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About this book

This book reports on topics at the interface between manufacturing, mechanical and chemical engineering. It gives special emphasis to CAD/CAE systems, information management systems, advanced numerical simulation methods and computational modeling techniques, and their use in product design, industrial process optimization and in the study of the properties of solids, structures, and fluids. Control theory, ICT for engineering education as well as ecological design, and food technologies are also among the topics discussed in the book. Based on the 2nd International Conference on Design, Simulation, Manufacturing: The Innovation Exchange (DSMIE-2019), held on June 11-14, 2019, in Lutsk, Ukraine, the book provides academics and professionals with a timely overview and extensive information on trends and technologies behind current and future developments of Industry 4.0, innovative design and renewable energy generation.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Manufacturing Engineering

Frontmatter

Case Study of Model-Based Definition and Mixed Reality Implementation in Product Lifecycle

In the new era of Industry 4.0, new strategies and approaches for the use and storage of product and data processing over the entire product life cycle are developed. One of these approaches is Model-Based Enterprise/Definition. This approach attempts to place the relevant information in a single model, avoiding unnecessary interfaces between different tools and documents and redundant data. Another big trend of the recent time in the industry is the use of virtual and mixed reality in different phases of the product life cycle. The images of product geometry and information can be used virtually in the real environment and the design and processes can be validated before the production begins. This research work aims to research the possibility to combine and practically use the both mentioned technologies in the industrial enterprise processes for certain phases in the product life cycle. The present work examines the possibilities of integrating the advantages of model-based definition into mixed reality and making them usable for business processes. The proposed approach was validated for the valve quality assurance process at Siemens P&G.

Dmytro Adamenko, Robin Pluhnau, Arun Nagarajah

Design Optimization Techniques in Mechanical Design and Education of Engineers

With each year computerized tools for mechanical design become more comprehensive and contain a great variety of tools for engineers. Using the tools as black box solutions contains a lot of risks. In the field of CAD/CAE in mechanical design one of the hot topics is the optimization of the shape of a structure complying to certain boundary conditions to make a structure lighter and thus more economic. Although these techniques have been described a long time ago, through to recent developments in additive manufacturing and other prototyping techniques which make it possible to make the resulting structures, the tools are currently gaining a lot of importance and are being implemented. In the article we consider a case study to show the differences between topological and parametrical optimization for the same task. Based on this example the authors would like to stress the importance of the correct implementation of these two approaches and the importance of teaching the methodology and not only tools in the engineering study.

Peter Arras, Galyna Tabunshchyk

Prospects of the Implementation of Modular Charging Stations Based on IoT to the Infrastructure of the Automotive Industry

The article is focused on the investigation of the modular hybrid type of intelligent charging stations and their application in the automotive market infrastructure. A study of this market has shown that customer requirements are not fully satisfied. Besides, the current market state of charging stations requires the best service to be provided to its customers. The importance of supporting demand on such vehicles is caused by the current state of ecology in the world. The performed analysis has revealed an insufficient level of providing the market with the necessary infrastructure, in particular, the lack of a sufficient number of charging stations for electric vehicles, especially in the European market. The evaluation of the activity of the main suppliers of charging stations in the world market was carried out in order to find the best solution. According to the analysis, it was proposed to introduce the modular hybrid charging station that allows to extend the demand for electrical vehicles (EV) and to satisfy the expectations of manufacturers and customers. The strength of the proposed device is to integrate existing advanced technologies in order to create a completely new product that corresponds to the trends of Industry 4.0.

Michal Balog, Angelina Iakovets, Hanna Sokhatska

Creative, Quality Oriented Rethinking of the Assessment Strategy at the University Level Courses. A Case Study

One of the main success factors of higher education institutions (but not the only one) is the constant focus on the quality and the continuous improvement of the teaching and learning evaluation process. Orientation towards the innovation, increased attention to the needs and interests of the education customers and stakeholders becomes imperative when universities want to become or remain competitive on the education services market. In this respect, the real involvement of students in their dual quality as internal and external clients in improving the quality of the educational process by considering their opinions and suggestions is proof of the student-centered education and contributes to the motivation and the increase of their satisfaction. This paper represents just a sequence of a more extensive program of the course redesign, carried out at one of the Master’s degree programs from the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, focusing exclusively on the evaluation aspects. The process of the course redesigning was focused on both teaching and learning processes and followed a series of steps, according to a model previously promoted by the author, using a number of innovative methods and tools for each stage.

Alina Narcisa Crisan, Grigore Marian Pop

Numerical Deflections Analysis of Variable Low Stiffness of Thin-Walled Parts During Milling

The milling of parts with variable low stiffness requires consideration of a number of factors that are an obstacle to achieving technological requirements for the product. One of the most important factors of geometrical deviations in the milling process is the elastic deformation of the thin-walled parts. The review of prevention methods of undesirable deviations occurrence in the machining process of the variable stiffness parts is made. A detailed preliminary analysis with the help of engineering automation is proposed as a technological solution for the milling of thin-walled parts with a complex geometry. The forces that occurs during the material removal are calculated, directional force that acts on the face surface of the thin-walled element is defined. The dynamic process of material removing is modeled. The critical points of the thin-walled variable sample in deflections model are defined. The forces in the removal zone have been processed and included in the deflections model. Comparison between oscillation amplitudes in the process of conventional and high speed machining is made.

Sergey Dobrotvorskiy, Yevheniia Basova, Serhii Kononenko, Ludmila Dobrovolska, Maryna Ivanova

Modeling of Mixing Bulk Materials

Based on the analysis of the mixing methods of bulk materials and mixer designs, the method of continuous mixing of bulk materials and the design of a spiral mixer for the implementation of the method is substantiated. The method involves the formation of a multi-layer flow of components in the desired ratio, with subsequent separation of the flow into portions of a small volume and mixing the components in a portion. After that, the mixing of portions of the finished mixture is carried out. The development of a new mixing method is due to the fact that known methods not providing a uniform distribution of components in the volume of the mixture are time-consuming and energy-intensive. Modeling different ways of mixing dragees has proved the effectiveness of the developed mixing method. Experiment has determined values of qualitative indicators of dragee mixes, in particular, the average contents of sweets of different colors of the mixture and the value of the heterogeneity of the mixture. Mixing of bulk materials in the developed way ensures uniform distribution of them in volume of mixture. Theoretical dependences are obtained for substantiation of rational structural and technological parameters of the equipment implementing the proposed method. It has been established that, in addition to improving the quality of the mixture, the developed method and the spiral mixer provide a reduction in the duration of the mixing process, do not cause damage to the components of the mixture and reduce the energy consumption for mixing process.

Igor Dudarev, Ruslan Kirchuk, Yurii Hunko, Svitlana Panasyuk

Information Support for the Quality Management System Assessment of Engineering Enterprises

In the current conditions of production activities, more enterprises are working on the development and implementation of process-oriented management systems that correspond with international standards for management systems. The main purpose of the implementation of such systems is the satisfaction of the requirements of various stakeholders, and the index of their satisfaction becomes the criterion of perfection of the enterprise. Therefore, the task of its quantitative assessment is topical. In the paper for the determination of generalized satisfaction index of stakeholders, on the basis of fuzzy sets theory a scale of values of the linguistic variable “Satisfaction” was developed. This approach allows to assess the compliance degree of stakeholders’ requirements and to present it as a linguistic value for further determination of the directions of improving the quality of the enterprise processes. On the basis of the principles of creating an information system for an engineering enterprise, the paper proposes the information support for the process of quality management system assessment, the main task of which is to create conditions that ensure rational processing and timely provision of necessary information on the functioning assessment results of the system that are under consideration. In the development of information support, the paper takes into account the possibility of using it as one of the blocks of a single information system of the enterprise, which makes it possible to create an information databank, as well as carry out a comparative analysis of the indexes under consideration for any period of time.

Oksana Dynnyk, Yuliia Denysenko, Viliam Zaloga, Oleksandr Ivchenko, Tetiana Yashyna

Programs to Boost IT-Readiness of the Machine Building Enterprises

One of the important aspects of providing the high level of the enterprises competitiveness on the market is existence of the necessary level of IT-readiness. By using the term “IT-readiness” we mean the ability of the enterprise to reach the mission by the most effective use of modern information technologies. There are contradictions between the need of the enterprise operatively to reconstruct design and production structures accordingly to the market condition change and the level of the modern IT use for maintenance of science intensive samples creation projects. The problem situation becomes complicated because of the lack of possibility of the fast development of expensive information support systems through the absence of big financial resources for the machine building enterprises in the conditions of an unstable investment climate and a low level of profitability. It leads to the need of the stage-by-stage IT introduction in the course of a life cycle support of a new equipment creation project that is also a characteristic for the machine building enterprises. It turned out that the high technology development is carried out now under the conditions of essential restrictions of financial resources all around the world. In these conditions one of progressive ideologies is Lean Manufacturing methodology. World experience shows that the success of this ideology introduction is directly connected with an effective use of modern information technologies of the high technology samples design and business management. Thus, an important question is the compliance of the enterprise to the necessary level of IT-readiness which is directly connected with a technological maturity.

Bohdan Haidabrus, Eugen Druzhinin, Mattias Elg, Martin Jason, Janis Grabis

Finite-Element Model of Bimetal Billet Strain Obtaining Box-Shaped Parts by Means of Drawing

The article shows data on determining billet shape while obtaining a box-shaped part from aluminum-copper bimetallic composition. Special attention in the course of finite-element modeling of strain process is paid to the choice of mechanical characteristics of each layer and the nature of the relationship between layers. It is shown that the optimal billet shape for drawing is a “rectangle with cut angles” and copper layer outer position. This billet shape ensures the absence of corrugations with a single junction drawing of aluminum-copper bimetal box-shaped parts, and also provides the least deformation force with minimum intensity of stresses and strains. The absence of folds allows to judge on sufficiently proportionate layer-by-layer strain and preservation of the indissoluble layer-by-layer engagement. This makes possible to design a technological process for the production of bimetallic contacts with the required set of electromechanical characteristics and to recommend it for manufacturing. It is also noted that a more solid and consistent material for obtaining the optimum product handling properties should be located on the outer layer of the part. At the same time, it is advisable to use drawing in the manufacture of bimetallic parts to select, whenever it is possible, materials with approximately the same strength and plastic characteristics, avoiding the occurrence of different stresses in the product layers and, accordingly, distortion or other negative consequences for the finished item. The presence of lamination in a bimetallic composition increases the electrical resistance hundredfold and leads to the product rejection.

Tetiana Haikova, Ruslan Puzyr, Vladimir Dragobetsky, Anastasiya Symonova, Roman Vakylenko

Estimation of Temperature Levels in the Area of Polishing with Polymer-Abrasive Brushes

A technique for measuring and monitoring the temperature in the area of processing with polymer-abrasive (PA) brush tools of rotary action, which have thermal performance limitations due to the low melting temperature of the fiber polymer base, is proposed. There is very contradictory information, which has been obtained mostly theoretically, about temperature level in the working area when polishing with PA brushes. Therefore, experimental thermal studies directly in the “brush-sample” contact zone are relevant. It is important for maintaining high tool-life of brush PA tools. The temperature in the processing zone is influenced by the polishing modes (feed, tension, speed), tool parameters (diameter and length of fibers, which characterize the brush stiffness). The samples were made of different materials (steel 3, aluminum AM12 and titanium VT8-M alloys) in order to evaluate the effect of thermal conductivity on the temperature in the processing area. It was found that the temperatures measured during processing without lubricant-cooling agents were 30…130 °C depending on modes and brush rigidity. The dependence of the maximum temperatures in the “contact patch” on the modes and parameters of the tool when polishing with brushes of various materials was established. Most PA brushes have a thermal limit of 100…120 °C. Most polishing work can be done without lubricant-cooling agents. However, to work on “hard” modes or on materials with low thermal conductivity it is necessary to apply lubricant-cooling agents or brushes with high thermal resistance of fibers (200 °C); such brushes have recently appeared on the market of tools for finishing operations.

Natalia Honchar, Eduard Kondratiuk, Dmytro Stepanov, Pavlo Tryshyn, Olena Khavkina

Analysis of the Involute and Sinusoidal Gears by the Operating Parameters and a New Method of Its Cutting

Today, involute spur gears are the most common in mechanical engineering. However, besides of the benefits, involute teeth present several disadvantages. To overcome those disadvantages, designers resort to changes that increase the complexity of equipment, cutting tools that lead to the expensive cost. On another hand, gear and transmission, namely sinusoidal gear and transmission is known by higher properties. The results of the simulation of involute and sinusoidal gearing are described in the article. Proved that, sinusoidal gears have higher performance parameters. Simulation confirmed that sinusoidal gear have higher bending strength, lower contact stress, reduced contact friction and tension in the edging contact, improved performance indicators of transmission. The advantages are due to the following features of the sinusoidal gears geometry: gear tooth profile outlined by a smooth sine wave curve; greater teeth thickness on the pitch circle; wide range of coast flank pressure angle. A new method of gears machining is described. This technology makes it possible to reduce number of expensive and complex gears cutting tools and gears machine tools, greatly simplifies technology of tooth cutting and reduces the cost of gears manufacturing by a numerous times. The method has a wide versatility, provides the opportunity to produce a variety of gears types including, gears with asymmetric teeth.

Ihor Hrytsay, Vadym Stupnytskyy

Technological Assurance and Features of Fork-Type Parts Machining

To provide the machining accuracy of parts on metal-cutting machine-tools fixtures appointed for accurately locating and reliable workpiece clamping are used. The expansion of technological capabilities of modern CNC machine tools necessitates the improvement of design procedures in production planning is needed. The variety of parts and the tendency to increase their complexity, as well as the desire to reduce the cost of time, makes it necessary to find new approaches to the design of tooling. The article proposes the design of a flexible fixture, which provides sufficient tool availability and allows multiaxis machining of fork-type parts at one setup. The ways of intensification and manufacturing process of fork-type parts machining with a significant reduction of auxiliary and preparatory time are offered. Studies performed by numerical simulation methods confirmed that the proposed design meets all the accuracy parameters. The results of static structural, modal, and harmonic analyses confirmed that the proposed fixture had sufficient strength and dynamic stiffness, which allows it to be used with intensive cutting modes that are characteristic of modern machines and cutting tools. The oscillation amplitudes in places of the work surfaces in the proposed device do not exceed the tolerances for the manufacturing of these surfaces.

Vitalii Ivanov, Ivan Dehtiarov, Ivan Pavlenko, Mykyta Kosov, Michal Hatala

Increasing the Efficiency of the Production Process Due to Using Methods of Industrial Engineering

The thesis deals with the increase of production productivity using industrial engineering methods. Application of lean methods in production process and logistics. (predicate should be added). In the theoretical part of this thesis the knowledge (information in this case is better) drawn from technical literature in the field of industrial engineering is presented. In particular the problem of balancing the production line is described here. The right production cycle is a basic requirement for serial production. Process analysis and the right detail analysis of production operations is the main indicator for batching of the production cycle and the detection of bottlenecks. In the analytical part, an approach to resolving changes on the production line is described. Time analysis of layout changes and decision analysis are described. Narrow spots have been removed by various principles. There has been a change in the layout of the production line and the application of new technology in the control room. The entire study shows the practical verification of the acquired knowledge in the field of industrial engineering and subsequent application in real operation. The project was built on the REFA methodology that was important for balancing manufacturing operations. In order to achieve the optimum production cycle, the layout had to be changed. The new layout contained a decision analysis to determine the right solution. The whole study shows a systematic approach to applying the above methods.

Pavel Kábele, Milan Edl

Recruitment Web-Service Management System Using Competence-Based Approach for Manufacturing Enterprises

Today there are many different web services for employment, but only a few of them have a focus on IT professionals for manufacturing enterprises. There is a need to select applicants with the required competencies with minimal time expenditures. The goal of the paper is to develop the architecture of a web service for the recruitment of employees at enterprises using a competent approach according to the international standards of eCF. In present there is no analogue of our recruitment web-service management system using competency-based approach for both manufacturing enterprises and employees. We prepared review and analysis the existing analogues of web-based job placement services, functional and non-functional requirements for web-based job placement for enterprises using competency approach. The high-level architecture and technical tasks for the participants of our web-based job placement service were also developed and described in our research. Data analysis of employers’ requirements was prepared for decision making of employee of manufacturing enterprises through software package.

Vitaliy Kobets, Nikita Tsiuriuta, Valerii Lytvynenko, Mykola Novikov, Sergey Chizhik

The Application of the Uncorrected Tool with a Negative Rake Angle for Tapered Thread Turning

Based on geometric modeling and FEM, it is developed a technique for choosing the values of geometrical parameters of a threaded turning tool (rake angle, clearance angle, inclination angle of the cutting edge). This technique depends on the allowable values of kinematic rake and clearance angles at different points of the cutting edge and reliability characteristics of the threaded connection—fatigue strength and contact pressure in the thread. Using this technique, it is reasonable to use tools with an uncorrected profile and a negative value of the static rake angle at the nose point −10° for turning the pin thread of the tubing with a diameter of 114 mm, which is made of difficult-to-machine steel. The calculated values of the kinematic rake angles (−4.4°…−5.5°) indicate improved cutting conditions. Fatigue strength of the threaded connection almost does not change, but in order to avoid gaps in the connection, the coupling thread must be made by taking into account the difference in the flank angles of the pin and coupling.

Volodymyr Kopei, Oleh Onysko, Vitalii Panchuk

Simulation of Induction Heating for Railway Wheel Set Elements During Assembly and Disassembly

Induction heating process during wheel assembly, as well as the heater design during railway wheel set axle equipment disassembly, are suggested. Simulation of railway wheel thermal elasticity is carried out in SolidWorks Simulation. Deformation processes at local induction heating are fast and affect the obtained joint dimensions. The obtained data make it possible to set the time and dimensional parameters of the assembly technological process. The design of an induction heating unit for axle equipment elements removal is proposed. In the view of workability, the inductors with cylindrical encircling coil made of a solid copper conductor or copper tube are considered the best. In order to make heating the most effective, the inner surface of coil must be as close as possible to the heated surface. At the same time, the heater moves freely upon the part. It is necessary to use inductors with magnetically conductive system to decrease the dispersion of the magnetic field in the air and to enrich its concentration in the part material. The part or the parts group being heated is an element of inductor magnetic system. It is recommended to perform heating of the whole package simultaneously—two bearing rings and a labyrinth sealing—to increase the process capacity of induction heating unit.

Oleksandr Kupriyanov, Serhey Romanov

Investigation of the Dynamic State of Adjustable Milling Heads

The problem of improvements in machining large dimension flat surfaces of width 400 mm and closed ones, which are under the presence of engaging step on the sides, of unfinished workpieces productivity is considered. It is proposed to use milling heads with adjusting the milling width for the mentioned surfaces machining. A variant of the mill design has been developed, where the spindle block containing two face mills with intersecting cutter trajectories can be rotated by an angle in the range of 0°–360°. The dynamic characteristics studies into dedicated CMH with adjusting the milling width have been conducted. It has been established based on the three-mass dynamic model of the mill that rigidity changes in the feed plane even by 10% leads to a change in the main semi-axis of the ellipse of the movement trajectory along the yi axis, while the change in the second axis can be considered as insignificant (up to 3%). It has been established that the proper selection of the mills’ system resulting rigidity can achieve tool operation stability and accuracy in size and geometry of the workpiece surface based on the study of the design of dynamic characteristics.

Pavlo Kushnirov, Dmytro Zhyhylii, Oleksandr Ivchenko, Artem Yevtukhov, Oksana Dynnyk

Experimental and Analytical Study of CBN Grinding of Welded Martensitic Aging Steel

Martensitic aging steels (Marging steels—MS) are high-alloyed low-carbon (0.03% C) structural steels based on the Fe–Ni and Fe–Cr–Ni systems, additionally doped with cobalt, molybdenumtitaniumetc. The article presents the results of studying of the grinding process of martensitic aging steels. The physical nature of the transformations occurring in the surface layer of the grinded surface under the influence of the contact grinding temperature is considered. The steels are heated for hardening up to temperatures approximately 1200 °C. At this temperature, the intermetallic compounds of the alloying elements (usually fine and solid) dissolve in the solid solution. With rapid cooling at rates above the critical hardening rates, a decarburized “soft” martensite is formed, in which the intermetallic compounds are dissolved. This is followed by aging at temperatures of about 480–520 °C. Under the effect of tempering temperature, the precipitation hardening of steel occurs, which consists in the fact that intermetallic compounds in a finely dispersed state are separated from a solid solution and block dislocation movement, because of which the steel acquires high mechanical properties. Under the action of contact grinding temperature 550–600 °C these properties can be lost. The dependence of the contact temperature on the modes of borazon grinding is shown. The research is aimed at creating a database of permissible grinding conditions, the use of which provides optimal contact temperatures and a defect-free surface layer.

Vladimir Lebedev, Vladimir Tonkonogyi, Tatiana Chumachenko, Nataliya Klymenko, Olga Frolenkova

Effects of the Combined Laser-Ultrasonic Surface Hardening Induced Microstructure and Phase State on Mechanical Properties of AISI D2 Tool Steel

The surface layers of AISI D2 tool steel were hardened by a laser heat treatment (LHT), by an ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) and by a combined laser-ultrasonic treatment (LHT + UIT). The peculiarities of microstructure and phase formations in the surface layers were analyzed after the above-mentioned surface treatments performed in the optimum regimes. Microstructural changes were studied using an optical and a transmission electron microscopy to corroborate the results of XRD analysis. Based on the experimentally obtained data regarding the grain/subgrain size, the dislocation density, and the volume fraction and size of carbides, the differentiated contributions of various hardening mechanisms to the mechanical characteristics (σ0.2, HV) were theoretically assessed. The results indicated that the contribution of the grain boundary hardening is the most influential one among the hardening mechanisms in the cases of the LHT (~47%) and combined LHT + UIT (~51%) processes. Conversely, the dislocation hardening (~34%) mainly contributes to the UIT induced hardening. The yield strength values calculated based on the microstructural studies correlate well with the experimental data describing the surface microhardness.

Dmytro Lesyk, Silvia Martinez, Bohdan Mordyuk, Vitaliy Dzhemelinskyi, Oleksandr Danyleiko

Temperature Field Analysis in Grinding

The paper is devoted to solving an important scientific problem of determining the profile grinding temperature based on the choice of a not complex but at the same time adequate solution from the available analytical ones. The initial prerequisite for the paper developing concept is that of a moving heat source. In engineering applications, the moving heat source is often represented in the form of a moving contact zone between the grinding wheel and the workpiece surface. The source forms around itself a three-, two- or one-dimensional temperature field in the Cartesian coordinate system with (three-dimensional) and without (two- or one-dimensional) taking into account the influence of the source length in the direction, which is perpendicular to the direction of the source moving, respectively. There is another possibility to simplify the determination of grinding temperature by choosing a one-dimensional solution of the differential equation of heat conduction in which the moving heat source is absent and replaced by the time of action of an unmoving heat source. This time is equal to the ratio of the contact length (in the direction of moving) to the velocity of its movement. Due to the high speeds of the discontinuous profile grinding process, the replacement of the moving source with the unmoving (stationary) one often does not affect the accuracy of determining the profile grinding temperature on the surface and in a thin surface layer.

Natalia Lishchenko, Vasily Larshin

Development of a System for Supporting Industrial Management

Mass customization is the most current production paradigm in organizations that depend heavily on the demands of their customers and with the ambition to stand out from the high competition in the market. However, given the increasing diversity of products that this type of production implies, implementing it in a company involves challenges, mainly in the Product Data Management (PDM). Thus, information technology and systems, more specifically Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), are other determining factors for the success of organizations, allowing them to be more efficient through the integration of information. In response to a better functioning in the production planning and control (PPC), with the increasing expansion, the company Be Stitch directed the production of textile articles for the home market, and decided to innovate investing in an information system, allowing to adapt the way in which it operates and generates the required PPC information. With the phases of analysis, selection and survey of requirements carried out for the initial phase, the present project appeared as a follow-up to develop a software—Silex—being presented and specified the main functionalities needed, implemented and tested. After being developed and implemented in the company, this software has shown an improvement in the flow of information and is very beneficial in cases where the information is not centered in a certain point, as is the case of Be Stitch, which has streamlined and improved the communication between them.

Susana Martins, Maria Leonilde Rocha Varela, José Machado

Technology Support for Protecting Contacting Surfaces of Half-Coupling—Shaft Press Joints Against Fretting Wear

The paper describes the problem associated with the destruction occurred because of fretting wear (FW) of contacting surfaces of elastic coupling (EC) parts, among which the most attackable connection is a tension fit joint of half-coupling—shaft type, wherein the shaft outer cylindrical surface makes contact with the half-coupling inner cylindrical surface. The essence of the most known methods for improving the quality of press joints (increasing bearing capacity, raising joint tightness and shaft strength, as well as reducing FW) is in introducing certain intermediate layers between mating surfaces of parts. In contact, those intermediate layers get properties being significantly different from the original ones, i.e., the transferring occur of such a feature as sliding ability into the intermediate medium. As a novelty, to create such layers, it shows the application of the electric spark alloying (ESA) method, as the most promising, eco-friendly and energy-efficient. The paper presents the ESA processes of aluminizing, sulfidizing and carburizing, which simultaneously occur on the internal surfaces of the half-coupling (hub) in the areas of its ends, and make it possible to improve atmospheric corrosion (fretting corrosion) resistance, prevent adhesion between contacting surfaces, improve surface micro hardness and wear resistance, as well as provide for increasing the joint tightness.

Vasyl Martsynkovskyy, Viacheslav Tarelnyk, Ievgen Konoplianchenko, Oksana Gaponova, Mykhailo Dumanchuk

Numerical Prediction of the Elastic and Strength Properties of Woven Composites

The article is devoted to the development of the procedure for the numerical determination of effective elastic constants and parameters of the strength criterion of woven composites based on known properties of the matrix and fibers. The mechanical characteristics of carbon plastics were obtained by numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of a representative volume using finite element software package ANSYS. A series of numerical experiments is performed in which a local stress state of a representative volume is modeled under the conditions of a uniform average stress state of an equivalent homogeneous material. Requirements of periodicity are used as boundary conditions. The calculations are performed for tension and compression in two directions, shears in two planes and two tensions simultaneously in two directions. For composites all the parameters of the quadratic strength criterion are determined. The proposed criterion takes into account the orthotropy of the material and the differences in the tension and compression strengths.

Andriy Mikhalkin, Oleksii Petrov, Igor Kravchenko, Gennadiy Lvov, Olga Kostromytska

Technical-Economic Aspects of the Use of Technological Process of Deforming Broaching

The article gives a definition of the technical and economic potential of the application of the deforming broaching process. Research of the consequences of introducing deforming broaching into technological processes at manufacturing enterprises is carried out on the basis of application of system resource and matrix approach. On the basis of the performed researches, a methodological basis for the economic evaluation of the results of applying deforming broaching on the production has been developed. The article has improved the well-known scientific and methodological foundations for the determination of technical and economic results of the application of deforming broaching due to the complex identification of production-organizational decisions—in technical and forms of evaluation in economic spheres. The developed approach gives an opportunity to more accurately assess the economic effect of introducing deforming broaching on the mining, metallurgical and machine building industries. It can be used to assess the economic effect of introducing other process parts processing.

Yakiv Nemyrovskyi, Eduard Posvyatenko, Sergii Sardak

Data Integration Technology of Industrial Information Systems

Research results on the development of an information support system for data integration from integrated production systems are presented. The way of information systems integration is offered. The corresponding method is based on data integration of information systems both for production purposes and for generating a subsystem of implementing the developed methods. As a result, this approach allows adopting optimal design and manufacturing solutions. The method is implemented using a universal PDM system and intermodulation software interface. The formal information models of data and methods of maintaining a full life cycle of information are created. This approach allows implementing the information support technology for the integration of production data. A functional-structural scheme for the implementation of the proposed method is described. The recommendations for practical use in the conditions of operating industrial enterprises are given. Developing this approach, the authors conducted a study on the formalization and modeling of design, production and normative reference data of the machine-building enterprise. Semantic modeling of data is carried out, design procedures for establishing their interconnections are developed.

Petro Pavlenko, Vira Shendryk, Kostyantyn Balushok, Stanislav Doroshenko

Challenges and Issues of ICT in Industry 4.0

Information and communication technology continues to positively impact many stages of the manufacturing environment. Intelligence is about to be shared from the start to the end of the supply chain. Internet of Things (IoT) is adding intelligence to endpoints, big data are becoming the new way of running a business and Cloud Computing (CC) is becoming a new data center. The advancement that this technology brings to manufacturing is fundamentally changing individual companies and transforming market dynamics. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is all about including contemporary technologies for processes of automation and real-time data exchange in manufacturing organizations. This paper represents the basis for designing the communication layer of the ecosystem’s value chain depending on the usage scenario within the Industry 4.0 concept. Also, depending on the usage scenario, different service classes are grouped and coverage of the currently available communication networks in the Republic of Croatia is shown. Characteristics and capabilities of Industry 4.0 offer efficient business in the fields of logistics, manufacturing, tourism and smart cities. Also, with increased connectivity it is possible to build smarter supply chains, processes and end-to-end ecosystems.

Dragan Peraković, Marko Periša, Petra Zorić

The Effectiveness of ICT Tools for Engineering Education: ISO Checker

One of the main advantages given by mobile applications are that they are available round the clock, offering a variety of ways of learning, communicating and collaborating. The proposal of the research is the implementation and designing of a mobile-learning application to improve the quality of the teaching process of Tolerances and Dimensional Control for engineering degrees (design, robotics, industrial and mechanical engineering). The studies focused on the impact of mobile learning on student achievement and it showed that this method could be one of the promising educational technologies for development in educational environments. The usage of mobile devices as tools for educational purposes has a positive effect as ISO Checker is available in four different languages, German, English, French and Romanian, it offered the main information which was presented in ISO SYSTEM OF LIMITS AND FITS. Given the current technological innovations, the fact that students are hi-tech learners now, we consider that using of mobile applications integrated into the study of Tolerances and dimensional control stimulates student’s involvement, considering the positive feedback which we had during the first semester of the 2018–2019 academic year.

Grigore Marian Pop, Liviu Adrian Crisan, Mihai Tripa

Improvement of the Technology of Tribostate Application of Powder Paints Using Fractal Analysis of Spray Quality

The paper proposes a method of quantitative fractal evaluation of the quality of powder materials application on metal surfaces by tribostatic method. Design of tribometry spray, which provides efficient charging of powder with different fineness and moisture content of the particles is developed. The computer implementation of the proposed algorithms for assessing and controlling the quality of powder coating is carried out. Laboratory experiments have shown that with an increase in the number of helical elements in the design of the sprayer, the fractal dimension of the corresponding sample images of spraying spots appeared. The results support the hypothesis that the increase in number of the screw elements leads to increase in the length of the path of the powder in tribospayer. This significantly increases the number of collisions between the individual powder particles and the walls of the spray gun, and it contributes to a stronger charging of particles of different types of powder paints and, as a result, reduces the shedding of powder from experimental samples of different materials. The conducted research can significantly optimize the technological processes of tribostatic spraying of powder paints at small enterprises of machine-building or automotive industry.

Serhii Pustiulha, Ihor Holovachuk, Volodymyr Samchuk, Viktor Samostian, Valentyn Prydiuk

Improvement of Manufacturing Technology and Recovery of Clamping Collets for Lathe Automats

On the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations a new advanced technologies of clamping collets manufacturing are offered. The technology of manufacturing non-adjustable and cast collets as well as the technology of their multiple recoveries have been developed. Using these technologies can increase the durability of the clamping collets for lathe automats by 2–5 times with an increasing the coefficient of using the metal from 22–26 to 70–95%. It’s possible due to the choice of an optimal geometry of clamping collets, improving the contact conditions of collets with a spindle and rod, improving the structure of metal and reducing the stress concentrators in the places of transition the collet’s petals. The research presents the main features, principal casting scheme and the operations sequence of cast clamping collets manufacturing technology. The adaptations and formulas to determine the allowance to re-grinding of working hole are presented, the number of recoveries for grinding the outer cone and inner working hole of clamping collets at its recovery is calculated.

Rostyslav Redko, Oleg Zabolotnyi, Olha Redko, Serhii Savchuk, Volodymyr Kovalchuk

The Study of Surface Microgeometry and Morphology of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Dielectric Coatings on Aluminum Alloys

The article focuses on the results of the surface microgeometry and morphology research of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings produced in the alkaline-silicate electrolytes in various electricity modes—galvanostatic (GS) and arbitrarily falling power (AFP) in alternating current modes. PEO coatings were formed on the samples of wrought aluminum alloys, which are normally used for the manufacturing of the diamond grinding wheels bodies. The influence of PEO factors on Ra roughness index as well as porosity, shape and size of the structural particles of the coatings surface was studied. It was established that PEO increases the reference Ra value by a factor of 2…6, depending upon the electrolyte composition and the processing mode. The “liquid glass” (a technical-grade sodium silicate solution) concentration is the key driver of Ra index, its decrease from 12 to 6 g/L leads to roughness reduction by 25…40%. An extreme dependence of Ra index on anode current density in GS mode is identified in the electrolytes with the minimal concentration of the alkaline component of KOH solution. It was demonstrated that the morphology research results qualitatively correlate with the microgeometric and functional coating characteristics.

Elena Sevidova, Yuriy Gutsalenko, Aleksandr Rudnev, Larisa Pupan, Oksana Titarenko

Forecasting of Overloading Volumes in Transport Systems Based on the Fuzzy-Neural Model

The article deals with the expediency of evolutionary models application for obtaining the forecast carried out with the minimal error. In research the analysis of modern approaches to the creation of qualitative forecasting models of overloading volumes of cargo in ports with the use of modern methods was carried out. The relevance of using of such network as ANFIS for forecasting of future delivery volumes of grain to the port is proved by calculation method. Conclusion about the best forecast by means of the model by ANFIS is executed by on the comparison with the results of an ARX system. Use of the last type gives bigger error than the fuzzy-neural model. In research, the preprocessing of the entering data was carried out. This information is presented in the form as time series, which contain 1095 values. The selection procedure of allowed to adjust basic data in terms of the informative ability of each value in time series. The number of the actual input parameters (nodes) in the model is decreased from 7 to 4 after the results of the selection. At the same time, a forecasting error on a control sample made up 4.99%.

Natalya Shramenko, Dmitriy Muzylyov

Experimental Vibrating Complex for the Research of Pressing Processes of Powder Materials

An experimental complex on a high pressure casing was developed for the research of vibrating processes of powder materials pressing. As a high pressure casing hydraulic hoses of high pressure pressed to the elliptic state were used. Hydraulic pump—a pulsator—is the upgraded gear pump in which a quarter of one tooth was cut. The modes of transition of a hydraulic motor through resonance were investigated. It is proposed to use the mode of fluctuation switching from coordinate X to Y and vice versa to create vibrating actuators of periodic action with a large vibration traction effort due to the massive energy storage. The developed experimental complex can be used both for one-sided and for dry isostatic pressing. The complex allows to implement spatial variations of the press-mould. The frequency and oscillation amplitude can be regulated. The frequency can be regulated by changing the turns of the hydromotor, and the amplitude—by changing the pressure values in the system. The method of calculating vibration modules on a high pressure casing is developed.

Dmytro Somov, Oleg Zabolotnyi, Roman Polinkevich, Bohdan Valetskyi, Viktor Sychuk

Determination of Parameters of Cylindrical Grinding with Additional Intermediate Dressing

The searches of technological solutions of the problem of reducing power consumption by metal-cutting machine tools when grinding were performed. For this purpose, it is proposed to perform grinding with additional intermediate dressings of grinding wheels, which should ensure reducing the intensity of heat generation in the cutting zone. Mathematical formulas of tangential cutting force, an effective power, a quantity of heat, grinding time between additional intermediate dressings and dressing time for conventional and proposed dressing schemes are given. Based on the mathematical formulas a computer software for modeling the thermal regime parameters when grinding by introducing into its structure a module for calculating the parameters of grinding with additional intermediate dressings was updated. Multivariate calculation of the parameters of dressing process according to conventional grinding and grinding with additional intermediate dressings was done. An advisable number of additional intermediate dressings is found, depending on the allowable values of the tangential cutting force, a quantity of heat, and time of grinding between the additional dressings.

Mykhaylo Stepanov, Larysa Ivanova, Petro Litovchenko, Maryna Ivanova, Yevheniia Basova

Simulation Study of Cutting-Induced Residual Stress

The use of the finite element analysis (FEA) is an effective method for studying the surface layer deformation appeared from inherited residual stresses. This paper is devoted to the analysis of the effect of residual stresses to the service properties of parts and the development of a cutting-induced residual stresses simulation using the DEFORM software. The influence of residual stresses on the operational properties of machined parts is investigated. The fatigue strength of the product, which is provided as the result of forming in the cutting process of the surface layer structure, residual stresses and deformations, is used as a criterion for the decision-making about optimal structure and parameters of the functionally-oriented technological process. The causes of the occurrence of machine-induced residual stresses for different workpiece materials have been analyzed. The simulation model of residual machining-induced stresses is described. The functional dependence of the stress-strain state reflects the interference pattern of the frictional, force loads and the variable process of the deep thermal effects. It is proved, that the compression part of this cycle is determined by external load, and tensile—by residual stresses.

Vadym Stupnytskyy, Ihor Hrytsay

Preventive Maintenance System in a Company from the Printing Industry

In the face of increasing demand for cardboard packages, proper organisation of production to facilitate rapid response to changing customer requirements has become of utmost importance. The key issue is to maximise equipment uptime and prevent unexpected breakdowns which may halt the production and cause delivery delays which generate delays further in the supply chain. Proper asset management can be supported through the implementation of the Total Productive Maintenance system. This paper presents an original Total Productive Maintenance system developed for a company operating in the packaging industry. The designed documentation and organisation of information flow among the company units aimed at supporting of the TPM system are presented and analysed. The importance of the human factor for the success of the implementation is highlighted, and certain setbacks which may be experienced during the implementation are listed.

Marta Szczepaniak, Justyna Trojanowska

ICT Support for Industry 4.0 Innovation Networks: Education and Technology Transfer Issues

In order to ensure effective participation in the global research and innovation space, the development of scientific digital infrastructure according to priority directions is important. In terms of universities, the development of digital infrastructure is crucial for providing open access to scientific data and knowledge, further commercialization of research, innovation, products and services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to consider the education and technology transfer issues of ICT support for Industry 4.0 innovation networks. Methodology of study is based on system approach to innovation networks development. The study is based on a broad understanding of technology transfer as an exchange of technology, technology knowledge between individuals, enterprises, universities, research centers, and government structures at all levels. The proposed research idea is also based on the concept of integrated technology and the concept of promising (innovation) needs. It is the definition of innovative needs which is a prerequisite for creating a competitive economy, since they determine the qualitative changes in it. It was shown, that application of Industry 4.0 digital and virtual engineering tools allows conducting the R&D processes in computer-aided design systems, which reflects the quality of innovation product and the product launch timing. From the abovementioned perspective, we give the list of the main technological areas of ICT, which form the basis for the high-tech sectors development within Industry 4.0.

Teofilo Tirto, Yuriy Ossik, Vitaliy Omelyanenko

Directed Formation of Quality, as a Way of Improving the Durability of Conjugated Parts of Friction Pairs

In the article the research of possibilities of directed formation of indicators of quality is given, by selecting technological operations and appointment of corresponding processing regimes. Studied approach directed formation of quality, based on the elements of theories of technological inheritance and interference of quality, which can reduce the role of random factors and their complex combinations in the process of providing regulated quality indicators, which in turn reduces the field of dispersion values performance and improves the quality of processed details. It is noted that for implementation of directed formation it is necessary to determine technological parameters, with the help of changing the values of which, it is possible to control the values of their indicators, which evolve in the process of mechanical processing. This will completely eliminate or reduce the impact of those indicators that worsen the performance properties of parts. It was revealed that the nature of manifestations of technological heredity is influenced by the conditions of implementation and the type of technological operations. It is advisable to apply this approach in the initial machining operations in order to initialize the manifestations of those indicators that improve the performance of the parts in general.

Anatolii Tkachuk, Valentyn Zablotskyi, Andriy Kononenko, Serhii Moroz, Stanislav Prystupa

Energy Criterion for Metal Machining Methods

The optimization criteria of manufacturing processes are reviewed. Actual technical, economic and energy criteria used in mechanical engineering technology are analyzed. New energy criterion “action of technological system” is introduced. The proposed criterion is defined as the work of shaping, done over the certain time interval. Investigated criterion is developed for evaluation and selection of technological processes by energy parameters. Mathematic simulation of external turning has been carried out. Analytic relations between the criterion “action of technological system” and cutting parameters have been determined. It has been theoretically established that cutting speed and line feed have the most influence on the investigated criterion. Experimental research of proposed criterion for rough turning and finish turning of external cylindrical surface has been carried out. Empirical relations between the investigated criterion and cutting parameters are determined based on experimental data. Analysis of experimental data for rough turning and finish turning of external cylindrical surface has been provided. Theoretical and experimental data are compared. According to the results, it was proved that line feed and cutting speed have the most influence on the criterion “action of technological system”.

Yurii Yarovyi, Inna Yarova

Materials Engineering

Frontmatter

Functional Properties of PTFE-Composites Produced by Mechanical Activation

The influence of the matrix mechanical activation, fillers of various nature and composition on the structure and functional properties of polytetrafluoroethylene composites is explored. The greatest increase in wear resistance at preservation of high values of physical and mechanical properties of PTFE-composites is observed at the synergetic effect of application of the matrix mechanical activation, fillers, their mixing in two-stage mode and use of a binary filler of various chemical nature. It is revealed that introduction of the binary filler increases wear resistance of the developed composites by (2.6–4.1) times in comparison with two-component composites. The feature of the developed manufacturing technology of PTFE-composites consists in preliminary separate preparation of the matrix and fillers before their mixing by mechanical activation in various modes of the equipment therefore there is an increase in level of their breaking strength by 1.4 times and wear resistances by (3.7–6.0) times in comparison with industrial analogs that increases durability of work of frictional units of the compressor by (1.8–2.3) times.

Kristina Berladir, Oleksandr Gusak, Maryna Demianenko, Jozef Zajac, Anatoliy Ruban

Physical-Mechanical Properties and Structural-Phase State of Nanostructure Wear-Resistant Coatings Based on Nitrides of Metals W and Cr

The methods of obtaining wear-resistant coatings on the basis of W and Cr metal nitrides are considered in this work, their advantages and disadvantages are characterized. The modes of condensation of such coatings with different component ratios in a magnetron system with constant magnets are chosen. The study of microstructure and structural-phase composition was carried out. It has been established that the influence of the precipitation temperature (600 °C) used in this paper has led to a faster growth of grains in the precipitation of Cr-W-N coatings. From the analysis of the elemental composition of the coatings it is possible to observe a clear correlation between the composition of the target and the composition of the coating. Studies carried out on a scanning electron microscope of composite Cr-W-N coatings showed a nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 50 nm. The microhardness of the obtained coatings was investigated and the obtained results were analyzed. The microhardness of the nanosized coatings was about 3 GPa to cover Cr39W11N50 and 5 GPa to cover Cr75W1N24.

Kostiantyn Dyadyura, Valentina Pererva

The Effect of the Hardfacing Processes Parameters on the Carbide Volume Fraction

The paper presents the results of research on the possibility of shaping the hardfacing structure by changing the conditions of the surfacing process. The material used in research was high carbon and chromium a self-shielding cored wire giving the hardness 760–840 HV (62–65 HRC) according to the manufacturer. The obtained hardness of the hardfacing was on the same level or was significant higher. The test results show significant differences in the structure and hardness of the deposits, where differences in the amount of carbide precipitations reach 30%, and differences in hardness reach up to 200 HV. The erosion tests showed that impingement angle 30° gives lower erosion rate than angle 60°. It is possible to shape the structure and properties of hardfacing to a certain extent by selecting the appropriate parameters of the surfacing process. In conditions of this experiment the decisive effects on the properties are played by parameters such as heat input and heat dissipation.

Marek Gucwa, Jerzy Winczek, Sławomir Parzych, Marcin Kukuryk

Implementation of Pipe Steel Grade X52M Manufacturing According to API-5L Requirements Applied to Hot Rolling Mills “1700”

For the first time at rolling mill 1700 facilities, PJSC “Ilyich Iron and Steel Works” of Mariupol, the technology has been developed and the batch of hot-rolled coils (8 × 1260 mm) of steel grade X52M has been produced by the method of thermo-mechanical controlled rolling for further manufacturing of electric-welded pipes in accordance with API-5L. This paper confirms the advantages of the thermo-mechanical rolling method due to special features of the chemical composition and lower strength level during the production in comparison to other rolling methods, and the possibility to apply this method at the equipment that was not designed for manufacturing the products of such strength categories. The positive influence of Nb on microstructure forming and rolling products properties has been confirmed with the thermomechanical rolling method. Additionally, during the production, the controlled air cooling of coils has been applied up to 450 °C after coiling. This ensures the reduction of air scale layer thickness and improves the surface quality, including the surface quality during further manufacturing of electric-welded pipes. The developed technology makes it possible to ensure the production of coils which meet the present-day world requirements and meet the demands of domestic and foreign producers of electric-welded pipes. Next stages of the research to improve the quality and for further development of rolled products production for manufacturing of electric-welded pipes in accordance with API-5L have been determined.

Oleksandr Kurpe, Volodymyr Kukhar, Eduard Klimov, Sergii Chernenko, Elena Balalayeva

A New Technology for Producing the Polystyrene Foam Molds Including Implants at Foundry Industry

Here the description of the possibility of processing technogenic waste polystyrene in binder materials for foundry is provided. The possibility of dissolving polystyrene foam in acetone. Regardless of the amount of acetone that was analyzed, polystyrene absorbs it in a 1:1 ratio, with the formation of a swollen precipitate. The obtained data of the study “polystyrene–acetone” have been successfully used as the basic elements of technology for cellular polystyrene models with implants. Here the prime factor imposing is the kinetics of polystyrene foam in acetone swelling and the swollen foamy polystyrene precipitate composition. The precipitate can be used as a binder for molding compounds. The kinetics of swelling of polystyrene foam and beaded polystyrene in acetone was studied. The data obtained in the study of the system “polystyrene foam–acetone” was used in the manufacture of polystyrene models with implants. The technology for producing polystyrene foam models with implants includes the need to use a special binder for fixing implanted granules on the surface of implanted granules. The research results allowed to propose a new technology for producing foam polystyrene models with implants without using a special binder.

Olga Ponomarenko, Natalya Yevtushenko, Tatiana Lysenko, Liudmyla Solonenko, Vladimir Shynsky

Prediction of Lankford Coefficients for AA1050 and AA5754 Aluminum Sheets Using Uniaxial Tensile Tests and Cup Drawing Experiments

Rolled sheet metals show different mechanical properties and stretching ability in different directions. Anisotropy of these metals should be defined in order to model the behavior of material in different directions for forming operations. Plastic anisotropy of sheet metals is characterized by Lankford Coefficients (R-values). Uniaxial tensile tests are usually employed to determine Lankford coefficients. However, some metals, like aluminum, have limited elongations under uniaxial tension, and the accuracy of tensile tests may be adversely affected due to low elongation before fracture. Recently, instead of uniaxial tensile tests, cup drawing approach is preferred to determine anisotropic properties of sheet metals with low uniaxial elongations. In this study, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to obtain Lankford Coefficients of AA1050 and AA5754 aluminum sheets in the rolling direction (RD), diagonal direction (DD) at an angle of 45° to rolling, and perpendicular (transverse) direction (TD) to rolling. Subsequently, cup drawing experiments were conducted to predict Lankford coefficients using an analytical approach based on relevant literature. The results obtained from uniaxial tensile tests were compared with those obtained from cup drawings.

Sadık Olguner, Ali Tolga Bozdana

Simulation of the Influence of High-Voltage Pulsed Potential Supplied During the Deposition on the Structure and Properties of the Vacuum-Arc Nitride Coatings

TiN films have been deposited on stainless steel plates using plasma based the ion implantation & deposition (PBII&D) with a negative pulse voltage from 850 to 2000 V. According to the results of X-ray structural analysis, the formation of titanium nitride with a cubic crystal lattice of the NaCl structural type is seen to occur. Computer simulation allows determining the depth of the layer that is exposed to the radiation, taking into account all the cascade damage. The depth of the layer varies from 3 to 4.4 nm with an increase of negative impulse potential (Uip) from 850 to 2000 V, respectively. A transition of the texture from [111] to [110] is present in TiN coatings with an increase of Uip. In the case of a pulse duration of 10 and 16 μs in the entire range of Uip used, the following dependences are observed: with the increasing Uip, the deformation of the crystallite lattice decreases with the axis of the texture [111] and increases with the corresponding deformation in the crystallite with the axis of the texture [110].

Nataliya Pinchuk, Oleg Sobol

Modeling of Processes for Creation New Porous Permeable Materials with Adjustable Properties

In this work, forecasting, modeling the patterns of formation of the structure and properties of materials, taking into account the size of the structural elements of the charge, establishing physical connections between the components, structure and properties of the finished product, their operational properties is an actual problem of the material science. Sustained modern trends in industrial development are increasing requirements for the quality of all products types. The practice of calculating new porous materials on fundamental of metal powders shows, that the implementation to the full extent of their strength and exploitation characteristics requires a significant increase in the level of prediction of materials physical and mechanical properties and the development of the new modeling methods, which includes a complex analysis of the materials formation processes. Therefore, the focus is on the model experiments predicting the dependence of the properties of materials on the technological parameters of obtaining products using analytical, numerical and numerical-analytical methods with the help of 3D modeling.

Oleksandr Povstyanoy, Oleg Zabolotnyi, Victor Rud, Andriy Kuzmov, Halyna Herasymchuk

Investigation of Properties of Mg and Al Based Nano Hybrid-Metallic Composites Processed Through Liquid Processing Technique

This research paper provides comprehensive and extraordinary efforts to carry out novel mechanical behaviour, corrosion testing and metallurgical characterization of aluminium alloy (Al-6061) and Magnesium alloy (Mg-AZ91D) reinforced nano-hybrid metallic composites processed using the liquid processing stir casting technique. These stir casted hybrid nano-metallic composites were manufactured using nano size reinforcements that are SiC, Graphite and Alumina of a size of ~100 nm. The finding of comparative results of casted composites was done by using potentio-dynamic polarization tests in the form of capacitance performance of dielectric properties. The results were reported out and the best results were achieved for aluminium reinforced graphite based composites with better corrosion behaviour performances and high hardness and tensile value of the fabricated composites. The experimental data for Mg-Graphite/ SiC/Al2O3 alloy show good arc-like performance over the frequency range with less impedance. The results also illustrated the good arc-like/weber behaviour over the frequency range examined, and indicate decent corrosion behaviour.

Shubham Sharma, Mandeep Singh, N. Jayaram-Babu, Kalagadda Venkateswara Rao, Jujhar Singh

Application of Microphotogrammetric and Material Science Techniques in the Study of Materials on the Example of Alloy AlZnMgCu

The dominant trend of our time is the development of nanotechnology research, which is impossible without the usage of scanning electron microscopy in order to obtain qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the studied micro-objects at the micron and submicron levels. When objects have complex organization (microrelief) and its spatial structure is a priori unknown, it is not possible to interpret correctly the spatial organization or configuration based on only visual qualitative research. Therefore, there is a need to develop new methods that would allow three-dimensional reconstruction of micro-objects. The article proposes a method for calculating the fractal dimension of the fracture surface microrelief based on the digital model of relief and solving the problem of the spatial orientation of the investigated plane for the implementation of the correct analysis of the chemical composition of the prototypes using the energy-dispersion method (EDX). AlZnMgCu aluminum alloys were investigated here. After preparation, they were subject to heat treatment. At the end of the heat treatment, the stretch tests (DIN EN 10002) and shock loads (DIN EN 130148) were followed by further metallographic, microscopic (REM) and energy-dispersive (EDX) investigations. The proposed method and the results showed in this study confirm the presence of the hardening effect under the used heat treatment conditions, which in turn allows further effective prediction of the mechanical properties of various products of the AlZnMgCu system.

Anna Uhl, Yuliia Melnyk, Oleksandr Melnyk, Inna Boyarska, Mykola Melnychuk

Optimal Parameters of Q&P Heat Treatment for High-Si Steels Found by Modeling Based on “Constrained Paraequilibrium” Concept

The article is dedicated to designing the regime of Q&P (Quenching and Partitioning) heat treatment for middle-carbon high-silicon steels 60Si2CrVA and 55Si3Mn2CrVMoNbA in order to improve their mechanical properties. The temperature of suspense of quenching cooling during Q&P treatment was calculated by modeling based on the concept of “Constrained Paraequilibrium” proposed by J. Speer. The values of Ms temperature as well as the kinetics of martensitic transformation for both steels were experimentally found to be incorporated into the model. It was derived from the modeling that quenching stage should be finished when reaching the steel temperature within the range of 150–220 °C which guarantees the highest volume fraction of retained austenite in the microstructure (together with tempered martensite). The results of calculations were verified by XRD measurements of retained austenite in Q&P treated specimens being found as 17 vol% for steel 60Si2CrVA and 28.5 vol% for steel 55Si3Mn2CrVMoNbA which are lower then predicted values. The probable reasons of this discrepancy are outlined.

Vadim Zurnadzhy, Natalia Zaichuk, Alexander Sergeev, Yuliia Chabak, Vasily Efremenko

Mechanical Engineering

Frontmatter

Method for Determination of Flow Characteristic in the Gas Turbine System

The flow coefficient and the hydraulic resistance coefficient are widely used in the simulation of flow in various turbines. Widely used methods for computation of the metering characteristics of the openings designed for gas turbine cooling systems are observed. The methods are based on the use of such notions as discharge coefficient and hydraulic resistance coefficient. The use of the latter is preferable for the design of gas turbine cooling systems, because it correlates the air mass flow rate with the total pressure drop in channels. In the general algorithm for calculating cooling systems, it is necessary to use the discharge coefficient. The work establishes a relationship between the discharge coefficient and the hydraulic resistance coefficient. The proposed method consists in the partition of overall losses of the total pressure in the hole into elements, in particular inlet pressure losses, outlet pressure losses and friction pressure losses. The air density and the Mach number were defined for each element. It was proposed to take into account the influence that setting angles of openings have on the hydraulic resistance. The method used for computation of the metering characteristics of holes showed a sufficiently good coincidence with experimental data when the pressure ratio values varied in the range of P 1 * /P2 = 1–2.5, the relative length of the channel is in the range of l/d = 6.4–24.3 and setting angles of the opening is 30°, 45°, 90°.

Olena Avdieieva, Oksana Lytvynenko, Iryna Mykhailova, Oleksandr Tarasov

Cutting Stone Building Materials and Ceramic Tiles with Diamond Disc

During the repair and restoration of buildings, ceramic tiles and blocks of Al2O3 and ZrO2 are often cut. At present diamond abrasive discs are widely used for these purposes. The cutting process is accompanied by a considerable heat release and heating of the diamond disc. At a temperature of about 600°, the tensile strength of a disc is reduced by a factor of 2 and graphitization of diamond grains occurs. Thus, when cutting stone and building materials with a diamond disc, the disc heating temperature should not exceed 600 °C. In the work, mathematical modeling of the diamond cutting disc heating on a metal base was performed while cutting ceramic materials to determine the time of continuous operation to a critical temperature of 600 °C. The simulation results obtained showed the dependence of the heating temperature of the disc on the diameter of the latter, the speed of rotation, the minute feed, the grain size and the thickness of the disc. It is shown that by selecting appropriate process characteristics the time of continuous operation can be of the order of 10–12 min without the use of forced cooling.

Ala Bezpalova, Vladimir Lebedev, Vladimir Tonkonogyi, Yuri Morozov, Olga Frolenkova

Cavitation in Nozzle: The Effect of Pressure on the Vapor Content

Two-phase nozzles can work in jet injectors of various applications, including jet heat pumps (steam-water injectors) and thermocompressors. Lack of a reliable description of the mechanism of the evaporating liquid flow limits their use as energy-efficient working bodies. The estimation of effect of the vapor content on the initial pressure and temperature will make it possible to determine the variant of initial parameters, at which the overproduction of the vapor is the greatest. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of pressure and temperature at the nozzle inlet to outlet vapor content. We use the model of a compressible two-phase medium, the kinetic model of evaporation/condensation. The model also includes the dynamic and mechanical equilibrium of the process. The mathematical model using CFD package of Ansys CFX software considers the dynamic growth of the vapor bubble. The obtained results show the average deviation from the experimental value, particularly 2% for pressure and 10% for speed. Increasing pressure and temperature at the nozzle inlet leads to increasing the vapor mass fraction at the nozzle outlet.

Oleh Chekh, Serhii Sharapov, Maxim Prokopov, Viktor Kozin, Dariusz Butrymowicz

Control of Operation Modes Efficiency of Complex Technological Facilities Based on the Energy Efficiency Monitoring

The article proposes an approach to the organization of control the operation mode efficiency of the technological facility, which is based on simultaneous control of the power consumption efficiency and technological parameters to identify the causes of inefficient operation. The procedure of comparison the actual power consumption with its planned value has been used to control the power consumption efficiency. Shewhart control charts have been applied to control the technological parameters. The standards for the controlled parameters have been formed based on the monitoring system data in order to take into consideration the facility operation conditions. The confidence interval to the expected value of the power consumption, which is determined based on the power consumption mathematical model, has been selected as the power consumption standard. The power consumption standard is determined for every day, taking into consideration the actual values of the technological parameters. Control limits of the Shewhart control charts are standards for technological parameters. The proposed control procedure is based on taking into consideration the actual operation modes of the facility, which ensures the correct determination of the control limits and the correct control results, and provides for the possibility of adjusting the standards of the controlled parameters. Joint analysis of control charts allows determining the periods of time when the operation mode of the technological facility was ineffective in terms of power consumption, identifying the reasons that led to it.

Liudmyla Davydenko, Viktor Rozen, Volodymyr Davydenko, Nina Davydenko

Performance Comparison of Two Guidance Systems for Agricultural Equipment Navigation

Cover crops have been gaining popularity in the Northern Great Plains as an effective practice to improve soil health. An accurate guidance system when planting cover crops between rows of standing corn at V6-V8 stage requires precise navigation to avoid damaging standing crop, but field observations showed that the grain cart often trampled over rows of plant. Development of accurate and efficient methods, to find the correct path to guide the farm equipment automatically during these operations is an important need. In this project, the capabilities of Ultrasonic and Tactile navigation sensor (Reichhardtd® Electronic Innovation Products) were studied and compared. The objective of this study was to consider the difference between performances of two navigation systems that would guide the grain cart tires to move between rows for different operating conditions, speeds, patterns of rows, and terrain conditions. The comparison tests were conducted with five different fixed speeds, variable speeds, and four different row patterns in laboratory conditions on a purposefully designed test bench. The study results show that both sensors can successfully locate/identify row patterns if they are appropriately adjusted. But the steering system of the test bench has failed to respond with respect to the identified rows by the sensors due to a missing feedback controller. Moreover, appropriate digital filters were designed to remove undesired noises of signals read by the sensors and a fit model was found to compute exact physical location of the system with respect to rows.

Nadia Delavarpour, Sulaymon Eshkabilov, Thomas Bon, John Nowatzki, Sreekala Bajwa

Influence of Discrete Electromechanical Hardening on the Wear Resistance of Steels

A new way of discrete electromechanical treatment has been developed. The method of hardening a cylindrical surface is based on the creation of linear hardened zones of increased hardness using a roller tool. Analytical dependences and numeral models have been proposed for determination of contact descriptions at co-operation of instrument and detail for the electromechanical strengthening. Numerical simulations are carried out by the finite element method. As a result, the deflected modes of a surface after its treatment by the discrete electromechanical method have been obtained. The treatment provides a different geometrical layout of the locally fixed areas charts. The model of wear and method of determination of descriptions of wear as a result of experimental tests have been developed for prognostication of wearproofness. For the analysis of the influence of the tensely deformed state of a discrete surface on wearproofness the experimental tests at the discrete electromechanical strengthening have been conducted. The obtained results indicate that the wear of samples significantly depends on the slip speed. Examined electromechanical treatment samples have a high wear resistance at high slip speeds.

Aleksandr Dykha, Oleg Makovkin, Maksym Dykha

Parallel Solution of Dynamic Elasticity Problems

An algorithm for parallel solution of the dynamic problems of the elasticity theory for axisymmetric objects as a three-dimensional problem of the elasticity theory has been proposed. The semidiscrete approximations reduce the problem to the solution of the Cauchy problem for a system of linear differential equations of the second order. The elements of the matrix are determined with the help of the semi-analytical finite element method (FEM) using the Fourier series analytical expansion by trigonometric functions of the angle coordinate and numerical expansion of isoparametric approximations on serendipity quadrilaterals in the meridional section. The Cauchy problem is solved by decomposing the solution into eigenfunctions, which we find using the subspace iterations method. The method has been parallelized with domain decomposition and message passing interface (MPI), and the parallelized method has been scaled to over 20 processors with high parallel performance. The numerical examples have demonstrated the performance of the proposed algorithm. The numerical results indicate that the method is very accurate and its parallelizations are efficient for both types of problems.

Ivan Dyyak, Vitaliy Horlatch, Marianna Salamakha

Wear Resistance of Hardened Nanocrystalline Structures in the Course of Friction of Steel-Grey Cast Iron Pair in Oil-Abrasive Medium

The results of the research studying the influence of modified hardened surface layer after friction hardening on wear resistance in the course of oil-abrasive wear of steel-grey cast iron friction pairs are presented. Friction hardening is one of the surface hardening methods with the use of highly concentrated energy sources. A nanocrystalline hardened (white) layer is formed in the surface layers after the friction hardening. The thickness and microhardness of the hardened layer depends on carbon content in the steel and its preliminary heat treatment. Thus, thickness of the hardened layer was 120 µm, and microhardness was 5.6 GPa, with the initial structure hardness of 3.2 GPa, in hardened and high-tempered test-pieces of Steel C45 (EN) after the friction hardening. Grain size of the hardened surface layer was equal to 20–40 nm near the treated surface. It is shown that the hardened layer significantly increases performance of the pair “Steel 41Cr4 (EN)-Grey cast iron EN-GJL-200” during sliding friction in oil-abrasive medium. When increasing the unit load area from 2 to 6 MPa, wear rate of the hardened pair decreased by 2.1–3.7 times in comparison with an unhardened pair. Only one component of the friction pair was hardened.

Ihor Hurey, Tetyana Hurey, Volodymyr Gurey

Efficiency Analysis of Gas Turbine Plant Cycles with Water Injection by the Aerothermopressor

Improving the efficiency of gas turbine plants has been solved in two main directions: by intercooling the cyclic air between the stages of compressors; by increasing the amount of working fluid in the cycle with heat recuperation. Technology of cyclic air cooling of gas turbine plants is based on the hypothesis of thermogasdynamic compression and cooling, which consists in increasing the pressure as a result of instantaneous evaporation of the dispersed liquid injected into accelerated superheated steam flow or gas flow. In the paper it has been presented the basic schemes of the aerothermopressor installation along the gas turbine plant path. Seven variants of gas turbine plant cycles are analyzed and scheme-technical solutions are determined by using the aerothermopressor to obtain optimal operating parameters of the gas turbine plant. The efficient increasing of values of gas turbine plant has been determined, in the cycle with intercooling of cyclic air the efficiency is 46.9% and in the cycle with heat recuperation is 55.2%.

Dmytro Konovalov, Halina Kobalava

A Simulation Tool for Kinematics Analysis of a Serial Robot

Robot programming is a very significant task in the field of robotics. Off-line programming (OLP) is a method performed before robot manipulation. It is the manual editing of the robot code using computer software to simulate the real robotic scenarios. Task sequence planning, short-term production, flexibility during operation and expecting real behaviour of the robots are some of the reasons that make the users prefer OLP. Operations can be visualized in many processes such as welding, cutting, even medical applications. In this study, off-line models are offered including the forward and inverse kinematics of a six Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) serial robot manipulator (Denso VP-6242G). Robotic Toolbox combined with GUI Development Environment in Matlab® is used for the forward kinematics solution. A Matlab® Simulink model with Simmechanics blocks is used in the inverse kinematic analysis. Visualization is enriched by 3D Solidworks® models of the robot parts. Basic motion examples that can be used in many areas are presented.

M. Erkan Kütük, L. Canan Dülger, M. Taylan Das

The Imitation Study of Taper Connections Stiffness of Face Milling Cutter Shank Using Machine Spindle in the SolidWorks Simulation Environment

The article deals with the radial stiffness increase of face milling cutter taper with a shank 7:24 using a machine spindle. The preliminary investigations prove that stiffness increase of such connections is possible by means of a face milling cutter shank with two-contact centering faces design. In this case, a smaller centering face is proposed to design hollow with reduced radial stiffness. In the paper, we have carried out the stiffness imitation study and considered a face-milling cutter taper connection stress-strain state with an improved shank under loading with a machine spindle using SolidWorks. To perform simulation modeling, we have used a parametric 3D model of taper connections static behavior in which external and internal tapers dimensions are associated with certain deviation limit through the SolidWorks equation tool. The parameters of the computational process of nonlinear static analysis in the simulation module have been determined. The parametric model boundary and kinematic conditions have been considered. It has been determined that standard simulation tools use for carving force simulation leads to stiffness system artificial increase. Therefore, in the paper, to simulate the impact carving, we propose to use specially created orthotropic material thermosetting forces. The imitation study shows that face milling cutter shank with two centering faces of all deviation limits leads to higher stiffness connection (smaller radial displacements).

Oleksandr Melnyk, Larysa Hlembotska, Nataliia Balytska, Viacheslav Holovnia, Mykola Plysak

Mathematical Modeling of Operating Process and Technological Features for Designing the Vortex Type Liquid-Vapor Jet Apparatus

The article discusses the design features of vortex type liquid-vapor jet devices in the form of an oblique cut-off nozzle of the motive flow while entering the vortex chamber. Mathematical modeling allows proving the influence of the oblique cut to a deflection of the flow from the nozzle axis by a certain angle. This model is based on a continuity equation in the modified Baer’s form for the adiabatic process of discharge from the expanding nozzle with an oblique cut, as well as on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics for operating process. The proposed mathematical model allows determining the analytical dependence between the deflection angle of the flow from the nozzle axis in an oblique cut for an expanding nozzle and the following geometrical and physical parameters: the oblique angle of a nozzle, the taper angle of a nozzle, the initial pressure in front of the nozzle, the medium pressure at the outlet of the nozzle, the maximum nozzle expansion, and physical properties of the flow. The results of mathematical modeling of the flow deflection in an oblique cut of the expanding nozzle are presented analytically and graphically. Finally, it is proposed the methodology for numerical calculations of geometrical and operating parameters for ensuring the proper operating process, as well as it is described the technological features for designing the vortex type liquid-vapor jet apparatus.

Iurii Merzliakov, Ivan Pavlenko, Oleh Chekh, Serhii Sharapov, Vitalii Ivanov

Dynamic Stress State of Auxetic Foam Medium Under the Action of Impulse Load

The paper presents studies on the application of the boundary integral equation method for investigation of dynamic stress state of negative Poisson’s ratio foam media with tunnel cavity under the action non-stationary loads. In case of the plane problem, the distribution of normalized hoop and radial stresses were obtained for the action of non-stationary impulse load, which was applied to the boundary of cavity cross-sections. For the solution of the non-stationary problem, the Fourier transform for time variable was used. In Cosserat elasticity for the application of the boundary integral equation method the Fourier transform potential representations of displacements and microrotations were written. The fundamental functions of displacements and microrotations for the two-dimensional case of Cosserat continuum were built. For the solving of time-domain problem the system of singular integral equations was written. For numerical calculations the method of mechanical quadrature was applied. Numerical example shows the comparison of dynamic stress distribution in the foam medium with negative and positive Poisson’s ratio under the action of impulse load.

Olena Mikulich, Lyudmila Samchuk, Yulia Povstiana

Improvement the Performance of Liquid Purification by Dynamic Rotary Filters

Liquids purification from solid mechanical admixtures is a topical problem in many technical applications. Promising way to improve the performance and to reduce the cost of purification is using the dynamic filtration principle on the base of rotating filter element. This principle is known to be successfully utilized in thin membrane filtration applications. Wide use of rotational filtration in liquid systems of vehicles and industrial equipment requires theoretical study for larger rotational and filtration rates as well as consideration of porous baffle with lesser hydraulic resistance. The numerical approach is elaborated for simulation of liquid phase motion in a rotary filter with a porous filtering cylinder and support framework. The vortical flow motion in the gap is detected to be a factor leading to significant local increase of filtration velocity and even to exclusion the part of filtering surface from operation. The modeling approach for particle motion study in the stable flow outside of rotating porous cylinder is substantiated. The possibility is demonstrated in deterministic consideration to prevent under definite conditions contact of particles with the filtering surface. It is also shown that maximum influence of centrifugal force on the suspended particle motion can be achieved when particles are an order of magnitude less the boundary layer thickness.

Ievgen Mochalin, Suosheng Zheng, Jinyu Liu

Calculation Optimization of Complex Shape Shells by Numerical Method

The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of complex shape shells performed by the method of curvilinear grids in order to optimize the calculation of strength and stability. It is analyzed the existing numerical methods for calculating shells, such as finite difference method, variational difference method and finite element method. To improve the convergence of finite difference method by reducing error of approximation of hard offset functions the finite element method was used for the first time. Due to this method finite difference approximation was obtained by averaging the tangential strains in a differential interval by using integration of Simpson’s formula. This new finite difference scheme was called method of curvilinear grids, the essence of it is that vector differential relations are firstly replaced by their vector of finite difference analogues, and then the transition to scalar ratios is performed by designing in the local basis. The method of curvilinear grids is applied to calculate a complex shell, formed by a combination of four hypars. The result of calculation is a graph with the dependence of the critical load of the stability loss on the cross-sectional area of the edges. The study of convergence with the obtained results was performed by different methods at different mesh density.

Ruslan Pasichnyk, Oksana Pasichnyk, Olga Uzhegova, Olexandr Andriichuk, Olexandr Bondarskii

Improvement of the Hydraulic Units Design Based on CFD Modeling

Development of new hydraulic units for hydraulic drives or improvement of the characteristics of existing aggregates models can be performed on the basis of results obtained with computer simulation. The possibility of using CFD-module of Flow Simulation for research of hydraulic pressure losses in the design of a hydraulic lock is investigated here. A 3D-model of a working section of the hydraulic distributor has been developed in SolidWorks CAD system. Hydraulic pressure losses during the flow of fluid through a hydraulic lock occur at the output of the injection channel and at the input towards the working channel of the working section of the hydraulic distributor. The loss of pressure is due to the peculiarities of the design of the locking and regulating elements of the hydraulic lock. Based on the result of the computer simulation of hydrodynamic processes of fluid flow under pressure through a hydraulic lock, hydraulic pressure losses are determined. In order to reduce the pressure losses, it is proposed to make changes in the design of the hydraulic lock without degrading its performance has been proposed. These allow reducing the hydraulic pressure losses in the working section of the hydraulic distributor, which reduces the overall pressure loss in the hydraulic drive.

Oleksandr Petrov, Leonid Kozlov, Dmytro Lozinskiy, Oleh Piontkevych

Calculation of Hydrostatic Forces of Multi-gap Seals and Its Dependence on Shaft Displacement

Using the finite volume method, the problem of a three-dimensional fluid flow through a three-shaft seal of a high pressure centrifugal pump at different values of radial shaft displacements has been solved. Numerical calculations were carried out without taking into account deformation of seals under the influence of uneven pressure distribution. Pressure distributions, leakage values and hydrodynamic radial forces were obtained depending on the magnitude of the eccentricity. As a result of numerical calculations, the dependences of the radial forces on the radial shaft displacement were constructed and the hydrostatic stiffness coefficient was determined. These dependencies were also obtained using analytical equations. The obtained numerical results differ from the theoretical ones less than 5%. It should also be noted that the application of the three-gap seal significantly reduces leakage compared to homogeneous and double-layer seals, as well as increases the radial force stiffness, which in its turn provides a low level of rotor vibration.

Oleksandr Pozovnyi, Andrii Deineka, Dmytro Lisovenko

The Investigation of Particle Movement on a Helical Surface

Differential equations of particle movement on the rough surface of the spiral gutter under the effect of the force of its own weight are obtained in the article. The curve of the cross section of the gutter with a vertical plane passing through the axis of the surface is given by parametrical equations in general form. Special cases for individual cross-sectional lines (a straight line and a circle) are considered. If the section is an arc of a circle, a spiral gutter is formed. In the particular case when the cross section is a straight line inclined to the axis upwards, then the helical surface is an oblique helicoid. The equations are solved by numerical methods and trajectories of a particle movement along a helical surface are constructed. After the motion stabilizes, the particle has a constant speed and its trajectory is a helical curve. For this particular case, analytical dependencies that allow calculating the speed of a particle and its distance from the axis of the surface were found. The case, when an angle of elevation of the lowest helical curve of the gutter is equal to the angle of friction of the particle on the surface, is also considered. In the case of a spiral gutter, the elevation angle of its lower helical line should be greater than the friction angle in order to avoid congestions during transportation of particles of the technological material.

Sergiy Pylypaka, Viktor Nesvidomin, Tatiana Zaharova, Olexandr Pavlenko, Mikola Klendiy

The Wall Erosion in a Vortex Chamber Supercharger Due to Pumping Abrasive Mediums

The rapid wall erosion of the settings of pump elements occurs during pumping of two-phase mediums, in the hydraulic and pneumatic transport systems. In these circumstances, it is reasonable to use the jet technology in general and the vortex chamber superchargers in particular. The vortex chamber superchargers have the best, compared with other jet superchargers, energy efficiency indicators during pumping of bulk materials. The purpose of the article is to study the wall erosion of the vortex chamber. The mathematical modeling of the flow is carried out by solving the averaged Reynolds equations using a SST turbulence model corrected. Simultaneously with the hydrodynamic calculations the trajectories of abrasive material solid particles were calculated. Finney’s model was used to model the wall erosion. It is found that for all values of the flow rates and, accordingly, the concentration of solid particles, a uniform wear of the vortex chamber is observed. To ensure the durability of superchargers it is necessary to increase the thickness of the chamber’s walls. In the process of wear, the ratio of diameters of the inflow channels to the diameter of the vortex chamber will increase. It affects the energy characteristics of the supercharger: the efficiency, the amount of medium at the outflow of the device, the vacuum value near the axis. By setting minimum acceptable parameters it is possible to predict the wear of the chamber and calculate the resource of the supercharger without the use of expensive experimental investigations.

Andrii Rogovyi, Sergey Khovanskyy, Irina Grechka, Jan Pitel

Data Acquisition Procedures for A&DM Systems Dedicated for the Foundry Industry

The article presents the effects of cooperation with Polish and European foundries regarding the design of procedures useful in acquisition and data mining systems (Acquisition & Data Mining, A&DM). The author’s procedures for collecting data from foundry processes, including the topography of data sources, have been presented. These procedures have been associated with the possibilities of extended data analysis, which should be implemented in dedicated A&DM type systems. Specialized systems seem to be the most appropriate tools for rapid analyses of complex production processes (multivariate process). These systems allow to assess the stability of selected process parameters, and subsequently identify the cause and effect relationship related to the quality of castings. The choice of the number and type of parameters that can be associated with anomalies of processes depends on the system user, his knowledge and experience. This paper indicates the importance of dedicated A&DM systems built from scratch, developed in cooperation with a specific foundry.

Robert Sika, Zenon Ignaszak

Choice of Correcting Link for Electrohydraulic Servo Drive of Technological Equipment

The issue of choosing a correcting link for improving the quality of regulation of electrohydraulic servo drive of technological equipment is considered. The analysis of the methods for correcting the dynamic characteristics of the electrohydraulic servo drives with throttle regulation is performed. For drives built on the basis of standard modules, it is shown the expediency of the serial installation in the circuit of the electrohydraulic amplifier of the correcting link—the real proportional-differentiating controller. The parameters of adjustment of the correcting link are considered to be the time constant and the transfer coefficient of the regulator are considered, as well as the time constant characterizing the inertia of the link. To select the optimal values for the adjustment parameters of the correcting link of the electrohydraulic servo drive of technological equipment, it is recommended to conduct studies in the Simulink environment of the MATLAB application package. Here is provided an example of investigation of the influence of the adjustment parameters of the correcting link on the dynamic characteristics of the electrohydraulic servo drive with throttle regulation. A block diagram for simulation of transient processes in the Simulink environment is presented. The features of the choice of the recommended values of the adjustment parameters of the correcting link of the electrohydraulic servo drives of the technological equipment for the mechanical processing of materials are noted. The transfer function of the electrohydraulic servo drive with the correcting link is obtained.

Volodymyr Sokolov, Oleg Krol, Oksana Stepanova

Simulating the Process of a Bird Striking a Rigid Target

A model was developed to simulate the process of a bird striking a rigid target. The target is a hinge-supported steel plate and, in the first approximation, it emulates aircraft structural components. The dynamic behavior of the plate is considered within the generalized model to allow for the spatial character of deformation of the structure. The method for solving the equation of plate motion consists in representing the solution as a double trigonometric series. The result is the transformation of the equation of motion to a system of ordinary second-order differential equations integrated by the solution expansion to a Taylor series. The model of a bird’s shock action on a plate was developed based on the experimental research. The influence of a plate’s angle of impact on the plate strain was studied for a bird-strike case. A comparison of theoretical results with experimental data showed their close fit. The suggested model of the process of a bird striking a plate is used for evaluating the strength of different aircraft components.

Natalia Smetankina, Sergey Ugrimov, Igor Kravchenko, Dmitry Ivchenko

Static and Flow-Rate Characteristics of Centrifugal Pump’s Balancing Device with Considering the Random Changes of Its Main Parameters

Automatic balancing device is one of the basic units of many multi-stage centrifugal pumps. Operating characteristics of such device are determined by cylindrical and face throttles geometrical characteristics which are stochastic by their nature. That is why the deterministic approach can’t give valid results. The purpose of this paper is determine the probabilistic the static and flow-rate characteristics of centrifugal pump’s automatic balancing device. The random changes of the mean value of the radial cylindrical gap, the face throttle taper, eccentricity and coefficients of losses are taking into account in the presented calculation model. It is shown that the actual value of balancing force and flow-rate in the chamber of the automatic balancing device can be substantially different from the calculation ones. Obtained results allow to estimate the possible values of the flow-rate and axial force in the automatic balancing device due to changes in manufacturing and installation tolerances, as well as to ensure the stable operation of the pump.

Yuliia Tarasevych, Ievgen Savchenko, Nataliia Sovenko

Improvement of Manufacture Workability for Distribution Systems of Planetary Hydraulic Machines

Planetary hydraulic machines are most often used in mechatronic hydraulic drives. The efficiency of the distribution system of a planetary hydraulic motor is provided by the manufacturability of its elements, in particular the distribution windows. To solve the problem of improving manufacture workability for the elements of the distribution system, the shape of the distributor and sleeve valve passages is substantiated. A design model, a mathematical apparatus, and a calculation algorithm were developed. They made it possible to investigate how changes in geometric parameters of a distribution system affect the throughput of a planetary hydraulic motor with passages embodied in the form of a circle. The initial data and initial conditions for the modeling of the distribution system operation with various kinematic diagrams were substantiated. The change in throughput according to kinematic diagrams of the distribution system was investigated. It was established that the increase in the number of working passages of the distributor caused the decrease of the distribution system flow area. The amplitude of the flow area oscillations decreased as well. When discharge passages of the distributor were used as additional working windows, the throughput of the distribution system increased. In that case, the amplitude of the area oscillations was reduced. The critical parameter which determined the operability of the distribution system was the oscillations of the flow area. Therefore, when the distribution systems for hydraulic motors were designed, it was recommended to use additional discharge windows as working passages.

Angela Voloshina, Anatolii Panchenko, Oleg Boltyansky, Olena Titova

Signal Processing and Conditioning Tools and Methods for Road Profile Assessment

This work presents a comparative analysis of a few different methods and tools for road roughness assessment and highlights some practical aspects of using sensors and data acquisition tools including experimental data analyses. In assessment of road profile roughness, geometrical and response type measurement approaches with class 1, 2 and 3 tools (Total Station 06 Leica Geo SystemTM, Laser profilometer by DYNATESTTM, accelerometers of DytranTM, smart phone, GY-61 with in-house designed and developed data acquisition system and analog-to-digital converter with ArduinoTM Uno Board, and Roughometer III from ARRB group Ltd) are employed. Road tests are performed in different vehicle velocities, viz. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 km/h. Comparative studies have demonstrated that the RTM approaches with accelerometers are of sufficiently high quality in assessing road profile and evaluating IRI and can be comparable in accuracy with the class 1 geometrical static profilers and class 2 mobile profilometers like laser profiler by DYNATESTTM.

Abduvokhid Yunusov, Davron Riskaliev, Nurmukhammad Abdukarimov, Sulaymon Eshkabilov

Chemical Engineering

Frontmatter

Low-Frequency Ultrasound as an Effective Method of Energy Saving During Forming of Reactoplastic Composite Materials

Various aspects of the application of low-frequency ultrasound with the aim of achieving energy saving in the molding of reactoplastic polymer composite materials are analyzed. The efficiency of ultrasonic technology in the molding of traditional and nanomodified polymers on an epoxy matrix is considered. Features of the origin and development of ultrasonic cavitation in liquid epoxy binders are described. The main parameters of ultrasonic treatment are discussed. The experimental cyclograms of hardening of epoxy binding of “cold” and “hot” curing used in the manufacture of reinforced plastics and obtained without and with ultrasonic treatment are analyzed. The improved designs of the impregnation, dosing and winding units, which are used on the serial impregnating and drying equipment intended for the preparation of prepregs, are considered. An improvement in the structure of cured reinforced composites obtained without and with ultrasonic treatment is established by conducting a comparative analysis of the electron microscopic examination of their microsections and the places of destruction.

Aleksandr Kolosov, Elena Kolosova, Dmitro Sidorov, Anish Khan

Numerical Simulation of Aeroelastic Interaction Between Gas-Liquid Flow and Deformable Elements in Modular Separation Devices

This paper considers modular dynamic separation devices as automatic control systems, which have hydraulic resistance as a regulation object and elastic forces as a control impact. The way for extension of the range of their efficient operation is proposed using vibration-inertia separation process. The related mathematical model of the abovementioned separation process is realized in three stages. This paper deals with numerical simulation of the aeroelastic interaction between gas flow and deformable elements in modular separation devices using the ANSYS Workbench software package. It should be noted that the modules Transient Structural and Fluent are used by system coupling combination. Two-way FSI method is chosen for simulation of aeroelasticity problem. Boundary conditions of symmetry are used for reducing of resource consumption of the problem solution. Methods of the dynamic meshes deforming are considered for additional preventing from negative volumes occurrence, as well as other significant settings for this type of problem are described. The oscillation frequencies of the deformable elements are determined according to the results of a numerical experiment for gas flow inlet velocity in the range from 3 to 6 m/s. The highest oscillation frequency 153 Hz is determined and observed for the inlet flow velocity equal to 4 m/s.

Oleksandr Liaposhchenko, Ivan Pavlenko, Katarina Monkova, Мaryna Demianenko, Oleksandr Starynskyi

Significance of Swirl Flow Separator Modification in Rainwater Treatment Technology

The main objective of this paper was to measure the purification efficiency of the liquid stream in modified swirl settler with a baffle inside the tank. It was found that separation efficiency depended on the size of contamination particles and hydraulic load also. It decreased when hydraulic load was increasing and raised magnitude with bigger diameter of solid particles. Analysis of liquid damming brought about measurement of the pressure drop in function of water volumetric flow rate. The resistance coefficient was calculated based on previously conducted research. Theoretical introduction was made about sedimentation phenomenon and interactions between liquid and solid particles brought by gravity force. Based on literature research and manufacturer catalogues, different technical solutions and constructions of purifying devices like sedimentation tanks were presented. Emphasis was given to the swirl settling tanks, since they are one of the newest pretreatment solutions and exhibit high potential for modification, which can results with higher purification efficiency.

Małgorzata Markowska, Marek Ochowiak, Sylwia Włodarczak, Szymon Woziwodzki, Magdalena Matuszak

Development of Technology for Utilization of Sulphate Waste Water of Detergents Production

The possibility of using sulphate wastewaters containing a surface active agent is investigated, which are the waste of detergents production for regeneration of cation filters. The dependencies are given, allowing calculating the residual content of the surface active agent in the water entering the boilers. It is theoretically calculated and practically confirmed that a small amount of the surface active agent could get into soft water. Over 25 filter cycles were carried out using the regeneration solution prepared from wastewater of the installation producing detergents. The filter cycles have shown that the working capacity is preserved completely and makes up 270–300 g-equiv/m3. The technological scheme is proposed for utilization of sulphate wastewater of the installation producing detergents. This scheme allows ensuring stable regeneration of the cation-exchange filters using the sulphate solution.

Zurab Megrelishvili, Ibraim Didmanidze, Vladimir Zaslavskiy

Properties of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in the Tubular Grids with the Heat Exchanger as a Stabilizer

In article considers hydrodynamic and heat mass transfer performances of simultaneous implementation of the heat mass transfer processes on tubular gratings with the stabilizer and a heat exchanger. The optimal service conditions for the absorber are determined. Analyzing the obtained data, we can conclude that high efficiency of using foam devices with the stabilization of the built-in heat exchangers at the stage of absorption of sulfur trioxide in the sulfuric acid production is shown. Efficient heat dissipation with the help of internal refrigerators provides the de-sired temperature mode of absorption, which allows eliminating all the bulky heat exchange economy in existing systems. The high performance activity of an absorber of the investigated construction is exhibited during the implementation of simultaneous processes. The industrial implementation of the stabilization method of the gas-liquid layer greatly extends the scope of foaming devices and opens up new possibilities for the intensification of the technological processes creating the low-waste technologies in chemical technology and other industries.

Viktor Moiseev, Oleksandr Liaposhchenko, Peter Trebuna, Eugenia Manoilo, Oleg Khukhryanskiy

Production of Pumpkin Pectin Paste

The expediency of using vegetable-fruit pastes with a high content of pectin for the therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition of people and excretion of radionuclides, heavy metals and toxins is substantiated. The aim of the research is the development of a technology and a small-sized line for the production of concentrated pumpkin pectin pastes with preservation of plant nutrients that have the properties of removing radionuclides, heavy metals and toxins from the human body. Pectin pastes were made from the pumpkin sort Hybrid 75. In the experiments, a method for the preparation of pectin-containing pastes has been realized by hydrolyzing the plant material with the lactic acid and curd whey, which are simultaneously preserving agents. Technological operations for the production of the pectin-containing paste from pumpkin, optimized by the hydromodule of hydrolysis of the raw materials, the temperature, and the length of the process and the method of evaporation of the reaction mass, which provides better extraction of the complex of natural vitamins, tannins and sugars from the raw materials with pectin, more complete preservation of the native properties of the pectin substances, what helps to achieve the high quality of the finished product. The technology and the line for the production of pumpkin pectin pastes and other pectin-containing raw materials have been developed, what provide the preservation in the production of the native plant fruit properties. The developed technological and hardware-technological schemes of the pectin pastes production make it possible to organize their release in places close to the cultivation of raw materials and reduce transportation costs.

Yuriy Sukhenko, Mikhailo Mushtruk, Volodimir Vasyliv, Vladislav Sukhenko, Vladislav Dudchenko

Calculation of the Residence Time of Dispersed Phase in Sectioned Devices: Theoretical Basics and Software Implementation

The article deals with a model of calculation the residence time of particles in the granulating and drying devices with vertical sectioning of the working space. The algorithm of calculation the residence time in the granulating and drying devices workspace is described. The model is realized the implementation the author’s software product Multistage Fluidizer®. The software product enables to automatize calculation simultaneously by several optimization criteria and to visualize calculation results in the form of 3D images. The perforated shelf constructive parameters impact and fluidized flow during the residence time in the device are fixed. The research proposed the way of defining the particle’s residence time in the workspace of the granulating and drying devices in free (without consideration of cooperation with other granules and granulator’s elements) and constrained motion regimes. The engineering computation of sectioning devices methodology with fluidized bed of particles is based on the calculation results. The automated calculations results give a base of designing industrial granulating and drying devices.

Viktor Obodiak, Nadiia Artyukhova, Artem Artyukhov

Influence of Difference in Density of Solids on Mixing Efficiency in the Designed Static Mixer

A new design concept of universal set-up for the examination of mixing process of solids using elements of static mixer has been proposed. The designed mixer allows mixing of solids in the measuring range dm ≤ 17 mm. Owing to the complexity of the construction, it is possible to apply many combinations of settings. The study on mixing efficiency for two components differing in density has been performed. The following granular materials of different size of particle were used: polypropylene, quartz sand, silicon carbide and aloxide. It was shown that the increase in the difference between densities of mixed solids causes a deterioration of the final effect of studied process. Selected construction systems were suitable for mixing of granular solids of comparable density. Depending on applied mixing elements and their arrangement, a satisfactory mixing ratio of solids can be achieved. The efficiency of mixing process depends primarily on the construction type of selected mixing element—segment. To ensure a satisfactory mixing efficiency for other systems, it is necessary to apply new constructions of mixing segments.

Marek Ochowiak, Andżelika Krupińska, Sylwia Włodarczak, Magdalena Matuszak, Małgorzata Markowska

An Updated Portrait of Numerical Analyses on Spout-Fluidized Bed Incineration Systems

Biodegradable wastes are becoming a serious problem in terms of health and ecological balance in parallel with the increasing of local and global populations in recent years. These wastes should be disposed in both efficient and eco-friendly ways. Considering biodegradable wastes as an energy source, it is necessary to be sure that those disposal methods should be focused on energy recovery. However, the existing waste disposal methods have not reached technologically targeted lines yet. It is very important that waste-to-energy recovery systems should have high energy conversion efficiency. Nowadays, there are many current studies based on the methods of wastes incineration. One of the most significant among these systems is fluidized or spout-fluidized bed incineration system. Unfortunately, the targeted points of the technological development of these systems in view of efficient energy recovery have not been reached yet. Existing incineration systems and current studies on this issue are generally concentrated on conventional fluidized bed systems. However, there are few studies of new generation spout-fluidized bed incineration systems which increase homogeneity and prevent waste from adhering to inner wall of a combustor. This study is focused on the conducted numerical studies in this research field. The latest developments and researches on both fluidized and spout-fluidized bed incineration systems will be investigated and discussed. The remarkable results will be pointed out by using the comparison in order to identify the gaps of the scientific literature.

Emrah Özahi, Arif Çutay, Ayşegül Abuşoğlu, Alperen Tozlu

The Process of Environmentally Safe Biochemical Recycling of Phosphogypsum

This paper focuses on the determining of biochemical treatment feasibility of phosphogypsum with the extraction of useful components, particularly rare earth metals. The possibility of phosphogypsum use as a mineral substrate by various groups of microorganisms in environmental protection technologies allows the application of bioleaching. The results of research show that biochemical leaching is carried out by aerobic bacteria and it arches capable of oxidizing sulfide minerals. The representatives of the genera Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus, Sulfolobus, Acidianus, Metallosphaera, Ferroplasma are leading in these processes. Biochemical formalization of the kinetics process and study of the data bank of current developments dealing with using the waste treatment processes have been carried out. The main ecological and biochemical researches, and various mechanisms of microbiological investigation, biochemical modelling have been studied for assessment of biomass productivity of phosphogypsum. Technological scheme of biological leaching of rare-earth metals from PG dumps has been developed. The optimal parameters have been determined under pH = 1.5–2.5 and T = 278–308 K and the efficiency of bioleaching has been estimated.

Leonid Plyatsuk, Magdalena Balintova, Yelizaveta Chernysh, Iryna Ablieieva, Oleksiy Ablieiev

Semi-Empirical Correlations of Pollution Processes on the Condensation Surfaces of Exhaust Gas Boilers with Water-Fuel Emulsion Combustion

Experimental research of low-temperature pollution kinetics on exhaust gas boiler condensation surfaces with water-fuel emulsion combustion to obtain approximation equations for prediction of processes development are carried out. Thermotechnical measurements of parameters were carried out by standard methods; a theory of test modeling and planning was used for experiment processing, and statistical analysis—for experimental data treatment. Based on the experimental data the semi-empirical correlation dependences of specific pollution mass from water content of water-fuel emulsion, sulfur content in fuel oil and excess air factor at wall temperatures below the dew point temperature of sulfuric acid vapor have been developed. The regression equation is obtained for determining the specific pollution mass on the low-temperature heating surfaces. The regression equations make it possible to estimate the influence of various factors such as water content of water-fuel emulsion, sulfur content in fuel oil and excess air factor of pollution intensity. The obtained model allows to describe the pollution process adequately and to determine the values of factors where the lowest intensity of pollution is observed. The received correlations and equation for specific pollution mass can be used for determining thermal resistance of pollution layer, which is necessary for designing and operating of the exhaust gas boiler condensation surfaces.

Mykola Radchenko, Roman Radchenko, Victoria Kornienko, Maxim Pyrysunko

CFD Assessment of Jet Flow Behavior in an Alternative Design of a Spray Dryer Chamber

Performance of the spray dryer mostly depends on the flow field of a drying air, which is highly influenced by the configuration of the spray dryer chamber. This paper simulates numerically the jet flow behaviour with no swirl entry in an alternative chamber design of a co-current pilot plant spray dryer chamber. In order to explore the hydrodynamics of the air jet flow in the spray dryer, a mathematical model was developed, using a transient three-dimensional Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes equations, closed via the RNG $$ k - \varepsilon $$ turbulence model and solved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) (ANSYS-Fluent) software. CFD simulation quantitatively captured many features of the jet flow behaviour such as the velocity profile and characteristics of the turbulent jet flow in a specified configuration of the spray dryer chamber of an expansion ratio of 20 and the Reynolds number of 2.07 × 105. The simulation revealed the jet behaves as a free turbulent jet at these conditions. Results of the simulation give a good prediction in comparison to the experimental data reported in the literature.

Saad N. Saleh, Omer Saaed, Maksym Skydanenko

Assessment of the Quality of Alternative Fuels for Gasoline Engines

The use of alternative fuels is a strict requirement of the present day. The threatening ecological situation of the environment, the constant growth of the fleet, the high price of petroleum products and the import dependence of Ukraine in oil fuels does not raise doubts about the need to develop, improve the properties and expand the range of biofuels. One of the possible solutions to these problems is the use of bioethanol, both in pure form and as an additive to gasoline of oil origin. The purpose of this article is to study the effect of ethanol on the performance properties of traditional gasoline, the search for the optimal ratio of alcohol and gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have shown that the concentration of ethanol in gasoline 5–7% performance of physical and chemical properties of the fuel does not change at all. If we add 30% ethanol, we have a serious change in the corresponding indicators, and to ensure the physical stability of the fuel, the reduction of its octane number should be sure to use the appropriate additive. Therefore, the use even in high concentrations of alcohol in the production of alternative fuels for gasoline engines is justified.

Valentyna Tkachuk, Taras Bozhydarnik, Oksana Rechun, Taras Karavayev, Nina Merezhko

Kinetics of Sodium Chloride Dissolution in Condensates Containing Ammonia and Ammonium Carbonates

The kinetics of sodium chloride dissolution under the conditions of gravity deposition in condensates of soda production gas cooling apparatus containing ammonia and ammonium carbonates was studied. The method for calculating the dissolution rate is proposed based on measuring the deposition time of dissolving salt crystals at two points. The method is based on a mathematical model characterizing the change in the particle deposition rate in the dissolution process and taking into account the value of the dissolution rate coefficient. The impact of the temperature and solvent composition, as well as the crystal shape in the solute on the dissolution rate was investigated. It was found out that, with an increase in temperature by 10 °C, the dissolution increases 1.3 times, which indicates that the process is limited by the solute diffusion from the surface of a solid particle into the bulk of the liquid. In addition, it was determined that the dissolution rate coefficient decreases with an increase in the sodium chlorides concentration and the carbonation rate of the solution and increases with increasing ammonia concentration. Testifying the impact of the salt crystal shape on the kinetics of its dissolution showed that it is not crucial within the limits of the experiment accuracy. Using the methodology of experiment planning and regression analysis, an equation was obtained for predicting the dissolution rate of sodium chloride depending on the temperature and composition of the solution.

Michael Tseitlin, Valentina Raiko, Aleksei Shestopalov

Patterns of Pollutants Distribution from Vehicles to the Roadside Ecosystems

This paper focuses on the determination of the motor vehicles pollutants emission and distribution in space and time within roadside ecosystems. The need for improvement of the mathematical model of emission distribution and the spreading of pollutants from highways is related to the non-stationary transport flow. The results of research show the spread of pollutants in the roadside ecosystem is carried out by the transfer of air flows (advective and convective components) and diffusion (fluctuation movements relative to the transfer process). Obtained analytical dependences for the forecast estimations of pollutants concentrations in the air allow to design a spatial concentration field at any atmospheric states and air flow velocity. The adequacy of the developed mathematical model was checked using instrumental methods. As exemplified by sulfur dioxide, it has been determined that its concentration in the air varies exponentially depending on the distance from the road and at a distance of 30 m is reduced three-fold, reaching the level of 0.8 mg/m3. The Ansys 17.0 software visualized the distribution of waste gases from a truck and determined that the bulk of pollutants deposited at a distance of 30 m from the road. The fields of concentration of the respective harmful substances in the roadside zone were obtained and the places of secondary entry of settled harmful impurities from the roadway were determined again in the atmospheric air.

Iryna Vaskina, Leonid Plyatsuk, Roman Vaskin, Iryna Ablieieva, Serhii Sydorenko

Studies on a Simplex Pressure-Swirl Atomizers with a Different Spin Chamber Shape

Unflagging interest in pressure-swirl atomizers forces continuous development of knowledge about their operation and construction. Although this type of atomizers had been described in a comprehensive way and the number of correlation equations describing atomization process is substantial, some construction features and their influence on the process have not still been described in a satisfactory way. In this study, the influence of modification of pressure-swirl atomizers construction on the values of discharge coefficient and pressure drops was analyzed. A transitory cone in three different variants, cylindrical, conical, profiled, was applied. The construction of the second group of atomizers was enriched with the presence of a blind hole in the swirl chamber. The enrichment of the construction in the form of a blind hole resulted in higher values of discharge coefficient in comparison to atomizers without a blind hole. In the turbulent flow range, the constant value of discharge coefficient, being independent from Reynolds number, was obtained both for atomizers with and without a blind hole. However, these values differed for individual pressure-swirl atomizers. Obtained results can be useful in the analysis and comparison of atomization effects for atomizers of various construction.

Sylwia Włodarczak, Marek Ochowiak, Andżelika Krupińska, Marcin Janczarek, Magdalena Matuszak

Evaluation of Energy and Ecological Indicators of Motor Biofuels

The purpose of the study is to evaluate energy and environmental indicators of the engine in its work on biofuels and petroleum diesel. Research methods are calculated and experimental. The article deals with the method of evaluation and forecasting of energy and fuel-economic indexes of the engine by using biofuels. The authors indicate the engine power and fuel consumption due to the quantity and heat of combustion for fuel-air mixtures operating on biodiesel, biogas, and diesel oil on the developed method. To determine the heat of combustion of fuel-air mixtures authors used lower heat of fuels combustion. The analysis shows that engine working on petrodiesel has the highest capacity and lowest fuel consumption. On the contrary, the engine working on petrodiesel has some indicators. Emissions of harmful substances of the engine D-243 at various speed and loading modes when working on different fuels were determined with the experimental method. Quantitative values of fuel consumption and emissions of harmful substances were obtained by method of mathematical modeling in the process of moving a technological vehicle for a ride cycle using various types of fuels.

Victor Zaharchuk, Oleh Zaharchuk, Valerij Dembitskij, Vasiliy Ivanciv, Sergiy Pankevich

Regularities of Solid-Phase Continuous Vibration Extraction and Prospects for Its Industrial Use

The results of the substantiation and hardware design of continuous vibroextraction for solid-liquid systems with a small difference in the density of phases are presented, which provide the possibility of determining the rational constructive and technological parameters of vibroextractors and modes of their industrial exploitation. Mathematical modeling and methods of experimental evaluation of the mass transfer efficiency are based on the phenomena of non-stationary mass transfer and hydrodynamics. The mechanism of counter-phase separation of phases during the continuous process and features of mass transfer at all scale levels are described. Theoretical substantiation is given to convective mass transfer taking into account the accumulation component of the substance, which, taking into account the mass return in the zone of mixing, is what discloses the content of this component. The realization of the obtained results allowed to develop the engineering calculation method of vibroextraction in the food industry, high-efficiency energy-saving vibroextractors of continuous action and, based on them, apparatus-technological schemes of rational deep processing of plant raw material for a number of industries.

Volodymyr Zavialov, Taras Mysiura, Nataliia Popova, Valerii Sukmanov, Valentyn Chornyi

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