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2023 | Book

Advances in Electric Aviation

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Electric Aircraft and Autonomous Systems 2021

Editors: T. Hikmet Karakoc, Öznur Usanmaz, Ravi Rajamani, Hakan Oktal, Alper Dalkiran, Ali Haydar Ercan

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Sustainable Aviation


About this book

The International Symposium on Electric Aviation and Autonomous Systems (ISEAS) is a multi-disciplinary symposium that presents research on current issues in aerospace. The conference provides a platform offering insights on a broad range of current issues in the field of aviation, including electrification of aerial vehicles, all-electric aircraft, electric generation, and energy storage in aerial vehicles. ISEAS allows researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners, policymakers, and students to exchange information, present new technologies and developments, and discuss future direction, strategies, and priorities in aviation and environmental sustainability of next-generation aircraft.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. A Short Review on Electric Aircraft Development and Futures, Barriers to Reduce Emissions in Aviation

Electric aircraft are being proposed as a solution to climate change and global warming, as they do not produce greenhouse gas emissions, which are harmful to both humans and the environment. Electric aviation is expected to reduce operating and maintenance costs, reduce fuel costs, and bring financial advantages. Hybridization is the process of reducing the amount of fossil fuel needed in aircraft propulsion systems by providing both electric and gas turbine engines. Hydrogen-powered propulsion systems are an alternative to hybrid systems that can directly use hydrogen as a fuel, but are not included in range limitations. Electric aircraft may be powered autonomously by a flying aircraft to reduce noise pollution and pollutants, and improved measuring methods or procedures should be defined to support noise legislation and community noise effect.

Selcuk Ekici, Alper Dalkiran, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 2. Design Considerations for Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems for FW-VTOL Aircraft

This paper aims to present the ongoing research effort on hybrid-propulsion unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) carried out at the University of Victoria Centre for Aerospace Research (UVIC-CFAR). The study involves the development and updating of an optimization framework capable of evaluating vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) and conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) hybrid propulsion performances, with a recent focus on more unconventional configurations mounting fuel cells onboard. A preliminary sizing and mass analysis for the hybrid propulsion system of a UAV with VTOL capabilities was accomplished. A similar analysis was also performed for a CTOL configuration powered by hybrid fuel cell schemes. Finally, a hybrid test bench used to validate the models and test the components is presented. The paper concludes with the general statement that for small UAVs, a hybrid power plant can lead to improvements in endurance, fuel consumption, and efficiency along the mission.

Daniele Obertino, Phillip Sharikov, Jay Matlock, Afzal Suleman
Chapter 3. Influence of Battery Aging on Energy Management Strategy

In the context of Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems, one of the main aspects to investigate is the most suitable energy management strategy, which would allow the objectives of fuel consumption minimization and electric backup availability to be attained. The present study aims at comparing two different energy management strategies for a Hybrid Electric air-taxi vehicle: although both are based on the same set fuzzy rules, the first one has been implemented neglecting battery aging effects, while the second adjusts the optimal battery discharge according to its age. The impact of such adaptation on fuel consumption and battery state of charge is evaluated along a typical mission profile.

Teresa Donateo, Ludovica Spada Chiodo, Antonio Ficarella
Chapter 4. Sustainable Aviation of the Leather Industry: Life Cycle Assessment of Raw Materials, Energy Consumption and Discharge of Pollutants, and Recovery of Some Economical Merit Substances

In this study, the impact of the leather industry to the environment was studied by the utilization of a Life Cycle Assessment protocol. An inventory for life cycle analysis (LCA) was carried out. This inventory contains the energy, the wastes discharged to the receiving media in a limited matrix containing all the inputs and outputs of the leather industry. The methodology of this mass-balance inventory is an accepted estimation for assessment of the environmental factors relevant to the sustainable operation of leather industry. The environmental impacts were evaluated for leather industry based on inputs (raw materials, energy recovery) and emissions of the environmental waste and wastewater as outputs.

Delia Teresa Sponza, Nefise Erdinçmer
Chapter 5. Resampling Based Particle Filter Estimation of a Quadrotor

Quadrotors have dynamic nonlinearities, coupling effects and unstable open-loop characteristics. Control of quadrotors are still an open issue. Flight controllers need the sensor outputs to calculate the attitude angles. However, unmanned aerial vehicles are prone to sensor noises and disturbances. To control a quadrotor, its states must be effectively estimated. So, in this work, resampling based particle filter is presented and effect of particle size is investigated for attitude estimation problem of a quadrotor.

Aziz Kaba, Ahmet Ermeydan
Chapter 6. Electric Aircraft: Motivations and Barriers to Fly

Electric aircraft became a certified aviation option in 2020, but will stakeholders make it a market success? The new technology offers several potential benefits that motivate adoption, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced noise and reduced operating costs. However, barriers such as technology uncertainty, limited battery capacity/endurance and the dominance of existing fossil fuel technologies may limit the adoption of e-planes. The rate of adoption of this technology in the first target market, flight schools, will depend on the perceived strengths of these benefits and barriers among key stakeholders: student pilots, instructors, managers/owners, and others. This study provides insights from 186 survey respondents. The top motivation to fly e-planes differed across cohorts as student pilots rated reduced emissions highest while instructors and flight school managers rated reduced costs for training as their strongest reason. Managers also rated the benefits of quieter operations and reduced accident risks more highly than other stakeholders. Battery endurance and the continued dominance of fossil fuel technology were rated as the strongest barriers to adopting e-plane technology. Recognizing and responding to the perceptions of each stakeholder group is critical to enabling market entry and creating a path for electric aviation success.

Paul Parker, Chelsea-Anne Edwards
Chapter 7. Determination of Environmental Impact Assessment Criteria in the Life Cycle of Transport Facilities

The paper proposes a list of criteria for environmental impact assessment in construction and reconstruction projects of transport facilities. The list of criteria includes impact on the quality of the surface layer of atmospheric air; volume of consumption of non-renewable resources; impact on the quality of the aquatic environment; waste management efficiency indicator; impact on the quality of land resources; impact on the quality of the geological environment; physical factors influencing the environment; impact on flora and fauna, protected objects; impact of TF on the social environment; impact of the transport structure on the man-made environment. Each of the criteria is a set of local indicators. The method of quantitative evaluation of these criteria has been developed, which provides for expert evaluation of each criterion according to the proposed scale. The method was implemented during the environmental impact assessment of the project “Construction of a state road H-31 Dnipro – Tsarychanka – Kobeliaky – Reshetylivka from the village of Loboykivka to the border of Dnipropetrovsk region I-b technical category with 4 lanes bypassing Loboykivka, Petrykivka, Mohyliv, Kitaygorod, Tsarychanka, Lyashkivka.” The example of defining certain criteria for the impact of this project on the environment is given.

Victoriia Khrutba, Inessa Rutkovska, Tatiana Morozova, Lesia Kriukovska, Natasha Kharitonova
Chapter 8. Two-Phase Heat Exchangers for Thermal Control of Electric Aircraft Equipment

Thermal control systems based on two-phase heat transfer devices providing efficient removal of excess heat from cooled objects are considered. The heat pipes and thermosyphons are autonomous and noiseless. Their operation does not require energy consumption. These devices can take heat from the object to be cooled, remove it outside the volume filled by the equipment, and then transfer it to the coolant or air. The attractiveness of two-phase passive heat transfer for use in electric and hybrid aircrafts is noted. With a help of heat pipes and loop thermosyphons it is possible to equalize the battery temperature by transferring heat from its modules to a liquid cooling system. A possibility to successfully remove heat from a rotor and stator of an electric motor is analyzed and discussed. A rotor of an electric engine can be cooled using rotating centrifugal heat pipes (vapor chambers). The heat pipe cooling system is attractive due to its simple and reliable design, moving parts absence, and the relatively low weight of the device.

Leonard Vasiliev, Alexander Zhuravlyov
Chapter 9. Subjective Decision-Making of Aviation Operators (Pilots, ATCOs)

In aviation working environment it is really important that operators (Pilots, ATCOs) make optimum judgments and a timely decision under different subjective work scenarios, which is influenced by a variety of factors such as skills, experience level, and the human response factor. By applying a novel generalized model that employ the operator’s environmental and physical conditions, the study explored the endogenous dynamics of the pilot abilities of decision-making under varied experiences and skills using the modified Lorenz attractor on MATLAB for modelling for comparing the subjective decision-making of pilots for the following experience levels: (i) pilot cadets, (ii) less-skilled pilots, (iii) skilled pilots, and (iv) expert pilots. For two flight tasks: landing and go-around circumstances, the “hesitation frequency” and “decision-making time” were calculated during the final approach. In addition, this research investigated several specific aspects of operators that influences the aviation safety.

Utku Kale, Omar Alharasees, Joszef Rohács, Dániel Rohács
Chapter 10. Acoustic Operational Monitoring of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Near Vertiports

Operational safety will become of a prime concern, as many of UAS would fly close to residential areas. This paper is devoted to small UAS (sUAS) collision risk with static ground objects in populated zones. Solutions of sense and avoid problem involve the use of a passive localization method to detect collision threats. This method uses the acoustic signature of the UAS. The method is based on resampling of received signals of moving UAS for Doppler shift compensation, evaluation of generalized cross-correlation with phase transforms and signal delays grouping using cyclic sums and products.

Vitalii Makarenko, Vadim Tokarev
Chapter 11. Peculiarities of Pre-processing of ADS-B Data for Aircraft Noise Modeling and Measurement During Specific Stages of LTO Cycle

The paper is targeted at the analysis of the importance of ADS-B data in overcoming gaps between noise modeling results and short or long-term measurements. The presented results based on noise measurement campaign at Ukrainian airports describe the general peculiarities of the pre-processing of ADS-B data during specific stages of LTO cycle. The paper outcomes could be used for preparation of noise measurements and development of recommendations for noise monitoring system.

Kateryna Kazhan, Oleksandr Zaporozhets, Sergii Karpenko
Chapter 12. Test Bench for Electric Propellers and Distributed Propulsion

In the quest for a sustainable aviation many new innovations are taking place while other old technologies are being revised. Such is the case of distributed electric propulsion. For this type of technology (the same used as on the NASA N3-X (Felder JL, NASA N3-X with turboelectric distributed propulsion (2014, November). Accessed 10 Jul 2020) for instance), ducted propellers are used to increase overall efficiency and aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. It is no doubt that electric distributed propulsion has some advantages (Kim HD, 27th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences at NASA Glenn Research Center, Distributed Propulsion Vehicles, 2010; Kim HD, Felder JL, Brown GV, Turboelectric distributed propulsion in a hybrid wing body aircraft, 2011) over classic propulsion configurations such as for instance improved maneuverability, control surfaces area reduction and hence weight reduction, boundary layer ingestion (Friedrichs J, Budziszewski N, Energies 11, Modelling of a boundary layer ingesting propulsor, 2018) and more. In this paper it is the effect of the duct over the propeller efficiency which will be quantified. To do so, a test bench equipped with high resolution sensors has been built to effectively test, measure and analyze electric drone propellers in different configurations. This has allowed to quantify the increase in performance the installation of a simple duct can bring. A further study should be conducted to quantify the induced drag due to the duct to compare positive and negative effects.

Castroviejo Daniel, Patrick Hendrick
Chapter 13. Aircraft Accidents and Their Causes

The number of accidents with fatal consequences is falling lower with each decade since 1950s, which is noteworthy accomplishment if we consider the constantly growing frequency of air travel. While in 1949, there were 40 fatal accidents in total per one million departures, during the next decades this number significantly dropped to less than two accidents per one million departures. According to IATA, civil aviation safety is still on the lowest rate in history based on current number of accidents per one million departures. This improvement in safety is based on a number of factors. Reliability of jet engines has huge impact on this safety. Other than that, improvements in sensors, navigation, and air traffic control technology are one of these factors too. Finally, reducing human error during crew and cockpit management and data monitoring is one of the most important improvements in recent decades. The aviation industry’s remarkable record of safety during the last years is mostly thanks to big technological leaps during the second half of twentieth century.

Samer Al-Rabeei, Simona Pjurová, Utku Kale
Chapter 14. Possibilities of Using Fuel Cells in Transport Aircraft

The article focuses on the possibility of reducing harmful emissions from commercial aircraft using hydrogen fuel cells. The possibilities of using fuel cells in the construction of current transport aircraft are indicated by specific examples.

Marian Hocko, Samer Al-Rabeei, Utku Kale
Chapter 15. An Examination of the Usage Areas of Big Data Technology in Civil Aviation

It is an extremely important issue to adapt to the changing industry conditions in the aviation sector, which is one of the most complex sectors where intense competition is felt globally. To ensure and maintain customer satisfaction, maintain business profitability, and provide a competitive advantage, it is also necessary to understand the areas of use of big data in the aviation sector. In this study, after a general review of the concept of big data, the application areas of big data in aviation were discussed. In the results and discussions section, the application difficulties of the concept of big data, which has great advantages, were focused on.

Betul Kacar, Emre Nalcacigil
Chapter 16. Solar-Electric Long Endurance Reflector Craft for Meteorology and Climate Simulation

Combating climate change requires temporally and spatially-resolved atmospheric and solar data planetwide. The Glitter Belt HALE architecture of reflective vehicles serves both as meteorology platforms and as a scalable, reversible option to reduce insolation. The 30.5 km altitude and 12-h night glide requirements, rendezvous, and swarm operation for high-precision distributed antenna applications all pose unique challenges, but are shown feasible with the present approach. Conceptual design, small scale design-build-fly tests, and dynamic flight simulation are used to remove uncertainties and derive system properties.

Narayanan M. Komerath, Ravi Deepak, Adarsh Deepak
Chapter 17. Examination of Different Systems Used for UAV Detection and Tracking

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has increased rapidly in recent years and has become widespread. The reason for this is that UAV systems are cost-effective compared with many aircraft and their maintenance costs are relatively lower. Of course, the prevalence of UAV systems in our daily lives in such a short time brings security threats. In recent years, different systems have been used to prevent security threats from UAV systems. These systems are classified as radar systems, acoustic detection technologies, radio frequency (RF) emission detection applications and electro-optical (EO) detection methods. These systems have different advantages and disadvantages. In this study, UAV detection and monitoring applications that can be used to prevent security threats that may arise from UAV systems, which are expected to become more widespread with the stretching of regulations in the next five years, are examined. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of different UAV detection and tracking applications were examined and tips were presented to the designers.

Alpaslan Durmuş, Erol Duymaz
Chapter 18. Misunderstandings in Aviation Communication

The consequences of ineffective communication can be life-threatening and dramatic. Communication misunderstandings are often cited as the cause of paranormal events in aviation which could lead to accidents/incidents. As a result, the risk of lack of communication is relatively high. Many factors that directly or indirectly influence the rate of misunderstandings in communication, such as language barriers, non-standardized phraseology, ambiguous communication, regional differences, and premature communication, are the causes of communication errors in flight. The study focuses on distinguishing and emphasizing various perspectives of communication and making suggestions to operators to reduce misunderstandings in aviation communications. The study is based on a survey highlighting the important communication loads such as flight training, standard expressions, operator’s native language, and cultural background. The survey collected 110 responses from pilots and ATCOs, from various countries, with approximately 20% being ATCOs and 75% being pilots. Some suggestions concluded based on the results of this study are (i) improving aviation training by further focusing on radiotelephony communications and (ii) familiarizing and permanently updating standard used phraseology among operators.

Omar Alharasees, Abeer Jazzar, Utku Kale
Chapter 19. Modeling of Exhaust Gases Jet from Aircraft Engine for Different Operational Conditions

Emission inventories analysis at European and Ukrainian airports highlighted that aircraft is a dominant source of air pollution. To evaluate the aircraft contribution in airport air quality, it is important to consider some features of the aircraft, as a special source of air pollution. For the most part of landing-take-off cycle, the aircraft is maneuvering on the ground, and it is subjected to fluid flow that can create a strong vortex between the ground and engine nozzle, which have essential influence on structure and basic mechanisms of exhaust gases jet from aircraft engine. The paper demonstrates the results of CFD modeling and analysis for the jets close to ground surface, simulating the aircraft engine jets’ performances in airport. The numerical simulation of wall jet by Fluent 6.3 was implemented for different combination of initial jet velocity and height of engine installation to evaluate the influence of the ground on jet’s parameters (height and longitudinal coordinate of buoyancy effect, length of jet penetration). Obtained results provide improvement of PolEmiCa model.

Kateryna Synylo
Chapter 20. Automation Level Impact on the Operators’ (Pilot, Air Traffic Controller) Role and Total Loads

Present aviation operations are heavily reliant on highly automated systems for low risk, safe, balanced operator total loads, and efficient operations. Automation helps the operators understand the system status better by alerting and indicating any abnormalities. It also helps in reducing/eliminating repetitive tasks, allowing the operator to focus on critical ones. However, highly automated systems can result in swamping the operator with information which could prevent them from making the right choice in a short time. Additionally, automation is changing the operators’ role from active operations to passive monitoring. That might potentially decrease the operators’ situational awareness and could even affect the operators’ required skills for the aviation industry. Thus, potentially, it will lead to a dangerous situation if the system fails and needs human interventions. This study focuses on understanding and investigating the effects of automation levels on the operators’ total loads (work, task, information, communication, mental) by carrying a questionnaire for ATCOs and pilots based on their experience. In this study, 62 responses are collected from pilots and ATCOs that vary in 27 countries, with approximately 26% being ATCOs and 56% being pilots, and 10% being ATCO & pilots. Based on the results of this questionnaire and the responses feedbacks, the study suggests: (i) improving aviation training by constantly revising it to keep up with the advanced technologies; (ii) balancing the total loads and using human duality in operation; and (iii) adapting the new advanced technologies and always following the standard operating procedure in aviation worldwide to achieve efficient and safe operations.

Abeer Jazzar, Omar Alharasees, Utku Kale
Chapter 21. Aircraft Noise Measurements in Ukrainian Airports

The paper presents an overview of instrumental measurements of aircraft noise performed in accordance with the requirements of the guidelines to the aviation rules of Ukraine “Requirements for operators related to noise zoning of the airport vicinity” AR-381-2019. The results of measurements are used for proving aircraft noise contour calculations mostly, especially that used for boundaries of noise zoning around the airports.

Oleksander Zaporozhets, Vadym Gulevets, Sergii Karpenko, Kateryna Kazhan, Olena Konovalova, Vjacheslav Paraschanov
Chapter 22. PIV Experimental Setup Integrated Wind Tunnel Initial Design: Size and Power Requirement Calculation

Aerodynamic forces and moments act on all kinds of vehicles and structures that move in the air or are under the influence of an air current. Wind tunnels are used to find these forces and determine the shape and form of the flow. It is used to examine the aerodynamic structure, parameters such as heat, light, and smoke on the one-to-one product or scaled-down products placed in the wind tunnel under desired conditions. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to detect flow velocity fields and eddy formations. Systems integrated into the wind tunnel should be created to use the PIV method, especially in aviation applications. In this study, a wind tunnel was designed for the easy-access and modular test section in the PIV system. The results of the study showed the tunnel dimensions and the power requirement.

Murat Ayar, T Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 23. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement with Scaled-Down Aircraft Models: A Review of the Experiments and Applications

Aerodynamic tests in wind tunnels are one of the methods used in determining the performance of an aircraft during the design phase. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) method is the closest to real-world flow visualization to detect velocity fields and vortex formations in wind tunnels. In this method, models that are scaled-down of the physical dimensions of the aircraft are used. In the experiments, the model should be used under the dimensions of the wind tunnel test section, the characteristics of the wind tunnel, and the flow characteristics to be examined. The relationships between these two variables were investigated in flow visualization studies using scale models. As a result, predictions and suggestions were made about using scale models.

Murat Ayar, Ali Haydar Ercan, T Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 24. A Conceptual Use Case Evaluation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the Structural Inspection of Greenhouses

The food shortage throughout the world is an important sustainability issue that is being addressed by associations and organizations. Drought, the decrease in the workforce in agriculture, and the loss of agricultural lands increase the problems in this regard day by day. Therefore, increasing productivity in agriculture is a very important issue. The concept of precision agriculture was born in the light of these needs. There are many areas where unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used in agriculture: irrigation analysis, soil analysis, spraying, and yield forecasting are some of them. In this study, the control of the structural integrity of the greenhouses by flying unmanned aerial vehicles around the structure was investigated. Greenhouses can be affected by natural disasters or winds. As a result, large energy losses can occur, products can be lost, and efficiency loss occurs. In this study, which types of unmanned aerial vehicles can be used for this task, which methods can be used, and previous work examples have been evaluated

Elif Koruyucu, Emre Özbek, Selcuk Ekici, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 25. Applications of Drone Control & Management in Urban Planning

Drones or unmanned aerial systems (UAV - Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or UAS - Unmanned Aerial Systems) are vehicles that can fly without the need for a pilot or passengers. Drones can be controlled remotely through radio waves or independently (with a route determined before). The amount of documented accident that involves the hazardous use of drones has risen significantly as a result of the increased usage of drones. To perform and increase the use of drones in air traffic management (ATM), especially in smart city planning, a variety of regulations and management procedures will be implemented. The aim of this paper is to propose management rules or regulations for drones in smart city transportation management, as well as some approaches related to drone management and drone control. To present controlling approaches through the parameters in mathematical modeling for drones, we need a control rule and a dynamic model of drones, and to present controlling and managing it with the help of a drone-following model based on a dynamic model of drones.

Dinh-Dung Nguyen, Utku Kale, Muhammed Safa Baş, Munevver Ugur, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 26. Imaging Techniques Based on Unmanned Aerial

The developments in UAV systems in recent years and the production of UAV systems in smaller sizes have made these systems more preferred in imaging and remote sensing systems. The use of imaging and remote data collection applications with different aircraft and aircraft brings high operating costs and long planning processes. The costs of imaging and remote sensing studies with aircraft are both quite high and the flight preparation studies take a long time. UAV systems are increasingly preferred for remote imaging and data collection applications due to the high cost of remote image collection by aircraft, the necessity of employing more operating personnel and the need for long-term planning. Especially for environmental monitoring studies in small or medium-sized areas, UAV technologies offer much more economical, flexible, and faster solutions. Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly preferred in photogrammetry and remote imaging applications with their flexibility, efficiency, low cost, and easy-to-use features. With the increasing use of UAV systems in the field of photogrammetry, studies of taking, processing, and analyzing UAV-based aerial images are gaining momentum day by day. Different imaging and remote sensing cameras and sensors are widely used in UAV systems. These are near infrared, multispectral, hyperspectral, and thermal cameras. At the same time, laser scanners and synthetic aperture radar systems, which are increasingly used in commercial and industrial applications, are also increasingly used in UAV systems. In this study, near infrared, multispectral, hyperspectral and thermal cameras, laser scanners, and synthetic aperture radar systems used in UAV systems were examined. At the same time, its industrial applications were examined.

Alpaslan Durmuş, Erol Duymaz
Chapter 27. Polarization Effect Between Entropy and Sustainability of Cruise Altitude for Jet-Prop Engine Performance

Entropy and sustainability, as two different structures with opposite effects, are parameters that should be considered in all systems. Aircraft engines are structures that negatively affect environmental sustainability with the entropy they produce due to the irreversibility they cause because of fossil fuel consumption. In this study, the effect of different dual zones for constant speed, especially in cruise conditions, was evaluated and their environmental effects due to entropy production were evaluated. Further, the boundary conditions for different altitude capabilities of the engine, especially in the constant speed condition of 2000 RPM, were discussed. In this respect, using the technical data of the jet-prop engine taken as a reference, the impact values were calculated over the environmental indices developed. At the end of the study, the effects of entropy production on environmental sustainability and predictions were evaluated.

M. Ziya Sogut
Chapter 28. Latest Developments on Electrical Air Vehicles Powered by Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems

Aviation pioneers have been studying disruptive technologies in propulsion engineering throughout recent years. In this study, the recent developments on electrical air vehicles powered by electric and hybrid propulsion systems that seem to be the driving force for modern and sustainable aviation are investigated in detail.

Ozgur Balli, Alper Dalkiran, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 29. Conceptual Application of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System Configurations on Cessna 172S

In this paper, two hybrid-electric propulsion system configurations are presented as an example of hybrid-electric propulsion systems to decrease fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and flight costs. Today, most academic papers about electrified propulsion are theoretical, therefore conceptual applications with commercially available technologies have been implemented on the Cessna 172S, which is a very common aircraft, to understand the current state of electrification. In 2 h conceptual flight, 14.8% reduction in fuel consumption and flight greenhouse gas emissions; and nearly 14% cost reduction were achieved with battery hybrid-electric and fuel cell hybrid-electric propulsion system configurations.

Burak Akgul, Ismail Ata
Chapter 30. The Effects of Total Initial Concentration in a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

The vanadium species in both half-cells (negative and positive) are circulated to the electrode by the pump and initiate the electrochemical reaction. In this work, the effects of total initial concentration in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) are examined by using two-dimensional and steady-state during the discharge process. The model is solved using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5 with the equations of mass, charge, momentum, and energy conservation. The cell voltage, overpotential, and temperature distribution are investigated for 1040 mol/m3, 1500 mol/m3, and 1700 mol/m3 total initial concentration. The results reveal that the overpotential decreases, while the temperature distribution and cell voltage increase with the increase of the total initial concentration. Moreover, the positive electrode occurred with higher overpotential and temperature distribution than the negative electrode.

Ilker Kayali
Chapter 31. Effect of Phase Change Material on Thermal Behavior of a Lithium-Ion Battery

This study focuses on the effect of phase change material on lithium-ion battery temperature. The Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK) model was used to predict the maximum battery temperature. The battery was discharged from 0% depth of discharge to 100% depth of discharge at 5C and 290 K. A phase change material was used to restrict the temperature rises. Results showed that the maximum battery temperature was 312.81 K (without PCM) and 308.75 K (with PCM). Average battery temperature was reduced by 1.35% using phase change material. Results also demonstrated the significance of phase change material to the battery temperature distribution. Phase change materials can be used in battery thermal management systems to control battery temperature within safe temperature limits.

Uğur Morali
Chapter 32. Global, Regional, and Local Decision Levels to Aircraft Noise Management in Airports

A balanced approach (BA) to noise management was adopted by the ICAO Assembly in 2001 at the 33rd Session as a new policy for aircraft noise exposure control globally. It is a complex approach and the ICAO BA guidance explains all its four elements in detail without the special emphasis which of them is primarily important. The guidance emphasizes the goal of the BA implementation at any specific airport as the most cost-effective and environmentally beneficial set of noise-related measures, using objective and measurable criteria. Each airport is different in its operational, social, economic, and political situation, so the type of land use in its vicinity may vary quite differently even in an equal noise environment. A specific decision-making system is necessary to organize inside each zone of noise management a general program for the protection of the population from aircraft noise exposure that governs fleet improvement, urban planning and air traffic management, implementation of low noise flight procedures, and as the last step usage, the mitigation measures. A simplified model for aircraft noise exposure assessment in airports is considered for usage in necessary decision-making for more successful BA implementation.

Oleksandr Zaporozhets
Chapter 33. Increase of Engine Characteristics Using Alcohol Conversion

The work is aimed at solving the problem of converting diesel engines to gas fuels cheaper than the diesel – methanol. It is shown that thermochemical effect from combustion of the converted mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen exceeds the effect from combustion of the same amount of non-convertible alcohol. It is shown that converting diesel engines to work using methanol products is technically reasonable. Fuel consumption reduction was accompanied by environmental performance improvement of the engine working together with a thermal alcohol reactor. Converting engines with alcohol converting products is profitable because the price of methanol is lower by 10–20% than diesel fuel.

Sviatoslav Kryshtopa, Liudmyla Kryshtopa, Ruslans Šmigins, Volodymyr Korohodskyi, Myroslav Panchuk, Igor Prunko
Chapter 34. Modern Tendencies in the Improvement of Technologies for Utilization of Fulfilled Tires

The study presents a complex analysis of the state of technologies for waste tire utilization. The statistical analysis of transport tire use and waste transport tire accumulation is done. The negative impact of tires accumulation and storage in the environment is considered. The perspective methods of waste tire utilization are presented and considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the presented technologies are discussed. Technological, economical, and environmental issues of technologies in tires recycling are analyzed and considered. The most feasible ways for tire disposal are proposed.

Anna Yakovlieva, Sergii Boichenko, Iryna Shkilniuk, Igor Kubersky
Chapter 35. On the Peculiarities of Alkaline-Catalyzed Route of Synthesis of Fatty Acid Monoalkyl Esters

Fatty acid ethyl and butyl esters looks promising as possible blending biocomponents for jet fuels. This work deals with the alkaline transesterification of wasted frying oils (free fatty acid content up to 2.8%) by ethyl and n-butyl alcohols, using alkoxides’ catalytic solutions, prepared from only hydroxide and alcohols. The favorable synthetic conditions, providing high yield and effective self-separation, were found. Such conditions combine slightly decreased reaction temperature, short synthesis duration, low excess of alcohol, and relatively high alkoxides’ load. It was observed that the sedimentation of the large part of glycerol and alkaline catalyst as the primary high-pure glycerol layer, which almost does not contain esters and soaps. The possibility to reuse such glycerol layer for alkaline catalysis of oil’s transesterification for another synthetic purposes looks promising.

Serhii Konovalov, Stepan Zubenko, Lyubov Patrylak, Anjela Yakovenko, Volodymyr Povazhnyi, Kateryna Burlachenko
Chapter 36. Use of Polyfunctional Additives As a Part of Motor Fuels and Lubricants

The possibility of using 1,3-diphenyltriazene as a multifunctional additive to motor fuels and lubricants is considered in the article. The impact of the additive on the ecological, operational, and physicochemical properties of motor fuels is theoretically substantiated. It was found that the addition of 1% mass. of 1,3-diphenyltriazene to straight-run gasoline and diesel fractions promotes their stable color (from yellow to red), which can be used in the fight against counterfeiting of petroleum products; reduce of soot and hydrocarbon content in exhaust gases; increase by 11 points of octane number of gasoline and 6 points of cetane number of diesel fraction.

Andrii Grigorov, Alexander Trotsenko
Advances in Electric Aviation
T. Hikmet Karakoc
Öznur Usanmaz
Ravi Rajamani
Hakan Oktal
Alper Dalkiran
Ali Haydar Ercan
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