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2020 | Book

Advances in Digital Marketing and eCommerce

First International Conference, 2020


About this book

This book highlights the latest research presented at the first Digital Marketing & eCommerce Conference (Barcelona, Spain, June 2020). Papers include a diverse set of digital marketing and eCommerce-related topics such as user psychology and behavior in social commerce, influencer marketing in social commerce, social media monetization strategies, social commerce characteristics and their impact on user behavior, social branding, business model, user privacy, and more.

Table of Contents

Marketing and Advertising: Trends of the Sector
The marketing and the advertising and public relations sector is immersed in a period of change in various ways, from the structural to the type of insertions to be made in the media. We analyze the reality and the trends of this essential sector for the enterprise communication. Methodologically, to develop this prospective, we use Delphi qualitative technique, the most advisable in prospective approaches to incipient objects of study. It is concluded that the key factors that define the advertising sector are the digital transformation and the business model, and, after three years, personalization, automation and programmatic. As communication channels that will use advertising more, social networks rise, and as knowledge, skills and competencies that the advertising professional of the future must gather, the strategy stands out.
Joan-Francesc Fondevila-Gascón, Josep Rom-Rodríguez, Marc Polo-López, Javier L. Crespo
Influence of Social Networks on Responsible Behaviour by Smart Tourists
The aim of this paper is to report on a research project that explores the perceptions of Chinese tourists about the influence of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) on responsible and sustainable behaviour by tourists within the context of smart tourism paradigm. To achieve this aim, first a research framework encompassing three hypotheses related to the influence of SNSs at the three main stages of travel cycle was designed. Then, an exploratory quantitative research was carried out (Sample size = 325), using the online survey technique. The study’s findings indicate that the influence of SNSs on Chinese consumers on adopting a responsible behaviour as smart tourists is determined by all stages of the travel cycle, the stronger influence being at the first two stages (before and during the consumption experience). This study constitutes the first theoretical/conceptual approach and empirical research into the influence of SNSs on responsible behaviour by smart tourists.
Marios Sotiriadis, Shiwei Shen, Qing Zhou
Information Use Under Quality Uncertainties and Its Impact on the Digital Goods Production
The wide application of digital technologies has created an enriched digitized environment and changed many people’s lifestyles. Such a digitized environment also provides a free and open playing field for average people in the public to pursue innovative digital activities such as digital goods production. However, users face severe uncertainty on both general quality and taste-match quality of digital goods, considering the lack of formal training of average people as producers and standards for producing such goods. So far, little is known about how users deal with the severe dual quality uncertainties issue in a digitized environment, which in turn influences producers’ successes in digital goods production in both short and long terms. This paper presents a novel theory-based model to address these issues based on the signaling theory. Empirical testing using real-world data provides strategies to users on quality inference, and offers actionable knowledge to average people as producers and the platform on how to design effective signal devices to build their user bases and earn revenue in the short and long runs. This study thus sheds light on such an IT-enabled production by the public in digital goods markets.
Amy Wenxuan Ding
Impacts of Blockchain Technology in Marketing
The use of blockchain for different functions across various industries has become a popular topic in recent years. While commonly referenced for enabling cryptocurrency exchanges like Bitcoin, the secure, distributed ledger of blockchain may be applied for many other purposes. This contribution examines current and potential uses of blockchain for marketing activities. Benefits and challenges in implementation are also discussed.
Debika Sihi
Brand Anthropomorphism and Brand Voice: The Role of the Name-Brand Voice Assistant
The name-brand voice assistant (NBVA), allowing the brand to dialogue directly with consumers by its brand name and its brand voice, could theoretically activate the brand anthropomorphism perception in the consumer’s mind. Despite the growing use of NBVAs and the theoretical possibility to recognise important branding implications, the role that companies can assign to NBVAs in the context of brand strategies has not yet been addressed by marketing scholars. Therefore, the objective of our work is to begin to fill this gap by investigating the role that the NBVA might have in the brand anthropomorphisation strategy, adopting the managerial perspective. To this end, we have conducted qualitative research based on a single in-depth case study, the first in-car NBVA to be release in the international market.
Maria Vernuccio, Michela Patrizi, Alberto Pastore
Consumers’ Online Institutional Privacy Literacy
Most people, in their daily lives, have a need for privacy – the need at times to left alone. Yet in the Internet age consumer readily reveal aspects of their private lives to a wide circle of contacts, most often via social media apps. Concurrently, big digital businesses such as Google and Facebook operate business models based upon lucrative income streams from the use and sharing of consumer’s personal data, a practice referred to as surveillance capitalism. This paper contrasts these two very different aspects of online privacy, social privacy and institutional privacy. The gathering of personal data on consumers is often portrayed by digital marketers and marketing academics as a commercial exchange between a consumer and firm, that is, the exchange of personal data for services or improved service. This exchange relationship has been portraying theoretically with reference to social contract theory and social exchange theory. However, this paper argues that to the extent consumers are not aware (a) what personal information is being taken from them, (b) what that information is used for, and (c) who that information is being shared with, then a social contract or social exchange does not exist. This issue of consumer’s online institutional privacy literary is a critical ethical question for the future practice of digital marketing. If consumers’ institutional privacy literacy is low, one can question if the gathering of personal data by digital business is accurately represented as a social contract, or if it is more accurately portrayed as an imbalanced exchange operating under conditions of information asymmetry.
Eathar Abdul-Ghani
Social Media and Omni-Channel Strategies in the Tourism Industry: An Analysis of Club Med
In tourism, digital media represent a primary channel to interact with consumers directly or by means of social media and travel-related platforms (e.g., TripAdvisor, etc.). Over the past few years, travel companies have increased the usage of social media as tools to communicate and engage with existing and potential consumers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of social media within the omni-channel marketing strategies of tourism companies. We conducted a case study of the company Club Med by collecting semi-structured interviews with key-informants. Findings provide insights regarding the use of social media as main touchpoints for tourism companies’ strategies and the type of engagement activated with consumers. Furthermore, this research suggests some practical implications for the management of the social media marketing activities.
Lala Hu, Mirko Olivieri
Business Is Business: The Difference in Perception of Influencer’s Morality Between Generation Y and Z
Parallel to increased usage of influencer marketing among practitioners this type of advertising gained increased attention of the scientific community. Existing literature on the topic provides various findings on consumer responses to influencer marketing and this research adds to it by examining the potential moral issues from the followers’ perspective. The results of four focus groups among members of Generations Y and Z showed there are four types of unethical conduct noticed, and they vary depending on the respondent’s age. This research provides a starting point for examining potential consequences of different immoral actions that can be found in influencer marketing and gives practitioners more insight on the follower’s responses toward influencer’s online behavior, depending on their age.
Nina Grgurić Čop, Barbara Culiberg
Types of Electronic Word-of-Mouth and Their Impact on Consumer Attitudes
Numerous eWOM platforms have made it easy for consumers to share product-related information. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of three commonly used eWOM types on consumer brand attitude. By manipulating the valence of the communicated messages, we shed light on the interaction of different eWOM types and provide insights on the relationship of social tie and valence and its role in attitude formation. Conducting two experiments we confirm three hypothesized relationships: First, by manipulating valence and eWOM type our results confirm that involved consumers are more influenced by conventional eWOM offering comprehensive information about the product from acquaintances or strangers (i.e., weak social ties) than by overall product ratings with their conveyed superficial normative cues (i.e., no social ties). Second, by introducing a third eWOM type in the experiment, so called social media eWOM, our findings confirm that this form of interpersonal communication (i.e., strong social ties) becomes so dominant that any other type of subsequently consulted eWOM – whether it be consistent or inconsistent with SeWOM in valence – becomes neglectable. Based on our results we propose to foster the capacity of review sites to signal social ties.
Robert Zniva, Wolfgang J. Weitzl, Julian M. Müller, Andrea Schneider
The Drivers of Video Popularity on YouTube: An Empirical Investigation
In this article, we present and test a model of drivers for video post popularity on YouTube. In this conceptual model, video characteristics such as linguistics style, subjectivity, emotion polarity and video category influence online video popularity on YouTube (i.e. the number of likes, dislikes, and comments). The results of the analysis of more than 11,000 videos from 150 digital influencers show that not all factors that help to boost the number of likes have a similar effect on the number of comments - or the number of dislikes. In summary, medium-length and long videos posted during non-business hours, using analytical/informative content and subjective language style, are more likely to receive likes and comments. Moreover, the use of negative or moderate emotion helps to promote a general interest in the video.
Ana Cristina Munaro, Renato Hübner Barcelos, Eliane Cristine Francisco Maffezzolli, João Pedro Santos Rodrigues, Emerson Cabrera Paraiso
A Tale of Two Social Influencers: A New Method for the Evaluation of Social Marketing
Political marketing strategies based on social network influencers are becoming increasingly relevant to set political agendas. We develop one of the first methods that will help us to understand the mechanism of transmission of information. We analyze the sentiment of the messages, then find and study how these messages spread over the social network of social influencers. We apply the method to one of the currently hottest topics, climate change, and to two of the most powerful social influencers, Greta Thunberg and Bill Gates, analyzing how they apply their communication strategies to reach their goals.
María Teresa Ballestar, Jorge Sainz
Unanticipated Consequences of Interactive Marketing: Systematic Literature Review and Directions for Future Research
Internet and social media have created new opportunities and challenges for marketing practices. This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the unanticipated consequences of interactive marketing. The current study focuses on a number of aspects of interactive marketing research such as consumer-to-consumer and consumer-to-company communications, consumer brand engagement, impact of social influencers and online buzz, impact of online advertisement, companies adoption and use of new technologies by companies, consumer empowerment by digital technologies, complain handling, impact of mobile advertising, co-creation, and impact of social media marketing. This research provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature. The findings of this study could be used as an informative framework for both academics and practitioners.
Elvira Ismagilova, Yogesh Dwivedi, Nripendra Rana
Consumer Adoption of Online-to-Offline Food Delivery Services: A Conceptual Model
There is a dramatic growth in the market of Online-To-Offline food delivery services (O2O-FDS) recently. A need exists for the stakeholders of food and catering industries to better understand the market of O2O-FDS in order to create suitable marketing strategies and promotion policies for this promptly changing e-commerce era. However, there is a lack of understanding of the significant factors influencing the consumer adoption of O2O-FDS. This study develops a conceptual model to help systematically understand those important factors. The model is developed based on a literature review concerning the O2O-FDS topic and other relevant topics in food marketing and consumer behaviour. It shows that the O2O-FDS adoption is significantly influenced by food choice motives, socio-demographics, innovation-adoption characteristics, and APP-service quality.
Ou Wang
Role of Digital Relationships in the Marketing of Higher Education: An Exploratory Analysis from New Zealand
The adoption and growth of innovative digital marketing technologies have helped the businesses to embrace relationship marketing strategies in their markets. Relationship marketing strategies are intended to provide sustainable competitive advantages through identifying, developing and maintaining value-creating relationships among its stakeholders, and marketing strategies of higher education were no exception. The current study examines the role of relationship marketing approaches in digital marketing and promotion of educational exports in New Zealand. Based on a systematic review of the literature published between 2000 and 2018, the current study examines the evolution and growth of relationship marketing approaches in the marketing theory and practice. Findings suggest that trust, commitment and service orientation are the critical success factors and growth drivers of relationship marketing approaches in higher education. The study is expected to provide valuable insights for digital marketers particularly those involved in the digital marketing and promotion of higher education exports.
Surej P. John
Digital Marketing Strategies in Educational Tourism: A Social Media Perspective
The prime objective of this study is to examine how international student travellers are engaged and involved in the digital marketing communication efforts of educational export providers. Based on an online survey conducted among international student travellers in New Zealand, the study identified critical factors influencing the success of digital marketing communication, particularly through social media networks. The four significant factors that influence online user’s adoption and use of marketing information are found to be argument quality, source credibility, user involvement and audience engagement. Further, the current study examined the mediating roles of audience involvement dimensions including transportation, parasocial interaction and identification as well as audience engagement dimensions including cognitive, emotional and behavioural engagement in social media marketing communication process. Further to its contributions to the marketing literature, the study provides valuable implications to the educational export providers and other destination marketers.
Surej P. John
Extension of META-UTAUT for Examining Consumer Adoption of Social Commerce: Towards a Conceptual Model
Social commerce is a relatively new subset of digital commerce where buying and selling is transacted via social media interaction. This study attempts to evaluate the suitability of a number of models/theories for understanding the factors affecting consumer adoption of social commerce. This paper first highlights the limitations of alternative theories and then discusses the strengths of the selected theory. Besides the core model, two external variables (Trust and Risk) are considered for extending the selected model for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of antecedents affecting the consumer’s adoption behaviour.
Prianka Sarker, D. Laurie Hughes, Yogesh K. Dwivedi
The Effect of Web Advertising Visual Design on Online Purchase Intention: Insights on Generations Y and Z
Web advertising is a fast-growing industry in which brands fight for the attention of the most attractive consumers: Millennials and Centennials. This study aims to test the impact of Web Advertising Visual Design (WAVD) on the consumers’ Online Purchase Intention (OPI) and, simultaneously, analyze if such influence differs across those generations. Participants (N = 318) filled in an online questionnaire. Data revealed a direct impact of visual design on consumers’ OPI as well as an indirect impact via Attitude Toward the Brand (ATB). Moreover, results showed that generations Y and Z do not differ significantly in their intentions, although Centennials exhibit a higher coefficient for the influence of WAVD on OPI. Regarding the theoretical implications, the results tend to confirm the Theory of Visual Rhetoric and partially confirm the Theory of Reasoned Action. Managerial implications and research limitations are also discussed.
Luisa M. Martinez, Teresa V. Neves, Luis F. Martinez
Optimizing the Digital Customer Journey – Improving User Experience by Persona-Based and Situation-Aware Adaptations
This paper discusses a novel approach for combining persona-based and situation-aware software adaptation methods for individualizing some of the touch points of the digital customer journey and thereby optimizing customer experience and effectiveness of e-commerce applications. Our approach uses emotion recognition, eye-tracking, and other individual tracking methods for adapting interactive web applications by accessing a flexible adaptation framework at runtime. The framework provides model-based support and allows for individualization at runtime by applying situation-aware adaptations. The approach is demonstrated with examples from a commercial beauty-products e-business portal.
Christian Märtin, Pietro Asta, Bärbel Bissinger
Influence of Source Credibility on Search for Information
The Internet is a prevalent source of product information for most consumers. To search for products consumer access information on manufacturer owned online information sources, social media and other third-party websites. However, fake content and information on social media and third party information websites is a growing problem and likely to influence credibility of the information source. This study seeks to examine the impact of source credibility on consumer’s search effort.
Sonika Singh
Assessing the Determinants of Millennials’ Online Protective Behavior: How Their Protection Motivation Translates into Actual Use Behavior
This research assesses the determinants of Millennials protection motivation (or security intentions) on their actual use behavior when navigating online, considering the protective measures they adopt. Accordingly, we propose a model integrating variables from two widely accepted behavioral theories, the Protection Motivation Theory and the Reasoned Action Approach. An online survey was conducted, relying on the responses of 236 participants from different nationalities, which were analyzed through hierarchical multiple regression. Results show a gap between security intentions and use behavior and indicate safety habit strength and actual control as significant predictors of Millennials’ use behavior. By focusing not only on the users’ behavioral intentions but also on their actual use behavior, this research seeks to extend the previous literature on the topic.
Ana S. Medeiros, Luis F. Martinez, Luisa M. Martinez
The Effect of App Quality and Compatibility on Consumers’ Omnichannel (OC) App Adoption and Loyalty: Comparison of US and Korean Consumers
This paper proposes to empirically test a research model that evaluate the importance of selected antecedents of consumers’ omnichannel shopping loyalty. In particular, this paper examines the influence of two variables (i.e. compatibility, omnichannel app quality) in understanding consumers’ response to omnichannel retail service. Social cognitive theory and technology task fit theory are applied as theoretical frameworks, and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is applied as a reference framework for the empirical research model. The proposed model is assessed with the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), and the empirical data is collected from the U.S. and Korea. A web-based survey was developed to collect data from the U.S. and South Korean consumers who have experience using the OC apps. In total, 130 responses and 123 responses were used from the U.S. and South Korea, respectively for empirical analysis. This study finds the significant direct relationship of the 5 predictors (perceived quality of the OC app, perceived compatibility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness) with the key construct – consumer loyalty.
Joonyong Park, Renee B. Kim
Optimising Customer Engagement Through Digital Intelligence
Understanding customer online behaviour is critical for strategic marketing decision making and organisation survival and success. The internet has dramatically changed the key concept of marketing. Customers use different digital interface to communicate and share valuable information about their lifestyles, likes and dislikes, experiences, expectations, opinions and behaviours. Customers digital interactions have given rise to a huge amount of information contributing to digital marketing intelligence (DMI). Gathering and analysing customers’ online information from a variety of online platform can give marketing practitioners and researchers new opportunities to better understand customers’ online behaviour.
Digital marketing intelligence is a new and emerging science in the digital marketing analytics arena. The purpose of this paper is to present the role of digital data analytics as an enabler of marketing decision making. The paper argues that digital intelligence represents an important tool for prospecting, acquiring and holding on customers.
Normada Devi Bheekharry
Amazon Effect? an Analysis of User-Generated Content on Consumer Electronics Retailers’ Facebook Pages
This working paper aims at exploring the so-called “Amazon effect” in consumer electronics retail industry, and specifically the impact Amazon has generated in terms of consumers’ expectations when consumers buy (or willing to buy) these type of products. The paper reviews the meaning of Amazon effect (or Amazonification) in different fields of study, and then focuses on the escalation of customer expectations towards retailers. A content analysis of users’ comments drawn from Facebook pages of three leading consumer electronics retailers in Italy across a two-year span (2016-2018) serves to evaluate the relevance of different customer expectations. The preliminary findings show that consumers’ conversations related to “Amazon effect” seem widely diffused on consumer electronics retailers, especially regarding effectiveness of customer service, online purchasing experience, and fast delivery times. The paper argues the need for further research to better disentangle the Amazonification concept in terms of customer impatience, also going beyond price and logistics issues, usually considered as the main constitutive factors.
Agostino Vollero, Alfonso Siano, Domenico Sardanelli
Daily Active Users of Social Network Sites: Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram-Use Compared to General Social Network Site Use
Most research on Social Network Sites (SNS) has focused on Facebook. Some scholars have argued to abandon the focus on a single platform in favor of studying SNS in general (GSNS). Others call for more comparative research of different SNS. With this study, we contribute to both approaches by taking a multi-cross platform approach comparing specific SNS as well as GSNS and their underlying user-profile. We obtained cross-sectional data from 5500 Belgians between 18–64 that answered a self-completed survey via quota-sampling, administered via an online panel. Logistic regression analyses on the number of daily active users (DAU) show individual differences in sociodemographic background per specific SNS use by Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, as well as GSNS, confirming the concern that the focus on Facebook is a justified critique, and that insight derived from Facebook cannot necessarily be generalized to other SNS. Additionally, our results indicate that the overall indicated usage frequency by GSNS is lower than when incidence is reported for an additive measure of specific SNS as well as Facebook. Consequently, research with a focus on GSNS tends to report lower usage frequency and heavy usage incidence rates and, therefore, possibly also lower problematic usage. This suggests that users might activate an averaging response model besides an additive model when answering GSNS.
Johan Hellemans, Kim Willems, Malaika Brengman
Surfing the Waves of New Marketing in Luxury Fashion: The Case of Online Multi-brand Retailers
The digital environment as a context and set of tools for marketers’ actions is the subject of considerable and growing interest in literature. The phenomenon is significant in many industries, with specificity within particular sectors in which, as in luxury fashion, the development of the online market has been particularly significant over the years. This article explores the case of online multi-brand retailers in the luxury fashion and the new marketing that characterizes their business model. Online technologies are general purposes, but the fields of application and the use of tools can have different effects in particular contexts, where companies that form a specific type of player operate. The paper presents the case of an online multi-brand retailer operating in the luxury fashion sector, a strategic group consisting of a few dozen players globally. The case of one of these companies, based in Italy, is then examined as a success story and shows new marketing strategies and specific capabilities as key aspects of the business model.
Simone Guercini, Matilde Milanesi, Pedro Mir-Bernal, Andrea Runfola
Sales Model Based on the Behavior on Facebook
This study investigated the steps for the successful implementation of Facebook marketing by enterprises, and offers a sales model segmenting the users by their behavior on Facebook. The model uses the marketing communication model developed by Hoffman and Novak (1996), and its further development by Yang (2012) that tested the impact of the transferring messages through media on the message receiver’s decision-making behavior.
The model emerged from discussions led and Facebook campaigns conducted for the focus group of 150 small business entrepreneurs in the last two years. The finding shows that the model can indeed be applied in strategic use of social media for marketing purposes.
The proposed model serves as a guideline for small business entrepreneurs on how to strategically use social media for marketing, on ways to enhance customer acquisition, loyalty and retention. In addition, the study found that using social media is the most cost-effective way for marketing and is thus suitable for small business.
Mabela Atanasovska Penić, Smilka Janeska Sarkanjac
Advances in Digital Marketing and eCommerce
Francisco J. Martínez-López
Steven D'Alessandro
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