercise demonstrates to be very inspirational to both students and staff. The paper concludes with a categorisation in contextual analysis from an experiential as well as an architectural point of view.

Jasmien Herssens

Defining a Shared Platform in China to Propose a Social, Cultural and Technological Bridge

China’s continuous and swift transformations pose relevant challenges to a sustainable development in all three areas: social, ecological and economical. Several national policies are implemented to guide these transitions within supported, non-disruptive solutions, seeking to keep an overall balance in the very dynamic socio-economic framework. These policies are generally implemented separately. This paper presents a possible proposal to link an economical policy to a social one through a design driven approach for social innovation: how to create a potentially beneficial link between the major social challenges of the elderly and the family in rural areas and the “Mass Innovation Entrepreneurship”, one of the policies to support the transition from “factory of the world” to Made in China and Design in China. This could impact millions of families and offer a new social implementation for a tech driven phenomena.

Avril Accolla

Methods and Techniques Used in the Evaluation of Interfaces in Brazilian Studies Focusing on Visually Impaired People

The aim of this paper is to map the state of art of Brazilian researches focused on the accessibility of interfaces, identifying the methods and techniques used on the evaluation of digital interfaces based on the approach of the visually impaired user. An exploratory search was made, filtering studies between 2013 and 2018, at the Catalog of Theses and Dissertations of CAPES and at the Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. The found documents were filtered and analyzed, aiming to list the procedures used on the evaluation process. Subsequently, the results were synthesized and compared with the literature. The study is justified by the lack of evaluative research with an inclusive approach. As a result, this paper indicates that usability tests, task analysis, verbal protocols and satisfaction questionnaires are relevant procedures for the interface evaluation from a user’s centered approach.

Dominique Leite Adam, Maria Lúcia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto, Kelli C. A. S. Smythe, Caelen Teger da Silva

Usability Analysis of the Payment Method with an Application of Digital Parking Meters with Younger and Older Users

This research aimed to identify usability issues in the interaction with a payment application for a digital parking meter system located in Guadalajara, Mexico. A usability test was carried out by twenty participants divided into two groups—ten younger and ten older adults—. The main task evaluated was making a payment using the application. Participants were asked to do the task on two consecutive occasions. Once the interaction with the application finished the usability questionnaires A and B were administered. The results show that younger and older participants found problems and made mistakes when using the system. Younger and older participants suggested the need for modifications to the application. The paper discusses how understanding the experience and needs of both groups of users can help to develop a more accessible and usable app.

Paula González-Torres, Ileana Chávez-Sánchez, Andrea Tejada-Gutiérrez, Claudia M. Fernández-Rivera, Carlos Aceves-González

The Influence of Screen Brightness and Moving Speed of Visual Icons on Visual Acuity

In this experiment, static visual acuity and dynamic visual acuity were tested with standard visual acuity charts and vision testing software for three groups of people in different age groups under different lighting conditions. The results showed that the dynamic visual acuity and static visual acuity had a certain correlation with each other and the dynamic vision was always lower than static vision. Static vision and dynamic vision were gradually decreased with increasing of the age. As the brightness of the screen increased, the individual’s vision acuity increased. The moving speed of visual icons had great effect on the visual acuity.

Linghua Ran, Xin Wu, Hong Luo, Chaoyi Zhao, Xin Zhang

Participatory Design with Older Adults: Exploring the Latent Needs of Young-Old and Middle-Old in Daily Living Using a Universal Design Approach

In 2017, global population aged 60 years or over reached nearly 963 million, becoming twice the figure recorded in 1980. Not surprisingly ageing population will continue to accelerate due to continuing decline in fertility and improvement in survival in major diseases. When people who are suffered from cognitive or physical impairment, they often feel alone and experience different degrees of social loneliness. This paper discusses co-design experiences with various stakeholders to explore latent needs of older persons in their daily living using a universal design approach. Through iterative use of creative methods, freehand sketching and physical models, older adults can express their needs in a more accurate, tactile format. Findings reveal that commonality of interest among older persons are important in building rapport among other participants. It also helps designers develop assistive design related to health care, mobility, dining and leisure activities involving older persons, benefiting society as a whole.

Alex Pui-yuk King

Public Spaces, Building Environment and Communities


A New Inclusive Housing Prototype

A new model of sustainable housing has been designed, thanks to a research conducted with different kind of users. A ready-made wood residences prototype is proposed as a project able to guarantee a height home environment quality. The research aims to improve people daily Life related to multiple factors. A study has been conducted on materials quality to guarantee a safe environment and a high air quality and at the same time, also a research on colors and contrasts between the volumes. The structural elements are already built in the factory equipped of flexible interiors furniture (multiple layers): this technology permits an ergonomic use of the tables, the armchairs, the windows, handrails, kitchens and toilets [1]. Plugs and switches have a minimum range to be moved and adapted. The house project results anti-seismic, ergonomic and sustainable and it makes people interact inclusively with the outside landscape thanks to a movable windows system that allows to the different users of the house to change the windows height. The flexible structure is able to contrast the earthquake vibrations because of its flexible structure and at the same time the home environment becomes safe thanks to the integrated furniture. Guides for the wheelchair users are integrated in the ready-made panels and can be customized for the clients [2]. The prototype is also eco-friendly and detains all the requirements to be constructed in NZEB (Nearly Zero Energy Building) [3]. It has to be pointed out that the interior walls panels and furniture are made of recycled materials, mixed with chipboards, to increase the project sustainability and to reduce the expenses. The economic factor has been considered as a fundamental element of the research and the already-made technology permit sustainable costs. Users Expert have been involved in the design process thru workshops and seminars organized to investigate needs and measures of people housing thanks to the collaboration of a consultant that works with public administrations to improve people home environment.

Francesco Spagnoli

Bioclimatic Design Approach for Low-Income Dwelling at Monte Sinahí, Guayaquil

This document presents the procedures used to carry out architectural design of a housing prototype for low-income people under bioclimatic criteria in Monte Sinahí, at Guayaquil. Bioclimatic design starts with the characterization of the local climate and, based on inclusive design, considers the needs of a family that currently lives in that territory. With climate data obtained from a weather station located on site, region climate is described, which is characterized in two climatic seasons: hot-dry and hot-humid. The analysis of the micro-climatic particularities of the place allowed defining cooling requirements and proposing passive design strategies into architectural project for interior spaces. It also outlines recommendations for dwellings with bioclimatic criteria taking into account architectural morphology, urban form, building elements and solar and wind flow control devices. The use of Ecomaterials as construction elements in the efficient management of local resources is the result of a research program whose objective is to provide solutions in order to improve the constructive quality of low-cost dwellings using bamboo and other natural resources as fibers, leaves and parts of the trunk of plant species. Climatic characterization, added to future dwellers requirements, citizen participation as an example of social inclusion in the decision-making design process and the use of Ecomaterials, will contribute to the appropriation of the prototype by its users to be used as a housing solution that contributes with the care of the environment and the improvement of the quality of life of the inhabitants of Monte Sinahí.

Boris Forero, Jesús Hechavarría, Robinson Vega

Codesign of Public Spaces for Intercultural Communication, Diversity and Inclusion

The consistent phenomenon of immigration from countries with different cultures, that characterized the last decade, has changed the use of public spaces in European cities. The need to develop innovative solutions aimed at improving intercultural inclusion and mutual understanding of all citizens emerges, so that urban spaces become inclusive, safe and sustainable. This research project is focused on two main questions: (1) can design and technology enable the creation of a different way of living the public space to catalyze interpersonal interaction and to promote a shared sense of citizenship? (2) is it possible to support intercultural communication and to facilitate social inclusion through the design of innovative and interactive public spaces equipped with smart urban furniture? This paper presents three Design Orienting Scenarios as results of the research conducted by several experts, professionals and people with different cultural backgrounds during a focus groups and two different workshops where they made converge competences from design, business, engineering and social sciences to find innovative solutions for the social inclusion of migrants in urban areas.

Alessandra Rinaldi, Leonardo Angelini, Omar Abou Khaled, Elena Mugellini, Maurizio Caon

Development of an Anthropometric Protocol for Wheelchair Users: Guiding the Decision-Making for Designing Inclusive Spaces

This paper describes the steps taken toward the development of an anthropometric protocol. The protocol was conceived as a tool for the design of inclusive built environments considering wheelchair user characteristics. The process followed for developing the protocol consisted of two stages. The first one included reviewing the type of dimensions, application context, methods and user profiles within the available literature. The second stage consisted in the corroboration of order and relevance of the measures proposed as well as the measurement instruments and the way of approaching participants. This protocol considers a total of 16 dimensions including height, reach and depth measurements. The paper describes the method, measurement landmarks and the tools used to take the measurement. To guide the application of the protocol a table was developed with recommendations on the use of certain percentiles according to the interaction of the user with the environment.

Libertad Rizo-Corona, Adrián Leal-Pérez, John Rey-Galindo, Carlos Aceves-González, Elvia González-Muñoz

Designing a Pilot System for Sustainable Villages for All

The rapid change of the Chinese society in the last 20 years, with the biggest urbanization process ever observed, the growing economic and social gap between the remaining rural population and the much more sophisticated resident of the large cities of the coastal area of the East, has been pushing the Chinese government to intervene with several policies aimed to reduce the west-east migration. However, the different policies designed with this aim are not yet reaching the desired impact and their implementations are often not focusing on the need to preserve also the cultural heritage of the Chinese countryside. This paper discusses the applied research on the points mentioned above, focusing on design solutions for a sustainable and innovative pilot system which promotes economic and ecological sustainability, social innovation and re-defines marginality through innovation within tradition.

Avril Accolla

Assessing Accessibility and Safety Conditions in an Urban Environment: What Do Pedestrians Perceive?

This study aimed to assess pedestrians’ perceptions about accessibility and safety with an aim to identify factors that influence their choice of mobility in an urban environment in the Municipality of Tlaquepaque, Mexico. A survey was conducted of 299 people aged 18 to 72 years old. The study was undertaken in situ while the users were at transit on the place. Most of the participants pointed out the presence of obstacles to free access and over than 60% of the participants considered that the design of the road could imply problems to people with disabilities. In terms of safety, almost 80% of participants consider the lack of respect to pedestrians as the main fact that represents safety risks for them. Overall, the study allows recognising a series of elements of the urban space might be considered to create an age-friendly – safe and accessible - environment.

Carlos Aceves-González, Libertad Rizo-Corona, Rosa Rosales-Cinco, John Rey-Galindo, Karthikeyan Ekambaram, Maricela Ramos-Tachiquín

Global Perspectives on People-Centered Design and Cultural Heritage


Understanding Visual Information Processing for American vs. Saudi Arabian Users

Cultural differences may affect user experiences in many different ways. This may range from having to adapt to different data formats to understanding novel directions of reading and writing. Analyzing data presented in various forms are crucial for both information assimilation and dissemination. Different information presentation methods can substantially affect task performances. To date, limited research has been reported that investigates how users from different cultural backgrounds respond to various information presentation methods while conducting visual information processing tasks. To fill in that gap, we conducted an experiment to better understand the relationship between American and Saudi Arabian users when interacting with different information presentation methods in the context of visual information processing. The specific information presentation methods investigated in the study are textual presentation, graphical presentation, and tabular presentation. The results suggest that information representation has significant impact on task efficiency for both groups of participants. However, information representation only affected the answer quality of the American group.

Yahya Alqahtani, Joyram Chakraborty, Michael McGuire, Jinjuan Heidi Feng

An Application for Mobile Systems Developed with the Community Involvement. An Open Source Mobile Application Project of a Perceptive City Map

The paper describes the hypothesis of an applicative part of the author’s research Design for the sensitive experience (The research has allowed the author to organize interviews and discussion with different city users and psychologists permitting the definition of parameters and categories described in this paper. Anyway these parameters are questionable and have to be implemented thru the second part of the research, thru the comparison with results taken from investigation that are planned to be made also with technological advices.). It’s an experimental project aimed to create the bases to develop an open source mobile application where the city users can directly communicate with planners, designers and administration. The ‘app’ would consist in an interactive city map, a model that can be extended to any cities. In particular, the paper displays the experiment conducted within the PhD research, applied to four itineraries of Rome city. The experiment can be tested on other urban realities and it illustrates the parameters identified to map the city areas and the tools that can be used. The method adopted to monitor the sustainable-mobility, is the development of an application that has to be used especially during the planning phase of the visit, before to start a city tour, not only in the while of a walk.

Francesca Bozza

Inclusive Design Practices for Natural Parks. Products and Services for Experience-Focused Solutions in Places of High Naturalistic Value

The research investigates the possibilities deriving from inclusive design methods in contexts of high naturalistic value. Natural parks, reserves and public gardens play a strategic role from an ecological, social and cultural point of view. Therefore it is necessary to place them at the center of a new scientific debate on methods for the study, the development and the governance of these assets. They are particular and multi-functional contexts in which today it is necessary to operate both in terms of environmental and landscape protection (ecodesign), and in relation to the evolved needs of their users (user-centered design). After a deep analysis concerning international case studies, the research proposes a new possible model of inclusiveness for design practices oriented to territories enhancement. A model capable of acting both in the metaproject phases (introducing interdisciplinarity and co-design practices) and in the properly design phases (according to the principles of design-for-all).

Ivo Caruso, Vincenzo Cristallo, Carlo Martino

User Interaction and Scenario-Based Experience Design for New Media Technology in Museum Spatial Experience

This article aims to study the interaction and scenario-based experience design of new media technology in the museum, improve people’s sensibility to museum-theme space information, and facilitate propaganda and education. It mainly: (1) summarizes the expression of new media human-computer interaction techniques in the museum; (2) discusses the relationship between museum-them space shaping based on new media technology and humans’ visiting experience; (3) summarizes the experience in human and museum space storyline with new media intervention. The article focuses on theoretical analysis and practical significance study from the 3 aspects. Meanwhile, it outlines the influence humans perceive in museum spatial experience.

Jian Yu, Yongbin Wang

Inclusive Participation Design Methodologies for Digital Cultural Heritage

The European cultural and historical heritage contains a surprising richness and variety that places it, thanks to its multi-diversity and heterogeneity, among the most interesting territories at international level. As a result of the scarcity of accessible technical equipment [1] and lack of time or availability to physically visit each Cultural Heritages, the knowledge of the European cultural heritage is not as widespread as it deserves. For this reason, a highly skilled work team with heterogeneous skills and approaches, has been created. Through the INCEPTION project, this team is developing inclusive methodologies with the aim to increase the dissemination and the knowledge of the historical cultural heritage through a web platform. The paper describes how it has been possible to model and apply some of the principles of the Human Centered Design in an international design research project in order to promote the accessibility of the digitized cultural heritage, through the involvement of institutional subjects. Moreover, the authors illustrate how co-design represents a valid method of work planning and a methodological design tool that allows a productive cooperation between different demanding profiles in the field of Digital Cultural Heritage.

Giuseppe Mincolelli, Michele Marchi

User Attitudes Towards Wheelchairs: A Mexican Case Study with Special Focus on Vulnerable Wheelchair Users and Wheelchair Assistants

In Mexico, wheelchair users face discrimination and attacks on their dignity. To improve this situation, products that consider the needs of the whole population, while highlighting those of vulnerable groups, need to be developed. Nevertheless, little efforts have been made to acknowledge how vulnerable Mexican users and wheelchair assistants perceive this device. Hence, this research aims at gathering a deeper understanding of how the latter users feel towards current wheelchairs and where they perceive areas of opportunity. Semi-structured interviews were made to retrieve information about variables like wheelchair characteristics’ prioritization, pain-points and wearing. Some of the most relevant results include the need to implement elements that consider natural body functions like sweating, and the misfit of wheelchair-user dimensioning. With these study’s findings and by considering vulnerable groups, we aspire to provide insights for wheelchair design, that if satisfied, could help to create more inclusive devices and thus, more inclusive environments.

Paulina Manzano-Hernandez, Maria Giovanna Trotta, Carlos Aceves-Gonzalez, Alberto Rossa-Sierra, Fabiola Cortes-Chavez

Inclusion of Children with Down Syndrome Through the Creation and Use of a “Learning Object”

This paper addresses the inclusion of children with Down Syndrome in school environments. It is based on the work of one of the authors developed as a Master dissertation in the area of Communication Design. The research integrates the study of the problem in context, with the participation of practitioners involved in the education process of these children. Framing the context implied studying not only this specific pathology but also the used learning-teaching methodologies, communication and interaction design principles and practices among other issues. Moreover, it was made a comparative critical analysis of three case studies of learning objects/systems to acquire knowledge and guidelines to support the creation of a learning object that would favor these children (aged between 5 and 7 years old) inclusion in regular schools. The result was an interactive printed book to mainly support reading and speaking activities in a playfull and shareable way. This book was evaluated by experts and was after improved through a design iterative process.

Rita Assoreira Almendra, Mariana Elvas

Design of a Wheelchair for Low-Income Countries, the Second Stage of a Project

In the first phase of the project, it was reported in a previous conference communication, the manufacture of two low-cost wheelchairs developed under this platform, both proposals designed in European countries (Spain and Italy). Following the constructive drawings and instructions available on the open-source platforms, both chairs were manufactured as close as possible to reported instructions. In their manufacture process, both wheelchairs presented some problems, in the construction and during the user testing phase, we report these kinds of problems in the first stage of the project. In the present stage, we start from models manufactured and tested with users, with the aim of improving the product design, since, one of the characteristics of the products designed under the open-source scheme is its ability to be modified and adapted to local needs, materials and production processes.

Alberto Rossa-Sierra, Fabiola Cortes-Chavez, David Vidana-Zavala, Maria Giovanna Trotta Munno

Media Convergence in Information Transmission in Museum Space

Museums are important places for people’s access to historical and cultural information. Therefore, people’s experience and perception of information content shall be the main orientation of museum design. By using multiple media to build the exhibition space and interface, designers aim to form varied spatial effects and thereby combine educational functions with entertaining activities. The research content is divided into three parts: 1. An overview of the collisions between human and spatial scenarios in museums; 2. Observation of the expression of human-computer interaction technology in museum information transmission; 3. A brief description of the relation between media convergence and the spatial visual effects experienced by people in museums. In this paper, based on the aforesaid three aspects, the author unfolded a comprehensive discussion and explored the application of these theories in the design of information transmission in the narrative space of museums.

Yongbin Wang, Jian Yu

Design for Inclusion for Apparel and Textile Design


Formation of the 3D Virtual Models for Clothing Fit Assessment Applied in Human Factors

The aim of this study is to reveal the inconsistency of virtual model formations manually created by individual technical designers and to identify effective ways of referencing human body dimensions to develop a prototype virtual model in the industry. In this experiment, the technical designers were asked to create two virtual models based on two types of size charts. The results of the experiment show that the problems of inconsistency were associated with the different perceptions by each technical designer on body dimensions and body proportions based on given charts. In addition, the problems were caused by automatic adjustments in the 3D virtual fitting software program. The limitation of adjustable size scales existed in pre-programed built-in features in the program. The result of this study will provide fundamental and referential materials to enhance and supplement virtual modeling technology.

Hyunjung Lee, Su-Jeong Hwang Shin

Apparels for Comfort. Knitting for People

In garment and fashion design human and technical factors to take into account are multiple, and are reflected in numerous aspects of the product, process and relationship. Comfort of the objects to be projected and produced are an essential element that in many cases is left aside, favoring the aesthetic aspect and social representation. The knitted textile material is a peculiar element which, because of its characteristics, has reserved a prominent place in the field of fashion design and is characterized by the possibility of creating its own textile surface. Knit material, like any other textile surface, includes and promotes a material and immaterial culture representative of the social and communal world. This paper intends to argue and approximate the different characteristics provided by the knitted textile material to the needs of the users and in particular the possibility of co-creating clothing adapted to the needs of the users.

Gianni Montagna, Cristina Carvalho, Carla Morais

Performative Approaches in Designing Costumes: Ergonomics in Immersion and Storytelling

The case studies explore experimental practices and approaches to design based on costumes that lead to the characters’ construction and of the plot itself and thus contribute to the immersion of performers and spectators into corresponding fictions. Semiotics and somatics gather in a visual vocabulary based on textiles, colors and garment shapes that tell stories, taking spectators to plausible universes or situations contextualized scenically. Participatory design is considered, with costumes as working tools for performers and directors. User-centered design processes that include the moving body as the mill of a costume’s definition promote a staging under construction that turns the plot into a metaphor of the costumes’ facets. This brings new symbolic and theoretical frameworks for both performing and designing. Thus, ergonomics is central in the creative process, implying original designs for these staging practices with no preliminary grounds and that rely on costumes as triggers for acting.

Alexandra Cabral, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo

Reliability of Anthropometric Reference Data for Children’s Product Design

In the United States, children’s body dimensions are significantly different from what they have been in the past. Dissatisfaction with current children’s clothing sizes and mismatched furniture are often reported in the industry. Children often show improper sitting posture in class due to mismatched sets of desks and chairs. A reliable reference for children’s anthropometric data is needed to improve children’s products’ safety, comfort, and fit in the environment. The aim of this study was to provide the most up-to-date children’s anthropometric data for 6 to 11 year-olds in the United States and examine the reliability of anthropometric reference data for children’s products. This study was conducted at Texas Tech University, one of the scan sites for a national sizing survey, Size NorthAmerica (Size NA led by Human Solutions Inc.). A total of 21 girls between the ages of 6 and 11 participated in the study with IRB approval. A set of 52 body dimensions in each child was scanned with a laser-based 3D body scanner. The measuring procedure was compatible with ASTM standard measurement definitions in accordance with ISO 8559 (garment construction and anthropometric survey) and ISO 7250 (basic human body measurements for technological design). Current children’s body dimensions were significantly different from the anthropometric reference size charts for children’s product design. Results in this study would provide insight into the need for developing reliable anthropometric reference data for children’s product design.

Su-Jeong Hwang Shin, Mona Maher

Dynamic Wardrobe from a User’s Perspective – A Previous Survey Study for Female Students

Evaluating all phases of Fashion Products, it is realized that the linear make-disposal model of Fashion has no longer future. This wasteful and polluting system has been replaced more and more by strategies based on a circular economy which aims to keep the highest clothing value, textiles and fibers during the use and re-enter the economy afterwards, never ending up as waste. The sustainable concepts of the new textile economy can provide new products and new services models that would enhance the benefit experienced by customers. With the aim to know the opportunity of people having a dynamic wardrobe (based on second-hand clothes, rental or personalized clothes) the present study shows a survey results on academic female population in order to investigate which items they most like and would never leave their closets. We realized that in 25 female students there is an interest for the same types of clothes and colors, even finding that the way the Fashion System is currently based is completely out of step with consumer behavior.

Carla Morais, Cristina Carvalho, Gianni Montagna

Parametric Design for the Construction of a Corset Surface Based on Historical Female Bodies

This work shows the results of a research project which goal was to make a geo-historical study on clothes used by four civilizations: Rome, Greece, Egypt and India. A bibliography search was done, online museum image databases and other sources were accessed in order to have a photographic record of statues and female tridimensional figures corresponding to the selected historical periods and parts of the world. The method included a partial reconstruction of the body, referencing the sculptural representation of female beauty in those ancient civilizations. After the reconstruction an indirect extraction of anthropometric measurements was made over 2D images, and those data were fed into a generative design software to model a tridimensional torso. The outcome is a ‘historical-customizable’ 3D model that can be applied to the production of clothing and historical costumes.

Felipe Zapata-Roldan, Blanca Echavarria-Bustamante

Exploring Fashion Design Methods: Understanding Human Factors in New Society Contexts

In the last decades the progressive technological advances have been changing dramatically the way we experience life, shaping the relationships that we establish with what surrounds us in new unprecedented ways. By changing who we are and what we perceive to be, this phenomenon gradually created an individual that is self-aware and self-sustainable.Technological advances change communication forever and the individual sees its existence split between two different worlds: the actual and the virtual. In this new era of existence new necessities arise from a body that finds new ways of experiencing its limitations (and enhancements).In a time of growing individuality and with much more technological power at finger disposal, all users and especially new designers and design students, are allowed to play the “individuality game” even if dominated by rules of big corporations and globalized interests. It’s a quest for self-identity and affirmation that we seek on the things we do, the things we buy and the people we connect, in order to make a statement on our person and nature.Fashion design as a privileged means of communication is a great way for creativity and self-expression of the individual, playing and acknowledging his individual role.This paper is part of a PhD research on the influence of the digital tools and digital environments in human creativity and concept development, in the specific case of fashion design products. With this paper we intend to comprehend how human beings have evolved culturally and socially so we can identify the most reliable paths to an efficient generative experience, regarding human factors and the users necessities and expectations. It’s an attempt to map the actual human positioning on how we connect with each other and with the environment.The digital environments induce a drastic change in the way research, concept development and project communication are made, changing forever the practice of design. The full understanding of the creative potential of digital languages is a real necessity to those who want to be prepared to the uncertain future of fashion design. Regarding this, the results of this study will help to understand how the fashion designer of the future will need to be, how he will act and how he will think.

Luís Ricardo Santos, Gianni Montagna, Maria João Pereira Neto

Impact of a New Designed Automation Process in Textile Natural Fibers and Yarns Dying

The fierce competition in the textile sector, especially due to the producers in Turkey, China, India, etc., implies the development of new competitiveness strategies based on cost reduction in the dying process at the same time as ensuring the quality of the products to the required standards.The solution developed by a team of researchers within the National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather and successfully implemented in the economic environment consists in the design and realization of an electronic and automation system that ensures the process of textile fiber dyeing under conditions efficiency and increased productivity that responds to the technical and quality performance requirements imposed on end-user products and by consumers.The proposed technological solution is based principally on generating the turbulence stream of the solution in the dyeing bath by driving the main pump motor and maintaining the flow rate in the dye vessel constantly by actuating the float pump motor.Using the theories of fluid mechanics, optimization of the recirculation pump speed regime in under pressure textile fiber dyeing processes has demonstrated that the implementation of the technological solution leads to a turbulent regime that ensures the uniformity of the solution in the dying bath, while reducing energy consumption and energy costs, increased productivity through better process control, increased equipment lifespan, and decreased maintenance time.

Alexandra Ene, Carmen Mihai, Emilia Visileanu, Cristian Jipa

Lean Manufacturing Model for the Reduction of Production Times and Reduction of the Returns of Defective Items in Textile Industry

Textile garment industries must be readily aware of the system’s current situation, respond quickly to changes in style to process orders on time, and manage an appropriate method of work to avoid production delays. In addition, the textile sector plays an important role because it presents a significant weight in the world economy. Likewise, this sector is considered influential when defining an international business agreement. Therefore, adequate management is required in the sector. Otherwise, it will generate a competitive disadvantage because the Peruvian industry is approaching an export recession. This paper proposes using the lean manufacturing methodology to reduce production times. The project is validated through a simulation of the current and proposed processes with the application of lean thinking tools to reduce waste (manufacturing process times).

Yanira Andrade, Leslie Cardenas, Gino Viacava, Carlos Raymundo, Francisco Dominguez

Ancient Handcraft Improved by New Material

The bobbin lace is considered an ancient handcraft. It already exists for more than 500 years as we can see it at the city of Peniche in the country of Portugal. Of course, it hasn’t a linear story to write about the bobbin lace. It was weave as the same manner, using the same technique over the years, and the same material was been used, the cotton wire.Following the new tendency of the world and using the skill that the technology brings to us, we are improving this ancient technique. With an interventionist methodology we introduce a new material. Replacing the cotton thread, we proposed to weave with the ceramic wire. Maintaining the same technique of weaving we got different results what bring to us the conception of new other objects.

Cristina Carvalho, Isabel Bieger, Gianni Montagna

Solutions in Designing of the Composite Textile Structure Destined to Block, Intake and Storage of the Petroleum Residues Due to Natural Disasters

To floating dams for limiting the expansion of the hydrocarbon film to the sea surface, different physicochemical processes are used which consist in the gelation of the marginal portion of the oil film by polymerization or by the dispersal of various products that prevent the expansion of the oil pan by altering superficial tension contact oil.For the design of the composite structure destined to the blocking, capture and storage of the oil fractions, several structural analyses has been performed by considering the initial conditions differentiated as a function of wind force measured on Beaufort Scale.In this respect, a specialized software that allows the setting of calculation parameters, performing actual calculations, processing, visualization and export of numerical data was used.The structural analysis was based on the theories of continuous medium mechanics.The values resulting from the structural analysis for: structural deformation, Von Mises stress values, displacement vectors, as well as those resulting from the use of membrane theory, allowed the determination of the structural parameters necessary for the design of the textile structure.

Carmen Mihai, Alexandra Ene, Emilia Visileanu, Cristian Jipa

Changes in Physical and Technical Characteristics of Raw Materials in the Process of Making a Bra

The amount of raw materials possible to be found in the construction of a bra is huge. Such diversity in this single product makes its execution very complex. This study focuses on the relationship that exists between the processes that the materials experience and their result in the fitting moment. When the bra samples are developed in the development office, the tolerances allowed and the repression that the materials experience are different from the results obtained when the same product is run in a mass production. It is important then to understand the discrepancies that exist during both processes and how they can be taken care of. For that, it is necessary to identify and handle those several factors to minimize the suffering of raw materials.

Ana Filipe, Gianni Montagna, Cristina Carvalho

Use of 3D Printing and Nano Materials in Fashion: From Revolution to Evolution

The purpose of 3D technology is to transform the most challenging concepts into reality. In Fashion, 3D printing is continually evolving with the designers’ interest and professionals in technology. It opens new avenues of fascinating and endless possibilities for fashion designers. In this process the object is created layer by layer without any mould, based on its design which was developed through Computer Aided Design (CAD) and use powder particles materials, like plastics, metals, and resins etc. 3D printing offers different perspectives in almost every field of life. This innovation has impacting the new industrial revolution and creating vibes, in majorly all the industries. Including high fashion apparels and could change the future of both Haute Couture and Pret. Regarding three dimensional printing there are various ways and technologies have been developed by the professionals, but this outrageous technology is having an obstacle in fashion apparels, like materials, which are mainly synthetics and lacking the natural properties to produce desired silhouettes.

Javed Anjum Sheikh, Muhammad Faisal Waheed, Ahmad Mukhtar Khalid, Ijaz A. Qureshi

Cognitive Behavior Difference Based on Sensory Analysis in Tactile Evaluation of Fabrics

The hand evaluation of fabric is the psychological cognition and experience when people interact with fabrics and clothing. In this study, the subjective evaluation method was used to evaluate the tactile properties of 11 fabrics to find out the cognitive behavior difference in tactile evaluation. 30 subjects were selected for tactile sensory evaluation. The results were collected by a 5-level scale sheet, and were analyzed by Excel and SPSS. Based on the evaluation results, in sensory evaluation, there was a short-term memory effect, which led to a difference in subsequent illusory memory (DIM), it affected the results of sensory evaluation. There was a cognitive behavior difference in tactile evaluation of fabrics. In a sensory evaluation sequence for thickness test, the evaluation value was influenced by the previous sample. Cognitive evaluation of thickness of fabric was also affected by its surface property.

Jun Zhang, Hui Tao, Xuewei Jiang

Human Factor in Apparel and Fashion Exhibition Design

The need to preserve past cultures, textile and clothing creations, identities of a society in a certain time period, made the development of exhibition design area relevant. Exhibition spaces must give innovative answers to the aspirations of the society, which are the visitors, reason of being of its existence. In this framework, human factor is essential in the exhibition design field.The present article intends to address essential points regarding human factor in its relation with the design of exhibitions of fashion and clothing products. Thus, we intend to equate and emphasize the role of the exhibition designer in solving issues related to human factors, both with regard to exhibition design projects and also with regard to the visitor/user experience of the exhibitions. In this sense, through the literature review and the presentation of examples it is our intention to clarify concepts and modes of action.

Catarina Carreto, Rui Carreto

Distribution of Clothing Pressure in Support Knee-High Socks and Its Evaluation

The relationship between clothing pressure and the evaluation of tightness of the lower leg and foot was examined. Participants were nine young Japanese women in their twenties. Clothing pressures were measured adopting a hydrostatic-pressure balanced method as participants wore three SKSs while standing. The pressure feeling was evaluated employing a ratio scale. The order of the average clothing pressure was sample A > sample B > sample C. However, the feeling of pressure was not in the same order (B > A > C). Our results show that the feeling of tightness depends on the position on the body, and the distribution of clothing pressure is thus important in the development of SKSs. A preferred SKS provides higher pressure for the foot than for the calf/ankle.

Tamaki Mitsuno, Aya Yamagishi, Mayuko Takenaka

Woven Fabrics Specially Designed for Thermal Protection and System Recovery of Air Vehicles

The textile industry is an innovative field, a generator of competitive products, absolutely indispensable to many other fields (aeronautics, medicine, shipping, agriculture, environmental protection etc.)In this philosophy, important researches have been carried out in order to develop new generations of textile products for strategic applications.The paper presents important issues regarding: the role of helicopter thermal protection system as well as parachute recovery in the main system (supersonic aircraft); design of thermal protection woven structure for thermal protection of the helicopters as well as the woven structure for main parachute of recovery systems for landing of the supersonic aircraft, based on aerodynamic characteristics and areas of use; the main fabric structure characteristics used in the two systems; description of the phenomena occurring on the main parachute canopy at landing of the supersonic aircraft; structural analysis of the main parachute canopy of the aircraft deceleration system; the interdependence between the aerodynamic, geometric and mass characteristics of the considered systems and the characteristics of the fabric. The design and realization of these product types are based on the specific requirements imposed by its fields of application, which governs the system and the selection of components. Typical design and delivery criteria have been considered: safety in operation (the criterion of the greatest importance); mass and volume in order to efficiently use the loading value; stability; reproducibility of performance, etc.

Carmen Mihai, Alexandra Ene

A Pilot Study of a Hygienic Mask Sheet Pattern to Prevent Air Flow Through Gaps

Hygienic masks are highly useful in healthcare. However, when a commercially available mask is worn, the air gap at the upper edge of the sheet can allow contaminants to reach the wearer’s nose and mouth. Here, we aim to identify a novel pattern for a hygienic mask sheet that does not form an air gap. Three-dimensional (3D) scans of the facial shapes of a female mannequin and female human subjects were obtained using a 3D analyzer. A two-dimensional sheet pattern was derived based on the facial coordinate data and a prototype sheet was fabricated using the optimized pattern for the mannequin. In a fitting test, the sheet was well fitted to the face, especially on the upper edge. Moreover, the facial coordinates relative to the nose tip in the subjects were similar to those in the mannequin. Thus, the proposed approach is expected to be applicable to other females.

Mika Morishima, Tamaki Mitsuno

Research on the Characteristics of Hand Shape in Different Countries

For a long time, science has been dedicated to revealing various indicators of the human body, including height and weight. The same purpose is also for this paper. Based on data on the hand of people from ten different countries, this paper do some research with the help of multi-variate analysis tools. According to the different characteristics of the data, this paper first carried out the analysis of variance on hand length. Then, according to the different dimension of hand shape, including the vertical length of the palm, the metacarpal and the length of the index finger, factor analysis was carried out, and two influence factors were extracted. Then, multiple regressions were performed on these variables, at the same time, stepwise regression method was adopted, and the main independent variables were chose from the constructed model. Finally, gender is set to a dummy variable to study the impact of gender differences on the hand length.

Jing Zhao, Fan Zhang, Gang Wu, Chao Zhao, Haitao Wang, Xinyu Cao

Research on Human Factors Engineering for the Innovative Design of Work Clothes for Couriers

This research focuses on the investigation based on human factor engineering, and explores the relationship between human body and clothing from different aspects. It discusses that clothing materials, sizes, styles, and colors can better meet the physiological and psychological needs of couriers when they work, takes into account the relationship among courier, clothing, and working environment, points out the limitations of courier’s work clothes at present, and proposes new design methods. Finally, according to the principle of design optimization, a more comfortable, multi-functional, healthy, safe, and fashionable couriers’ work clothes is pointed out, which provides guidance for the improvement of the couriers’ work clothes with multi-functional and innovative design.

Longlin Luo, XiaoPing Hu

Biodigital Design and Functional Visualization of Multi-Class Personalized Compression Textiles for Ergonomic Fit

Functional compression textiles have been widely applied in fields of medical, healthcare, rehabilitation, sports and personal protection. The global compression wear market is expected to grow at a CAGR (Compound Average Growth Rate) of 5.1% during 2017–2022. The rising of chronic venous disorders (CVD) (e.g. varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis, lymphedema) and the steady rise of fitness and sports industry are the major drivers to push up the potentiality of compression textiles globally. However, user-oriented ergonomic fit and personalized pressure designs for precise individualized treatment have not matured. The aim of this study is to establish a new compression textiles design-development-assessment system including modular structured sections of 3D body scanning, 3D digital seamless knitting and 3D biomechanical visualization, based on medical magnetic resonance scanning images, leg anthropometry and finite element model, to enhance design efficiency, treatment precision, user fit and compliance of compression textiles in practice. The visualized pressure profiles along lower limbs lengthwise and crosswise as well as internal stress and tissue deformations can be quantitatively detected via new system to guide technical design and functional assessment of multi-class compression textiles. The pressure dosages calculated by FE model presented a favorable agreement with the experimental data, demonstrating its practicability. This new biodigital-based compression design approach raised functional performance of ergonomic design of compression textiles and enhanced our understanding on effects of varying textile design parameters on pressure dosages delivery for CVD treatment.

Rong Liu, Bo Xu, Chongyang Ye

The Application and Development of Smart Clothing

Smart clothing is a hot research topic in recent years, it is also the application and exploration of intelligent manufacturing in the textile and clothing field. This paper analyzed the design focus and the development trend of the smart clothing through expounding the application, the characteristics, and the domestic and international research progress of smart clothing.

Jia Lyu, Yue Sui, Dongsheng Chen

A Classification of Care Apparel Characteristics for Disabled User Requirement

Care apparel market for disabled customers in Hong Kong is substantially grown up over last decade. Disabled users could hardly find their required apparel products. It was found that the clothing needs of disabled users tend to have the functional and aesthetic elements of apparel product, which are key factors to determine the feasibility of production method. The study aims at to classify the apparel characteristic based on disability level of users, in order to assist care apparel development in production and market. Observation and interviews were made with the disabled customers. The result revealed that the user expectations for apparel product were classified into three groups based on characteristics of current products.

Qilong Feng


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