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About this book

This book comprises select peer-reviewed papers from the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electromechanical Technologies & Management (TEMT) 2019. The focus is on current research in interdisciplinary areas of mechanical, electrical, electronics and information technologies, and their management from design to market. The book covers a wide range of topics such as computer integrated manufacturing, additive manufacturing, materials science and engineering, simulation and modelling, finite element analysis, operations and supply chain management, decision sciences, business analytics, project management, and sustainable freight transportation. The book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners of various disciplines, in particular mechanical and industrial engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Optimization of Energy-Aware Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem Using VNS-Based GA Approach

In today’s world, the manufacturing systems are growing day by day and capable to produce the products on time as per the customers’ requirement. However, the energy consumption by these manufacturing systems has been ignored, and a higher amount of energy is consuming to increase the production rate. Therefore, it is must to consider the criteria of energy consumption along with other traditional objectives of performance measures. Thus, in the present work, energy consumption has been considered with other measures to solve the flexible job shop scheduling (JSS) problem. It is a non-polynomial (NP) hard problem, and this problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization, so it is difficult to solve with a simple and exact mathematical formulation. Thus, this article presents the modified genetic algorithm (GA)-based methodology to deal with flexible JSS problem. The GA has been modified in order to increase local search using variable neighbourhood search (VNS)-based mutation operator in order to avoid premature convergence of regular GA. The proposed approach considers multiple objectives in order to produce an optimized solution for flexible JSS problem such as makespan, processing cost as well as the energy consumption. In present work, an alternative (flexible) manufacturing process has been considered to extend the JSS problem. A suitable chromosome has been designed to code the schedule (solution) for JSS problem having additional processing flexibility. A case study (of 6 jobs and 15 machines) has been presented in order to assess the effectiveness of projected modified GA method. Results reveal that the proposed VNS-based approach in GA is effective enough to reduce makespan, processing cost as well as energy consumption performance measures.

Rakesh Kumar Phanden, Rahul Sindhwani, Lalit Sharma

Optimizing the Conveyor Belt Speed of a Bright Annealing Furnace

A company’s growth is determined by an increase in its sales numbers and by a decrease in its expenditures. By doing this, the company attains a more significant profit (bottom line). In almost all manufacturing industries, annealing furnaces play a significant role. In this paper, an improvement in the operation of an annealing furnace used in a press shop is attempted. The press shop performs forging of watch cases, and annealing is performed in between every forging stage. This project focuses on increasing the productivity of the furnace by optimizing its conveyor belt speed. Experiments are conducted, and several annealed samples were collected for analysis. Furthermore, hardness and metallographic properties were also studied. With the help of regression plots of hardness and belt speed, and with the help of microstructures, an optimized belt speed was selected. The optimized belt speed is almost 42% more than the original speed used for production, hence increasing productivity.

Akshay Naidu, R. Padmanaban, R. Vaira Vignesh

FGM Plates with Circular Cut Out Analysis Resting on Elastic Foundations and in Thermomechanical Loading Environments

In the present study, FGM plates with circular cut outs resting on elastic foundations in thermomechanical loading environments have been studied. Basic formulation included nonlinear FEM and direct iterative-based first-order perturbation technique in MATLAB code. The plates are studied for uniaxial, biaxial thermomechanical loading, aspect ratios and different boundary support conditions. A study carried out is validated with available published literature and independent more robust method approach. Applicability of this study is in aerospace engineering.

Rajesh Kumar

Benchmarking the Integration of Industry 4.0 into the National Policies at Asia

The objective of this paper is to integrate Industry 4.0 (I4.0) into national policy framework of countries, and asses their readiness in adopting I40 through a literature review of their existing policy initiatives, while analyzing secondary data of some critical factors related to the future of production. I4.0 policy frameworks in both developing and developed countries are intended at enhancing modernization, endorsing the acceptance of up-to-date technology to fast-track financial development, boosting production output, and help in the holistic effectiveness of industries. Singapore, Japan, and Korea have been at the forefront of embracing I4.0 technologies. The findings of this study would help and support policymakers, researchers, and practitioners for the development of strategies for implementation of I4.0.

Sanjiv Narula, Surya Prakash, Maheshwar Dwivedy, Ajay Sood, Vishal Talwar

Exergy Analysis of Novel Combined Absorption Refrigeration System

Nowadays, absorption systems are very much in demand due to its sole feature of utilizing waste heat energy of a system into other system providing cooling process. In here, a novel setup of combined absorption refrigeration (CAR) system is forthput and analyzed to produce −20 °C cold energy by utilizing the waste heat of low grade. The system formulated ahead consists of multiple (two) sub-systems: LiBr/H2O absorption refrigeration (AR) cycle and NH3/H2O absorption refrigeration (AR) cycle. CAR system is utilizing the low grade not so useful heat using a cascade system method. Simulation has been done, analogous to a thermodynamic model built in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency are the few performance arguments. The overall COP of the system is 0.206 with exergetic efficiency of 24.1%. The present simulation results show that CAR has a tremendous adaptability. The work gives a new lead to produce low-temperature cold energy using waste heat of low grade.

Vaibhav Jain, Ashu Singhal, Harsh Joshi

Geothermal Energy: An Effective Resource Toward Sustainability

Recently, the world’s biggest issue is climate change due to the greenhouse gas emissions of several conventional technological applications and exhaustion of fossil fuels. Thus, the importance has been given on the research of renewable energy. Geothermal energy is a such renewable energy source of the earth. Geothermal energy is the infinite source of energy, maintained to the nearly invariable level of temperature into the earth at a certain depth, almost throughout the year. This concept is being used as a sink for the geothermal heat pump coupled with a geothermal heat exchanger. This research paper assesses the recent projects and the advancement of the geothermal heat pump using for cooling and heating purposes or other business purposes in India. By using geothermal energy, power consumption can be reduced up to 50–60%.

Suman Das, Arijit Kundu

Analysis of Double Square Loop FSS for Transmission Mechanism

In this article, we study the typical double square frequency selective surfaces (FSS) structure with its dual stop-band behavior. These frequency selective surface designs are etched over the FR4 substrate to attenuate the signal of 3–4.8 and 10.4–16.8 GHz frequency band and let transmit rest of other microwave signals. The unit cell structure consists of double square loop, and these two loops are responsible for the dual-band effect. In this article, we also study the performance and analysis of the double square FSS transmission mechanism with the help of the simulation software and also from the equivalent circuit model (ECM). This design of FSS was obtained by performing the parametric simulation which gives the most optimized result. On the other side, a simple equivalent model has been proposed the simple and reliable equation close to provide the understanding of the transmission mechanism. In this analysis, each and every parameter of the design under the parametric tuning on the structure of the FSS observes the effect in the resonance and bandwidth. On performing the parametric simulation for the optimized resultant transmission coefficient S21, it provides the capacitance (C) and inductance (L) relation with frequency [1]. The equivalent circuit modeling result is shown approximately in a good concord with HFSS simulation result.

Rahul Shukla, Garima Tiwari

Development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

Shape memory alloys are vigorous metallic smart materials used as actuators and sensors in great technology as smart systems. The term shape memory refers to the ability of certain materials to recall a shape; even later severe plastic deformations. Many researchers all over the world are engaged in the development of low-cost, high-temperature and commercially used shape memory alloys. The present research has been done towards advance a shape memory alloy which is Ni Free, low-cost, better shape memory effect and contains high transformation temperature characteristics. The compositions (Cu–Al10.2–Mn9.5)100–x Znx (x = 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%) have made by using electrical induction furnace. The same material is subjected to hot rolling at 850 °C and subsequently follows by quenching in salt bath. The DSC analysis, tensile test, hardness test, microhardness and grain size measurement have been done to characterize the material. The microstructure of the material is also obtained by using optical microscope. In the present investigation, it found that phase transformation temperature is increased with the addition of the alloying element. It is also found that tensile strength and percentage of elongation have increased, and hardness and grain size have decreased.

Shyam Singh Rawat, Raghvendra Sharma, Maneeram Singh Gurjar, Manoj Sharma

FGM Plates with Elliptical and Rectangular Cutouts Analysis for Post-Buckling Resting on Elastic Foundations in Thermal Environments

FGM plates with elliptical and rectangular cutouts supported by elastic properties support for post-buckling and randomness in material under temperature conditions are studied. The basic formulation is done in MATLAB code SFEM and first-order perturbation technique for plate thickness and volume fraction index for (Wmax/h) with foundation parameters. Outcomes of investigation are compared for validation with published work and MCS. Applicability of this study is in aerospace engineering.

Rajesh Kumar

Water Quality Examining Using Techniques of Data Mining

The paper contains various case studies in which techniques are applied statistically on river qualities examining database in order to find the pattern of deterioration of quality of water in rivers. If prediction of quality of water is done beforehand, the degrading quality of water can be handled easily. Here to observe the future quality of water, some of the techniques have been introduced. A dataset used for examining and analyzing the quality of water collected in one hour of time span from different Web sites includes 8451 total samples of water quality. 15 parameters which are affecting water quality in adverse manner are included in this paper.

Sanika Singh, Sudeshna Chakraborty, Saurabh Mukherjee

Application of Block Chain in EHR’s System for Maintaining the Privacy of Patients Record

Electronic health records (EHR’s) system provides improved care of patients and allows easy access to information about their data about health. According to Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA), security rules are accountable for maintaining security and privacy of patients. There are three main issues that we face with EHR’s, i.e., legislative gaps, lack of trust and lack of patient control. To address these issues, we collaborate EHR’s with blockchain to provide a platform where we have increased transparency, tracking information, ledger (hard to tamper), cost reduction, immutability and unforgeability. It allows patients to have complete access to their medical data which instead were controlled by hospitals only. Attribute-based signature allows us to sign a message without displaying any information; it only displays an evidence that he has signed it. By using DES and RSA, we provide unforgeability and privacy of attribute signer. SHA-2 as a hashing technique ensures security of stored data.

Ifra Salaudin, Shri Kant, Supriya Khaitan

Solar Power-Based Smart Greenhouse

Despite huge advances in technology, such as improved irrigation systems and genetically modified organisms, weather still plays the chief role in agriculture and as well the soil quality. Today, smart technology and efficiency are practically synonymous. By integrating average tasks like watering plants, turning lights on/off, and managing humidity in a smart greenhouse, people can analyze the efficiency of their processes and then also regulate them to increase productivity. Greenhouses have experienced many transformations and still are evolving, but their basic purpose remains the same. They create microclimate to enable crop growers to be active all year round. The most significant change in the greenhouse has been the introduction of automation. The purpose is to create such a greenhouse which is suitable to the environment of any region especially cold and arid regions and create an efficient system for maximum productivity with ease. These greenhouses can control the prime factors that influence crop yields, such as temperature, moisture, light exposure, ventilation, and more to create the most suitable climate for growing a plant according to the cultivator with the aid of solar energy.

Padma Wangmo, Vinay Kumar Jadoun, Anshul Agarwal, Harish Kumar

Modelling of Slag Produced in Submerged Arc Welding

This study has been conducted to reveal the effects of flux composition on slag produced and wire consumption. RSM was used for designing the experiments. Mathematical modeling was done for the output in terms of flux composition. The study reveals that the slag produced is dependent upon the basicity index of the flux and CaF2 used as a flux ingredients. Fluxes were made by agglomeration technique. CaF2, FeMn, NiO were added to study their effect on slag produced and bead geometry. The elements transferred to the welds from the flux were also found to have significant effect on slag produced and properties of weldments.

Brijpal Singh, Sachin Dhull

Automatic Land Defense System for Borders Using Radar, Laser Gun and Related Tools

This paper is about detecting the object and its location as soon as it enters the border and then firing the object if necessary. Starting from a prototype, made with an Arduino and sensors, and suitable software (IDE processing 3.3) is used for the detection of shape. The aim of this paper is to not only monitor the border continuously without human interfere but also to fire the object with Radar- Laser gun set, as soon any mismatch in statistics of the sensors occur or alarm rings. Robotic support is available at the end of the process. Any time, system can be overruled by Soldiers and also activities can be monitored at the control room. Here, Arduino and Laptop are being treated as Control room in the proposed model. Various nodes (Arduino—sensor set) can communicate with each other with the help of interrupt signals. Alarm is in the form of LEDs and Buzzer with variable sound pattern. US Sensors are used here in Radar and whole model is Solar energized.

Rishab Kumar Bhardwaj, Sudhir Ranwa, Ranjan Kumar, Lokesh Meena, Anshul Agarwal, Vinay Kumar Jadoun

A Wideband Star-Shaped Rectenna for RF Energy Harvesting in GSM Band

This paper presenting the wideband printed star-shaped slot rectenna for the RF energy harvesting. This rectenna provides wideband rectifier at 900 MHz for global system for mobile (GSM) application. In this design, two rhombus-shaped slots are used to merge the resonant modes near the centre frequency. The proposed antenna provides the wide bandwidth of 47.58% (823–1336.9 MHz) than the conventional rhombus-shaped slot. In rectifier circuit, the conversion efficiency of 61.7% at −8dBm at 900 MHz for GSM band has been achieved. The received waves is rectified and converted into DC power by using Schottky diode HSMS 2850. L-type equivalent circuit is used to get total output power at the load. The output voltage provides 2 V at 0 dBm. This device is good for RF energy harvesting. This proposed rectenna can be utilized for the GSM applications.

Vishal Singh, Vinay Shankar Pandey, Vivek Shrivastava

Cylindrical Shell Panel of FGM Analysis Elastically Supported and Uncertain Material Parameters in Hygrothermomechanical Loading

Present study is carried out on cylindrical shell panel of FGM elastically supported hygrothermomechanical loading conditions. Analysis technique is extended for cylindrical shell panel earlier applied for FGM plates. The study is focused on variations of volume fraction index with moisture and temperature combined effect for validation study and change in plate thickness ratio, foundation parameters, change in hygrothermomechanical loading, and simultaneously, change in amplitude ratios. Comparison is carried out with available published work and robust method MCS approach. Applicability of this study is in aerospace engineering.

Rajesh Kumar

Influence of Digital Technologies on Migration Flows and the Regional Labor Market of Russia

The article examines the state of migration processes in the regional labor markets of Russia. Using correlation and regression analysis, revealed the relationship between the share of foreign labor force and indicators of St. Petersburg economic security. On the basis of official statistics, a tendency of growth in the need of the city for highly skilled workers has been determined. The features of the employment new forms impact (telework and virtual employment), related to digital technologies, on the regional labor market and the situation in the field of migration are considered. Recommendations on the development of employment forms, using digital technologies, are proposed.

Kruglov Dmitrii, Tsygankova Inga, Reznikova Olga, Mikhailov Sergey

Analysis of Actuators Prognostic Health Monitoring in Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

Developing a prognostic health monitoring framework is a critical task for reaction wheel (RW) and control moment gyroscope (CMG) onboard satellites because of computational budget and limited availability of health monitoring sensors. RW and CMG as the most commonly used actuators onboard satellites are prone to faults and failures. This paper deals with reviewing a prognostic health monitoring for a satellite actuator system that uses both CMG and RW as a pyramid configuration as actuators. This paper also deals with reviewing data-driven techniques and other prognosis methods that only work with attitude measurements from the satellites.

Kaustav Jyoti Borah

Modified Mechanical Face Seal Geometry

The major factor affecting the mechanical seal in today’s working generation is the flexible hydraulic force and dynamic spring force applied on the surface of the rotating phase of mechanical face seal in working condition. Mechanical seal in industrial pump is used to prevent the excess leakage of fluid to the environment and prevent flowing it to the electrical part. Standard leakage which is followed in industry is 10 drops/day. Crossing the limit of the standard leakage leads to loss in large scale. This paper gives the simulation view of original mechanical seal and modified mechanical seal by von mises stress and hydraulic force and also the distorted view of the seal. The finite element analysis is carried out on the mechanical face seal and simulation is done for installing in centrifugal pump. The successful operations of the mechanical face seal are dependent on a large number of variables including face geometry, method of mounting and support to react the forces, face elastic modulus, pressure differential across the seal, area of face exposed to process liquid, flow regime of liquid in the seal chamber, flow rate of any cooling in the seal chamber, thermal and heat transfer properties of the liquid.

Ankita Kumari

Design and Analysis of a CSP Plant Integrated with PCM Reservoirs in a Combined Storage System for Uninterrupted Power Production

India is really blessed with good solar resources. Many regions of the country receive above-average sunlight compared to other regions of the world. Solar energy will act as an important role in India’s future energy sources. The basic technology is used for receiving and converting solar radiation into electrical energy in India is based on photovoltaic (PV) cells. Concentrated solar power (CSP) has scarcely presented to the overall lodged solar power capacity in the country. A tremendous quantity of heat is necessitating running a CSP plant. Although, by using this wide energy range is possible only if the powerful technology for its storage can be succeed with acceptable running and capital costs. The main drawback of the solar thermal power plant is its unavailability at night time. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems deliver various options for the use and conservation of efficient energy. Phase change materials (PCMs) are used in TES to store energy by changing its form from solid to liquid or vice versa by absorbing or releasing the heat to the medium. PCMs in specific and TES, in general, have been a major issue in research for the last 30 years to the researchers. In this paper, two different types of storage systems have been used in series by using phase change materials (PCMs). It is a fruitful way of storing energy to counter this difficulty. Thermodynamic analysis and design of a CSP plant have been done in a combined storage system of sensible and latent storage for continuous power production.

Bikash Banerjee, Asim Mahapatra

Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process for the Selection of Best Tablet Model

The study of this paper is to select the best tablet model among a group of three models available in the market by applying multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology (i.e., AHP). The selection process is based on the number of criteria’s such as price, RAM, internal storage, and brand. The relative choices and preferences of different tablet specifications are taken by surveying 100 common tablet users. The decision matrix is created based on this market survey, and the final decision is made. The three tablet models which are taken into consideration for this analysis are also chosen after surveying some of the local electronic store. Presently, the demand of these models is high as compared to other models and generally preferred by the tablet users. Among these models, the aim of this paper is to select the best option and enable the decision maker to choose the best alternatives by applying multi-criteria decision-making methodology, and a final ranking is made.

Shankha Shubhra Goswami, Soupayan Mitra

Postdeforming of FGM Laminates Analysis for Random Geometric Parameters in Thermal Environments

In present paper, simulation in MATLAB code of FGM plates is carried out in thermal environments to know effects on postbuckling. Basic formulations are done considering HSDT and DISFEM for FGM plates. Mean and COV have been found for (a/h), (a/h) and n. Obtained investigation is compared with existing published papers and more robust techniques. Applicability of this study is in aerospace engineering.

Rajesh Kumar, Vineet Shekher

Flow Simulation of Atmospheric Re-entry Vehicle at Varying Mach Number and Angle of Attack

Numerical simulations are always dominant over experimental investigations in the field of flow analysis as they are simple, economical and take less time. It is better to analyze hypersonic flow problems like re-entry of a space vehicle using computational simulation as it takes less time and predict highly accurate results. The present work mainly emphases on analyzing the flow behavior in the vicinity of Apollo re-entry vehicle at hypersonic speeds using computational fluid dynamics. A numerical analysis of at altered Mach number and two angles of attack (0° and 10°) was studied. Ansys Fluent was used as a CFD tool for modeling the problem. Meshing of domain along with the appropriate boundary conditions was used to analyze the effects of changing boundary conditions on aerodynamic properties. The flow domain around module geometry was made ten times the dimension of module geometry to capture the shock formation effectively. Appropriate boundary conditions along with suitable meshing were used to start the simulation. The effect of altering Mach number with angle of attack on aerodynamic properties, i.e., pressure, density, and temperature was examined using contours and comparison graphs.

Shivam Thakur, Harish Kumar, Shrutidhara Sarma

Measuring the Relative Importance of Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) Using Best–Worst Method (BWM)

Manufacturing companies have since been continuously facing volatile market conditions, primarily due to rapidly changing customers demand and quick introduction of new products. Therefore, to stay competitive in globally ever-changing manufacturing environment, manufacturing sectors need to adopt and implement those manufacturing systems which are capable to keep pace with the changes occurring and this is why a new concept, namely “reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS)”, has come into being. The manufacturing organizations have to meet the requirements of RMS by developing a suitable system which keeps their entity globally viable. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the factors which directly or indirectly influence reconfigurable manufacturing system. In this present work, local and global weights have been calculated to measure the global ranking of all the possible RMS factors (e.g. modularity, scalability, integrability, flexibility, convertibility and diagnosability) based on which the best and worst alternatives are selected right at the design stage of RMS. All these factors have been mapped together through multi-criteria decision-making approach known as best–worst method (BWM). Finally, sensitivity analysis has been done to validate the proposed results. The proposed multi-decision approach is quite versatile from the point of view that it provides an opportunity to integrate all possible factors and sub-factors which could impact manufacturing processes.

Ashutosh Singh, Mohammad Asjad, Piyush Gupta, Zahid Akhtar Khan, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

E-Commerce Delivery Routing System Using Bellman–Held–Karp Algorithm

E-commerce organizations have a separate department to handle logistics for timely delivery of products ordered by their customers. Each delivery has a separate customization and delivery address. The process, after the order has been accepted and is to be dispatched, begins with collection of goods from the warehouse and concludes with the doorstep delivery via optimized path calculation, factoring in the essential components like fuel economy, load and quantity. Hence, this automation leads to profitability, and reduction in cost of resources being used. An accurate way to calculate this path is the Bellman–Held–Karp algorithm for the travelling salesman problem by W.R. Hamilton.

Sugandh Agarwal, Naman Jain, Tanupriya Choudhury, Utkarsh Vikram Singh, Ravi Tomar

GAPER: Gender, Age, Pose and Emotion Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks

Facial emotion recognition is identifying human emotion from facial expressions. As the concept is gaining wide popularity with time, researchers are trying to expand the horizon by providing efficient techniques to extract more knowledge from facial features. Hence, this paper presents a multiple face detection system, which is capable of analyzing human facial features for predicting human emotion, pose, gender and age. To the best of our knowledge, no single paper presents a system capable of detecting all these features together in a single frame. Haar cascades and deep convolutional neural networks form the backbone of the entire work. A support of a Web application using flask is also provided, which will enable one to implement the work on another computer, in the same network, via a Web browser. The experimental results of the system provide an accuracy of 68.33%.

Deepali Virmani, Tanu Sharma, Muskan Garg

Enhanced Blockchain Application for Pub-Sub Model

The asynchronous communication is required for the distributed systems, these are fulfilled using the middleware products and services. The publisher-subscriber method is one of them. It is used for sending messages and on the other hand, they are the receivers. Due to the involvement of the third party (broker), there were security flaws. Blockchain technology was introduced providing confidentiality, integrity authentication, etc. that too in a broker-less environment. In this paper a new system is being introduced having the cryptographic functions like DES and RNS are used for encryption of data and creating the public and private keys for end-to-end encryption for the new system with blockchain, i.e. the authority control based system. The improved hashing technique SHA2-512, is used. An identity-based encryption mechanism is also introduced in making this system more secure against the known attacks that previous systems failed to provide.

Nomaun Rathore, Shri Kant

A Study on Perception of Management Students Regarding Corporate Governance Practices of PSUs

Scandals has enlightened the need for sound and improved corporate governance culture for future business professionals. Corrupt business practices are identified as the vital catalysts of the worldwide crisis. Future managers are required to define their own ethical attitudes as business partners are crucial decision-makers for the future. Management students who graduated from top B schools must have a good understanding of ethical decision-making to avoid crisis. This study undertakes the in-depth study of the perception of final year management students of Delhi NCR (National Capital Region) region regarding corporate governance practices of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs).

Meenakshi Bisla, Pranav Mishra, Aparna Sharma, Priyanka Tyagi

Discrimination of Text and Non-text Images

“The configuration of the problem is frequently more necessary than its solution, which may be merely a matter of analytical or experimental skill.” In this paper, we solve the problem of the discrimination of the text and the non-text images in natural images. In the paper, we introduce a novice system, which can take the colour images, and extracts the feature values, i.e., the values extracted from the distance transform values of the image. The values extracted are plotted as a bar graph and the curve obtained by joining the top points of the bar graph is then studied. The experiment was further conducted by studying the accuracy and performance of the classifier in distinction between text and non-text images. The experiment has been done on the image containing pure text and the image that is a pure non-text image.

Pradipta Karmakar, Chowdhury MdMizan, Rani Astya, Sudeshna Chakraborty

Calibration of Temperature and Pressure Sensors for DAQ System in Air Conditioning Test Rig

This work has been done to develop a data acquisition system for a computerized test rig which had gone defective. A conventional air conditioning test rig with the same specifications of the computerized one was selected and the sensors were calibrated. In order to automate data acquisition system, the sensors’ output which gives raw data has to be converted to values that can be understood and used in calculations. Both test rigs—one conventional and another computer interfaced with one, having the same capacity and compressors are run in the same environment. The sensor data from computer interfaced test rig is collected in ESP8266 Node MCU board and raw data of temperature is compared with readings obtained on a digital thermometer and the raw data of pressure is compared with the analog pressure gauges fitted on conventional test rig. An equation is derived to represent the raw data in terms of usable values for calculation. The result shows that calibration has been successful. It is concluded that by this calibration process any system can be modified and upgraded to computer interfaced one.

Vrinatri Velentina Boro, Vibha Burman, Amandeep Kaur, Manoj Soni, Pooja Bhati

On Condition Monitoring Aspects of in-Service Power Transformers Using Computational Techniques

In this paper, the application of artificial intelligent techniques on condition monitoring and diagnosis of power transformer has been reported. Enormous technological innovations have been reported by researchers to quantify the health assessment methodologies for in-service power transformers such as Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy logic, Clustering techniques, and Expert systems for precise diagnostics and prognostics tasks. Albeit, numerous reports, and studies, prediction of accurate health status of an in-service power apparatus like transformer is still a challenge. An effort has been made in this paper to compile the outcome of various research tools with practical in-service data to get an overall status of existing technological breakthroughs in the emerging field of condition monitoring of transformer for the benefit of utilities and researchers. The prospective of condition monitoring and diagnosis technologies of a power transformer can be emulated for asset management and prevent catastrophic failures of power transformers.

Ujjawal Prakash Bhushan, R. K. Jarial, Vinay Kumar Jadoun, Anshul Agarwal

Communication Techniques in Smart Grid—A State of Art

This paper first introduces the concept of Smart Grids (SG). We review in this paper, numerous forms of ways of communication of the smart grid; there pros and cons, and the best-suited scenario for the adaption of a certain communicating network. The communication techniques include wireless communication, SFiWi, NANs, WSNs, etc., we review in this paper certain protocols as well as architectures. Protocols include discussion on RPL and CBR RPL protocols. Last, we review the security details of SGs.

Aastha Khanna, Anuradha Tomar

FGM Composite Cylindrical Shell Panel Analysis for Post Buckling Resting on Elastic Foundations and Thermomechanical Loading

FGM composite Cylindrical shell Panel Analysis in thermomechanical loading for post buckling resting on elastic foundations is carried out. The technique applied is first order perturbation with SFEM in MATLAB code. Present study is focused on study of variations in plate thickness ratios simultaneously increase in amplitude ratios and elastic foundations in thermal environments. Present findings are compared with Published work and with more robust simulation. Applicability of this study is in Aerospace Engineering.

Rajesh Kumar

PV-Based Water Pumping System—A Comprehensive Review

Pumping system based on photovoltaic energy is a proven alternative for farmers, who are still not connected with the main grid. In literature, over the past two decades, a considerable, great deal of research has been carried out in this area. Energy efficient solutions have been developed and proposed in the literature, addressing many practical issues of such systems, like mismatching/shading, variations in irradiance level, load mismatch, motor-pump efficiency, pumping system maintenance, maintenance and initial cost of installation. This paper gives a comprehensive review on the water pumping system solely based on the PV technology which is easy to understand the present scenario, the purpose and understand the gaps in research that are limiting the wide applications or implementations of such PV-based irrigation systems. During the literature survey, it was realized that many critical and practical real-field problems like diminishing water levels, low PV power availability during early morning and late evening hours, low ROI, high maintenance cost, optimized system sizing, selection of particular configuration/topology and high installation cost still need attention. It was found that either these problems are not addressed or solutions to these problems are not available in implementable form or their feasibility analysis is still required. This paper would be helpful to understand the status of developments in water pumping system solely based on the technology of PV and will give a clear vision to readers for future work.

Sahil Sharma, Anuradha Tomar, Vishesh Bhagat

Economic Analysis of Battery Swap Station for Electric Three Wheeled Vehicle

This Statistical article underlines the economics for the sustenance of an Electric Vehicle ecosystem and battery swap station using the deductive method of economic analysis. The maximum range of an Electric Vehicle is limited and charging the battery requires a considerable time thus swapping of battery stands to be a viable option. Ii-ion batteries have limited life span hence the cost of repurchase of battery will raise the operating cost of Electric vehicle. By removing the purchase of new battery from the equation after the end of its life cycle, the cost of ownership will decrease and the sales of Electric Vehicles can be significantly raised thus making a bankable model from dealer’s point of view. Therefore a sound swapping ECO-SYSTEM is inevitable for the sustenance of the Electric vehicles. The Government of India is encouraging development of infrastructure for Electric vehicles, increasing stakes for a much feasible system is proposed further in the paper.

Devanshu Grover, Ishan, Shubham Bansal, R. C. Saini

Optimization of Inlet Swirl for Flow Separation in Annular Diffuser

The flow development characteristics and its performance have been studied with the help of computational fluid dynamics with various inlet swirl angle inside the parallel hub axial annular diffuser having an equivalent cone angle 15° for area ratio 2. The analysis predicts the effect on Non-dimensional velocity profile, streamline velocity, static pressure recovery on the casing wall, and reversal of flow on the diverging part of the diffuser. To predict the optimum inlet swirl angle encounters the optimum performance with no flow separation either on hub or casing wall. The results reveal that increasing the inlet swirl angle leads to distortion of the longitudinal velocity profile at the diffuser exit.

Hardial Singh, B. B. Arora

Innovative PMI-Based Inspection Planning for Planar and Cylindrical Features

Coordinate Measuring Machine is used to inspect the manufactured products to ensure that they meet the desired specifications. In most of the inspection software, including PMI, the inspection process involves loading of the CAD model, selecting an inspection feature, feeding the PMI into the inspection software, and selecting an appropriate inspection strategy depending on the type of feature. Inspection results are then compared with the nominal tolerance values. This process involves the application engineer’s input at multiple stages. The automatic inspection process is becoming an important requirement in industries, which adds value to the inspection software and eliminates human intervention. In PMI-based inspection planning, the CAD model affixed with PMI is fed to the inspection software, then most of the traditional inspection steps are automated by reading and extracting PMI from the CAD model, identifying the feature associated with a PMI and then developing an inspection strategy on the identified feature. Later, results are validated by feeding the inspection points in the inspection software.

Pratik Kalaskar, Surbhi Razdan, Amol Jawalkar

Experimental Study of Sliding Wear Behavior of Journal Bearing Materials

In the present work, attempts have been made to investigate the tribological properties of the commonly used phosphorous bronze journal bearing material. Later a new bronze material (Al-Ni-Cu) is proposed and tribological properties were compared with phosphorous bronze. A linear reciprocating tribometer has been used to inspect the wear and friction in fully flooded and unlubricated conditions. It was observed that the conventional phosphorous bronze material performed better under dry conditions as compared to the Al-Ni-Cu. The presence of soft phase phosphorous in phosphorous bronze helped in reducing the wear and friction coefficient, whereas Al-Ni-Cu performed better in fully flooded lubricated conditions. In the lubricated condition, the al element in Al-Ni-Cu formed a protected layer by absorbing oxygen contents from lubricated oil and prevents the wear.

Vinayak Goel, Akshat Jain, Vibhor Heta, Sanchit Jain, Vipin Kumar Sharma

Deep Learning Architectures: A Hierarchy in Convolution Neural Network Technologies

Albeit deep learning has chronicled roots and has been applied to computer vision task since 2000 but a decade ago, neither the expression “Deep learning” nor the methodology was well known. This dormant field regains consciousness when a highly influential paper “Image Net Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks by Krizhevsky, Sutskever and Hinton’in 2012” was published. Now, availability of abundance of data, computational power, and improved algorithms has contributed altogether and brought this technology to forefront in the field of machine learning. In this paper, we focus on growth of various convolution neural network architectures (deep learning architectures), from their predecessors up to recent state-of-the-art deep learning systems. The paper has three sections: (1) Introduction about neural networks along with necessary back ground information. (2) Hierarchy of classical and modern architectures; In this section, the existing methods are explained and their contribution and significance in field of machine learning are highlighted. At last, we point out a set of promising future works and draw our own conclusions.

Shruti Karkra, Priti Singh, Karamjit Kaur, Rohan Sharma

A Comprehensive Study of Different Converter Topologies for Photovoltaic System Under Variable Environmental Conditions

This article presents an overview of various dc-dc converter for isolated and non-isolated topologies. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of various topologies using control techniques based on different parameters such as voltage gain, voltage stress, and efficiency is also discussed. On the basis of this study, authors present a reader guide to classify different types of input sources like photovoltaic (PV), wind, hybrid system etc., with voltage gain topologies for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. Different MPPT algorithms becoming important due to their efficiency and ability to adapt and manage nonlinear parameters for efficient energy transformation are generated through clean energy sources.

Preeti Gupta, S. L. Shimi

A Novel Approach for Predicting the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Steel Slag Mixed Concrete Using Feed-Forward Neural Network

In the present study, we have used feed-forward neural network (FFNN) for the prediction of compressive and flexural strength of steel slag mixed concrete for pavements. The compressive and flexural strength of the specimens were examined experimentally for the specimens consisting of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) steel slag as a partial replacement of cement in M40 concrete mix. The curing of specimens was done for 3, 7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days and thus accounting for the total of 90 observations. Both the output parameters were dependent upon 8 input parameters. To evaluate the performance of the FFNN model, we have used Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Average Error (MAE) as the performance indicators.

Tanvi Gupta, S. N. Sachdeva

Progress and Latest Developments in Hybrid Solar Drying with Thermal Energy Storage System

The present paper represents the progress and latest developments in hybrid solar drying along with thermal energy storage. Drying requires large amount of continuous energy for removing the present moisture in food and agriculture commodities. Solar energy is a most reliable renewable energy source available freely all around the world. Solar energy along with thermal energy storage can meet the continuous energy requirement for drying processes. A hybrid solar dryer is eco-friendly renewable energy device used for drying the food and agriculture commodities. Hybrid solar dryer requires small functional area, and it saves time and improves quality of food products compared to other conventional drying methods. Solar dryer is classified into three categories: direct solar dryers, indirect solar dryers, and mixed-type dryers. Hybrid solar drying is a continuous drying method; it works in night hours by back up of thermal source with energy storage. Drying is completed rapidly by hybrid solar dryer and product is saved in good quality and without spoilage by microbial infestation. A hybrid solar dryer does not merely depend upon solar energy for its operation but also it combines other components of heating source with sun energy. In this paper, the progress and latest developments in hybrid solar drying technique with thermal energy storage system are represented.

Narender Sinhmar, Pushpendra Singh

An Improved Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a Partially Shaded Solar PV System Using PSO with Constriction Factor (PSO-CF)

In today’s competitive world, the advancements in technology are taking place at a very rapid rate. Due to this advancement in technology and higher population growth, the existing energy-producing sources are depleting very fast. In order to eliminate such issues, there comes into consideration the use of non-renewable energy systems. But the adoption of these systems requires their proper and efficient utilization. In this paper, we have proposed a method to utilize a solar PV system efficiently with a better convergence time and efficiency of convergence to the maximum power. A modified PSO algorithm known PSO with constriction factor (PSO-CF) is used for tracking maximum power point (MPP) of a solar PV array.

Imran Pervez, Adil Sarwar, Arsalan Pervez, Mohd Tariq, Mohammad Zaid

Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Partially Shaded Solar PV Generation System Using Coyote Optimization Algorithm (COA)

The energy crisis due to population growth and advancements in technology made it mandatory for the researchers to develop some methods that can be helpful in prevention of these crisis. In order to eliminate the day by day growing energy issues, making use of renewable energy sources is considered one of the alternatives. Among these energy sources, solar PV systems are considered one of the most valuable. But the issue with these cells is that they cannot work smartly and cannot detect the optimal power at their output. Hence, in this paper a nature-inspired algorithm Coyote Optimization Algorithm (COA) is used to track maximum power at the output terminal of the solar PV cell.

Imran Pervez, Adil Sarwar, Arsalan Pervez, Mohd Tariq, Mohammad Zaid

Design and Simulation of Front-End Converter Based Power Conditioning Unit

Commercial automation has led to profuse research and development on highly sensitive instruments which require quality power for their operation. The development of power electronic technology makes it possible to realize many kinds of power conditioning units (PCU) to obtain high quality electric energy and enhance the control over power system. Nowadays, axial-based PM (AFPM) alternators are being used, which generates a raw output depends on its speed of operation. To condition this raw output from AFPM DG set, power conditioner unit is required which takes a raw output and gives conditioned quality power output. In this paper, analysis and simulation of power conditioning system is done. This power conditioning system has active power factor correction (APFC) IGBT-based front-end converter, which generates a required DC bus and also controls the input power factor. This DC is further inverted via IGBT-based SPWM inverter module which generates constant voltage and frequency output for load system. Six-pulse converter SPWM technique is to be used for inverting purpose. L-C filter is used for filtering any further appearing distortions and to reduce the effects of the harmonics present.

Deepak Upadhyay, Shahbaz Ahmad Khan, Mohd Tariq

Enhancing Mechanical Properties via Semi-solid Metal Processing of A356 Alloy

Rapid slurry formation is a technique for the formation of semi-solid metal which helps to form complex geometries using a single operation. It is based on enthalpy-exchange process and also differs from other rheo-casting techniques. The present investigation involves the comparative analysis of microstructure along with mechanical properties between unprocessed A356 alloy and Al-6061 alloy followed by semi-solid processed A356 and A356 with grain-refiner (B) and modifier (Sr). A microstructure comparison was also done between unprocessed A356 and RSF processed A356 Al-alloys. Both the processed alloys were held at a particular temperature. The SSM slurry was water-quenched to freeze the microstructure. The microstructures of both alloys were inspected and hardness of the alloys was measured. A fine microstructure with globular grains was obtained for rapidly formed processed alloys. The benefit of this method is the low solid fraction which is useful to get a globular structure with simultaneously keeping good fluidity of suspension, and the suspension preparation is less expensive as compared with the other methods.

Nishant Bhasin, Harkrit Chhatwal, Aditya Bassi, Rahul Sarma, Sumit Sharma, Vipin Kaushik

Comparative Analysis of Different Materials for Cylinder and Justification by Simulation

Advancement of internal combustion engines has resulted in engines with increased power, ultimately which increases the loads imposed on the engine block. An engine block is a combination of “n” numbers of cylinder liners. A cylinder liner play’s a vital role by providing the boundaries in which piston reciprocates efficiently. These cylinder liners have capabilities to tolerate high pressure and temperature due to the chemical reactions occurring in the combustion chamber. Most commonly, cast iron and aluminum alloys are the favored materials that are used to manufacture conventional petrol and diesel engine blocks. Also, magnesium alloys are used for performance-oriented vehicles. In this paper, comparison between aluminum (Al-7Si) and magnesium (WE43A) alloy is done on the basis of thermal and stress analysis with help of ANYSIS software.

Ujjwal Singh, Jatin Lingwal, Nirmal Chakraborty, Ankit Kumar, Sumit Sharma, Vipin Kuashik

Performance of an Outdoor Optical Wireless Communication Channel Through Gamma-Gamma Turbulence at Different Frequency

Optical wireless communication is an alternative to RF communication due to its high data rate but outdoor optical wireless communication is limited by the atmospheric turbulence. Any variation in refractive index causes fluctuation in the received signal. This is called scintillation and this scintillation causes the fluctuation in phase as well the intensity of the received signal, which results in degrade the performance of an outdoor OWC channel. In this paper, a unified performance analysis of an optical wireless communication link for an atmospheric turbulent channel under gamma-gamma model is addressed. An optimum free-space channel is designed in the OptiSystem software and to evaluate the system performance numerical results are provided for bit error rate and quality factor under weak, medium, and strong turbulence regime. Also, the system is evaluated at different frequencies to study the error performance of the system.

Nitin Garg, Anwar Ahmad

Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Optical Wireless Communication Links Over M-Atmospheric Turbulence Channel with Pointing Losses Given by Beckmann Distribution

In this paper, unified capacity analysis of an optical wireless communication (OWC) link for an atmospheric turbulent model with pointing loss is addressed. A closed-form expression for pdf and cdf is derived for Ma’laga distribution turbulence in different regimes. Also, Ergodic capacity and outage probability expression is calculated in terms of Fox’s H function and Meijer’s G function. Pointing loss degrades the system performance by misaligning the transmitter and receiver. So in this paper also considered the effect of pointing errors to calculating outage and ergodic capacity performance. To evaluate the system performance numerical results are provided for ergodic capacity over strong and weak pointing errors. Also, the effect of fading parameters in atmospheric turbulence is considered.

Nitin Garg, Anwar Ahmad

Effect of Impurities on Charging Track in the Performance of Wireless Capacitive Charging Technique

This paper presents an analysis of the effect of impurities on the performance of capacitive charging technique on electric vehicle; in this paper, commonly found impurities like sand, water and air are incorporated in the capacitive charging system. Impurities considered in the vicinity of plates have a thickness of 1, 3 and 5 mm. Finite element modelling (FEM) is performed for finding out the exact effect of the impurities in the system. COMSOL 5.2a is used for obtaining the result. The results obtained are reported and discussed in the paper.

Mohd Shahvez, Sameer Pervez Shamsi, Mohd Tariq

“RESUME SELECTOR” Using Pyspark and Hadoop

Resumes are commonly used for recruitment of employees by companies, but the selection process is not automated and the technology used to store and evaluate resumes is outdated. Hence, there is a need to develop a system that can accommodate huge amount of resumes received by the company and process them in real time. So, our proposed system uses the capabilities of Hadoop Framework to store Terabytes of data in a cluster to improve the efficiency of selection process. Further, PySpark is used to process the data parallelly in a distributed environment which generates the result in an efficient manner. The proposed algorithm works on keyword-based search (KBS) to filter out all the required skills from resumes. Further, the aggregate weightage for each resume is computed and checked against a confidence level to select the resumes. Due to distributed and parallel computation, our system performs in a more efficient and accurate manner than the traditional systems.

Preeti Arora, Deepali Virmani, Aradhay Jain, Akshay Vats

Implementation of Regenerative Braking System in Automobiles

This paper proposes an efficient way for implementation of regenerative braking system in automobiles for electric vehicles such as hybrid vehicle. Cost and efficiency of regenerative braking system associated with conversion of heat energy into electrical energy has also being proposed in this paper. This conversion of energy and its storage is done by devices such as capacitor, batteries, and motor which may have been lost as heat while braking.

Mohan Kumar, Md. Ehsan Asgar

Regression Approach to Power Transformer Health Assessment Using Health Index

A regression approach is utilized for health assessment based on transformer oil diagnostic test data. A support vector, linear regression and fine tree decision based regression model has been simulated for health prediction. The oil diagnostic test data have sufficient diversity in terms of power rating, voltage level, and installed location. These data sets are like water content, total acidity, oil breakdown voltage (BDV), dissipation factor, 2-Furfuraldehyde content, and combustible dissolved gas analysis (DGA). These dataset of thirty transformers provided by Asset Management and health assessment (AMHA) consulting company and employed to train the proposed regression models in MATLAB environment. The reported results using fuzzy logic, binary logistic regression are compared with the results of proposed regression models. The root mean squared error (RMSE) for linear regression model has attained minimum value and found an effective approach for computing health index of a power transformer. In addition to above proposed models also validated another twenty different transformer oil dataset, which are entirely different from training set of thirty transformers.

Jagdish Prasad Sharma

Functional Link Neural Network-Based Prediction of Compressive and Flexural Strengths of Jarosite Mixed Cement Concrete Pavements

In the present paper, we have applied a Legendre Functional Link Neural Network (LeFLNN) to predict the compressive and flexural strength of jarosite added concrete for pavements. The cement is replaced partially by the jarosite in different percentages like 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. The specimens prepared using various proportions of jarosite were subjected to curing for 3, 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365 days. The proposed model parameters are trained using the back-propagation (BP) method. Total of 90 experimental observations (input–output data) is obtained from which 70 observations are used for the training and the rest 20 observations are used for validating the trained LeFLNN model. The results obtained in the simulation study show the efficacy of the proposed method.

Tanvi Gupta, S. N. Sachdeva

A Newer Universal Model for Attaining Thin Film of Varied Composition During Sputtering

Thin films especially solid films show versatile properties thereby sputtering and other thin film deposition techniques are getting increased attention so as to improve performance of industrial parts and components especially working under severe load, speed, environments such as very high temperature and moisture. Emphasis has been on increased life and maintenance-free life cycle. To enhance system component’ performances and to achieve desired characteristics various compositions of thin films are required. A major challenge for the development of such films is to manipulate and control microstructure and their orientation. Such films having compositional changes by minute detailing in a few % by weight needs a different positional combination of substrate and targets along with bias. To achieve this minute but desired variation while laying a layer, different combinations of targets and substrate were worked upon and presented here. An arrangement is worked out to obtain different combinations, constituent by the automated movement of the target area using the controller and servomotors combinations. Also, multiple samples can be obtained by having rotating and revolving multiple work holders, which also serves the purpose of uniform coating around the surfaces of the sample of all shapes.

Gaurav Gupta, R. K. Tyagi

A Novel Model for IoT-Based Meter Using ATmega328P Microcontroller and Google Cloud Store

Electricity is indispensable and lifeblood of modern society. There is overwhelming evidence for the notion that the percentage of households with access to electricity has increased from 55% in 2001 to more than 80% in 2017 according to data compiled by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) as well as more than 1 lac cases piled up in Uttar Pradesh related to power theft in 2018. This study is an attempt to address the issue faced by consumers in Conventional (Electromechanical) energy meter. The electricity department hires human labor just for recording energy consumption at residential buildings on a monthly basis so there is a loss of financial asset of a government. So by just taken all the problems in an account, we came up with an idea of IoT-based meter. This paper focuses on implementation and design of Internet of thing-based energy meter using ATmega328P microcontroller. The proposed system uses ATmega328P microcontroller to communicate to ESP8266 node MCU (wifi module) via SPI protocol for serial data communication to replicate the functionality. ESP8266 node MCU (wifi module) sends the data to Google Cloud Store for visualization of a real-time database of energy consumption at the residential building with a systematic and practical analysis of a load profile. The captured data of Google Cloud Store can be sent to MATLAB software with the help of C#.net for evaluating load forecasting using artificial neural network algorithm (short term). This paper is not limited to only load forecasting as we know electrical load depends on various factor like (day of the week, the month of the year) but also provide you home automation when ESP8266 node MCU (wifi module) interface with Blynk app via MQTT Messaging Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol.

Sufia Khalid, Mohammad Sarfraz, Vishal Singh, Aafreen, Ali Allahloh

Vibration Analysis of Curved Beam Using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory with Different Boundary Conditions

The vibration analysis of isotropic curved beam having different end conditions (i.e., c-c and s-s) with different L/R ratios using higher order shear deformation theory is the main focus of this paper. The dependence of boundary conditions and radius of curvature on the frequency response are highlighted. It was found that the convergence result of the beam that for L/R = 0.0625 the convergence is more rapid for clamped-clamped condition of the beam than that of simply supported beam. The value of frequency of vibration for clamped-clamped beam is higher compared to simply supported beam having L/R = 0.0625. Similarly, the value of frequency of vibration for clamped-clamped beam is higher compared to simply supported beam having L/R = 0.125. If we observe the values of frequency of vibration for beam having L/R = 0.25, the convergence is more rapid for clamped-clamped beam compared to simply supported beam. It goes from 2300 to 773 rad/s when the number of element changes from 50 to 800 for C-C condition and 1500 to 494 rad/s for the same value of number of elements. Thus, we observe that as R is decreased keeping L constant the value of frequency of vibration increases. It was also observed that as the boundary conditions are changed from clamped-clamped to simply support the frequency also decreases for same L/R ratio.

Md. Rashid Akhtar, Aas Mohammad

Performance Analysis of Alternate Purification System in Air Conditioning System

In the present work, the filtration system is combined with the air conditioning unit and hence utilizing the power of the air conditioning unit to drive the air through proposed purification system. The filtration unit is made up of multiple layers of filter with primary focus on keeping the air clean while at the same time keeping the cost down. The unit is made such that it is compatible with window air conditioners. The results show that the purifier lowered the concentration of PM2.5 by 40%, PM10 by 25%, SO2 by 28% and NO2 by 33%. This can be useful in polluted environments where AQI shoots past 200 and bringing it down to 120 or so can make a huge difference. When compared to the traditional HEPA filter which costs over Rs. 10,000 and filters the air by 99.97%, it might seem like a much poor choice. But AQI level of up to 100 is satisfactory and bringing down the level to 50 AQI is as good as bringing it down to 1. So, with some modifications, if one can increase the filtration rate up to 85%, AQI touching can be brought down 300 to less than 50. Thus, achieving similar purification levels as that of traditional air purifier for less than half the cost.

Ashish Gangal, Vaibhav Jain

Weed Detection Approach Using Feature Extraction and KNN Classification

The image processing is the most important technology involved in the agricultural fields. One of the basic objectives of agricultural production is to gain maximum crop yield at low cost. The yield and subsequent profit can be enhanced by detecting and managing the issues related to crop yield indicators in early stage. The crop yield indicators such as weed can be detected and removed by different manual and automatic techniques. Image processing is the most popular technique to detect weed in the field crop. The technique of textural feature analysis and morphological scanning is applied to sugar beet plant in this paper. At last, KNN classifier is applied which can classify weed plant from field crop. The results of the weed detection are analyzed in terms of accuracy and execution time.

Gurpreet Khurana, Navneet Kaur Bawa

Analysis of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Materials Based Nanotube

In this work, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) material-based nanotube is developed and studied. HfO2 and SiO2 are used as the insulating material, and various characteristics are compared. Different characteristics measured are Ion/Ioff ratio, average sub-threshold slope, Id–Vgs curve, and total capacitance. After comparison, MoS2 turned out as most promising material as it provides highest ON state current but has own set of disadvantages as it has lower sub-threshold slope and due to less tunneling width MoS2 suffers from poor total capacitance. Due to reduced sub-threshold slope and higher Ion/Ioff ratio, nanotubes can be considered as possible candidate to replace field effect transistors in future.

Prateek Kumar, Maneesha Gupta, Kunwar Singh

Automated CNC Programming by the Restricted Boltzmann Machine Algorithm

The computer numerical control (CNC) machine is efficiently used for the mass production of jobs with high accuracy and precision. The CNC machines perform the required machining operation according to the machining program developed by its user. In this paper, a machine learning algorithm namely restricted Boltzmann machines algorithm (RBM) and deep belief network (DBN) is used for the automatic development of machining codes for machining operation on a CNC machine. The DBN is known as unsupervised, layered greedy pre-training. The algorithm captures the information for the required machining operation to be performed and thereafter generate different options of machining program automatically on the basis of the machine intelligence. The MATLAB platform is used to implement the algorithm so as to determine the position and other parameters of machining operations and generate the machining codes automatically. It is observed that the RBM can be successfully used for the automatic development of CNC machining programs for real-time machining of jobs on the CNC machining centers. The automatically developed machining codes are tested on CNC simulator called CNC TRAIN.

Neelima, Vivek Chawla

Single Pass Wavy Channel Heat Exchanger for Thermal Management of Electric Vehicle Battery Pack—A Numerical Study

This work involves the thermal management of 18650 Li-ion battery pack using a single pass wavy channel heat exchanger, where the cells are arranged in a staggered manner. Effect of various parameters like discharge of the battery, flow rate of the coolant across the channels and coolant inlet temperature, on the temperature of the battery pack and the pressure drop across the wavy channels is analyzed. Results show that at a higher C-rate, a higher coolant inlet temperature, and a lower flow rate of coolant, it resulted in higher overall temperatures of the battery pack. It was found that the pumping power required to drive the coolant across the channels decreased as the inlet coolant temperature was increased and as the flow rate of the coolant decreased.

Babu Rao Ponangi, Pramath H. Srikanth, Pratyush V. Heblikar

Comparative Microstructural Investigation of Aluminium Silicon Carbide–Mg and Aluminium Boron Carbide–Mg Particulate Metal Matrix Composite Fabricated by Stir Casting

Teh primary objective of teh present work is to compare different properties of reinforced Al7075. Boron carbide and silicon carbide (available in powder form) were mixed to teh alloy in different percentages to check their TEMPeffect along wif magnesium present in powdered form. Boron carbide (also non as black diamond) was selected as it is highly robust and TEMPhas good shielding properties against neutrons, me.e., it absorbs them well. It can stabilize teh ionizing radiations and is teh third hardest non substance after diamond and cubic boron nitride. Silicon carbide was selected as it TEMPhas high strength and hardness wif good wear resistance properties. Magnesium is selected because it is teh lightest of all teh metals and TEMPhas good heat dissipation and good damping capacity. Alloy is lightweight and TEMPhas main applications in aircraft industry, automotive parts, and defence applications. Graphite crucible was preheated (to remove teh moisture) to a temperature of 200–300 °C and tan stir casted using stir casting set up. Samples were tan poured in die and tan allowed to cool down. Samples were tan collected from die and after dat mechanical properties were tested (tensile test and hardness test). SEM/EDS and XRD analyses were conducted to briefly study teh microstructure and phase of teh samples prepared.

Paridhi Malhotra, R. K. Tyagi, Nishant K. Singh, Basant Singh Sikarwar

A Review on IoT-Based Hybrid Navigation System for Mid-sized Autonomous Vehicles

Internet of things (IoT) widens the existing notion of the Internet and is considered as the most illustrious modern research technology that associates physical objects to the digital sphere. In industrial scenario, multidimensional applications are developed based on Internet like the Internet of nano-things (IoNT), Internet of everything (IoE), machine to machine (M2M), Web of things (WoT), ubiquitous sensor network (USN), and wireless sensor network (WSN); all these respective fields are closely related to each other. Industrial automation uses IoT solutions that can drive new assets. For solving problems, increasing productivity, and enhancing operations, IoT helps to create new technology. IoT-enabled systems are streamlined and create various system architectures that is responsive, effective, and affordable. Automation in respect of the transport of materials and goods within industry or manufacturing unit is improved with an advance in technology demands a fast, reliable and efficient transport with onboard sensing for better time management and enhanced accuracy the industrial systems recently inclined towards the latest technology based means of automation. The world changes with various online and offline channels and services customer preferences have evolved forcing companies to reduce order to delivery time. The sheer number and blend of orders mean that warehouses are under increasing pressure to deliver the items as soon as possible. Here, all conventional rigid warehouse automation fails to meet respective field needs. Flexible automation is the single appropriate solution for storehouses to precede a competing convenience. This paper explores the existing state of IoT-enabled technologies and their multifaceted strength in the field of factory automation and mainly focuses on the concept of hybrid navigation in automated guided vehicles (AGV’s)/mid-sized autonomous vehicles.

Ajay K. S. Singholi, Mamta Mittal, Ankur Bhargava

Development and Modelling of a Novel Wheelchair with Staircase Climbing Ability

This paper presents a modified form of the wheelchair with an ability of stair-climbing to help people who are unable to climb stairs or have problems in mobility independently, i.e., old people, people with physically discouraged or paralysed. The wheelchair consists of a frame, chair seat, suspensions, clustered triple-wheel, and a type of linear actuator (leadscrew). The special newly designed wheelchair with specific mechanisms helps the user to climb and descend the stairs, to move in the organized and unorganized environment, and to overcome the curbs and uneven terrains more efficiently and comfortably. This wheelchair has a compact and lightweight structure and will remain stable throughout the whole ride path.

Gaurav Kesari

Design and Fabrication of Low-Cost Detachable Power Unit for a Wheelchair

Manually operated wheelchairs play a very crucial role in the life of physically disabled people. Movement over a good distance on manual wheelchairs is burdensome. Electric wheelchairs are recommended for people who experience problems in utilizing a manual wheelchair due to impairing physical conditions. Electric wheelchairs are suitable for indoor use, open-air use, or even both. However, commercially available electric wheelchairs are very costly and cannot be afforded by majority of people in economically developing countries. Therefore, a need was felt to envisage a rudimentary low-cost detachable power unit for a commercially available manual wheelchair. Computer-aided design was used to achieve suitable design visualizations. Methods for fabricating the power unit involved attaching a frame to a wheel and a steering handle. Batteries were taken as the source of power for the speed-controlled hub motor connected to the wheel. The low-cost detachable power unit can be attached and detached to the commercially available basic manual wheelchair. However, in order to keep the cost low, the design was kept simple and locally available materials were selected without compromising on safety, functionality, and operational features of the wheelchair. It was evident that the designed and fabricated cost effective detachable power unit can be afforded by most of the people in developing countries like India. There is ample scope for further improvement in the design based on engineering analysis and incorporating human-centered ergonomics design concepts without increasing the overall cost of the detachable power unit.

Issac Thomas, M. I. John, Robinson Lal, Jobi Lukose, J. Sanjog

Computation of Rupture Strain from Macroscopic Criteria

In this paper, analytical studies of unit cube with different macroscopic rupture criteria have shown that stress triaxiality is a key parameter on which the magnitude of rupture strain depends. Numerical simulations of tensile test were performed using commercial finite element code ABAQUS on unit cube element. Post-process data of the simulation of tensile test of unit cube element was taken for computation of rupture strain and stress triaxiality. The relation between the strains at rupture versus the stress triaxiality was quantified.

Appurva Jain, Abhishek Mishra

Biosignal Analysis Using Independent Components with Intelligent Systems

This paper proposes early detection of myocardial infarct and heart arrhythmias from the characteristic pattern of the ECG waveform, and signal processing techniques for analysis of the biosignals along with the feature extraction and classification technique. Independent component analysis (ICA) is considered as a new technique suitable for the separation and removal of assorted noises independent of ECG signals. ECG Feature Extraction plays a major role in analyzing most of the cardiac diseases. This scheme determines the intervals and amplitudes in the ECG signal for succeeding analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment defines the functioning of the human heart. Artificial intelligence improves the biosignals’ monitoring efficiency and helps serious caretakers to get a faster prior diagnosis. In our current work, we incorporated machine learning and different architecture of artificial neural network (ANN). The annotated standard samples from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database are used for experiments. Results attained using the proposed algorithm using MIT-BIH and PTB database illustrates that the neural network classifiers demonstrate high classification accuracies of over 98.96% should help cardiologist for early diagnostic of arrhythmias.

Suhani Pandey, Mohammad Sarfraz

Modeling of Multiple Jointed Kinematic Chains Using the Polynomial Coefficients Derived from the Interactive Weighted Matrices of Kinematic Graphs

The paper proposes a novel approach to detect the Isomorphism in the family of 8 Link Multiple Jointed, 1-Degree of Freedom Multiple Jointed Kinematic Chains using the Kinematic Graphs. An Interactive Weighted Adjacency [WA] is developed. Using MATLAB software, the Summation of Characteristic Polynomial Coefficients of these respective chains and their corresponding mechanisms are enumerated and observed to detect the presence of Isomorphism and to ascertain the number of distinct kinematic chains.

Vipin Kaushik, Aas Mohammad

Application of Wavelet Analysis in Condition Monitoring of Induction Motors

In the era of globalization, manufacturing industries are facing intense pressure to prevent unexpected breakdowns, lower maintenance costs and improve machine availability. Due to the increasing trend of Condition Monitoring (CM), numerous sensors deployed on industrial apparatus around the world and several monitoring techniques available for fault diagnosis of induction motors are growing at a rapid pace. This article provides a state-of-art review of past and recent developments taking place in wavelet analysis-based CM and failure diagnosis in three-phase induction motors. The utilization of different CM techniques in data processing and application of wavelet-based automatic failure prediction in induction motors for timely scheduling of the maintenance holds great research potential in the future.

Amandeep Sharma, Pankaj Verma, Anurag Choudhary, Lini Mathew, Shantanu Chatterji

Optimization of Halon 1301 Discharge Through Fire Extinguisher Cylinder for IFSS

The following research paper aims to study the discharge of Halon 1301 through a fire extinguishing cylinder of capacity 3.6 L and perform analysis for optimization of discharge. Halon 1301 is an effective fire extinguishing agent. Being of low toxicity, odourless, and colourless, it is extensively used in armoured cars and spacecraft applications. Major disadvantages are that it causes depletion of ozone layer and has a limit to human exposure concentration of 7% and below 15 min as concentration greater than 7–10% causes mild central nervous system effect such as dizziness, which limits its use to military purposes or in any other kind of major purposes. The following study uses the ANSYS software for analysis and simulation purpose and SolidWorks software for designing and 3D modelling of cylinder for determining optimal pressure for discharge. Similar simulation can also be done for Halon alternatives such as Hepta-Fluropropane, developed by the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad.

Reetik Kaushik, Yasham Raj Jaiswal, Vishal Dwivedi, Ranganath M. Singari

Barriers to the Use of Robots in Indian Industries

With the rapid change in the socioeconomic status and global competitiveness, the means are devised to ease the work of human beings and also to take care of safety issues. Use of robot is not only limited to manufacturing but found equally important in other applications as well. The use of robots in manufacturing and service-based industries has increased exponentially. Robots have been used since long back in large enterprises even in developing countries like India but its use is limited in the case of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). In large enterprises also, the use of robots in India has not matched with that of other countries. The acceptance of robotics in Indian industries is slow-paced due to one or the other reason. There are a large number of factors that affect the use of robots in Indian industries. This paper focuses on the barriers which limit the use of robots in Indian industries.

Ravindra Kumar

Impacts of Regenerative Braking on Li-Ion Battery

Electric vehicles are the future of the automobile industry. Strategies must be devised for achieving a greater degree of energy conservation and further reducing our reliance on fossil fuel driven technology. Regenerative braking is one of the methods for moving forward in the said direction. In this paper, we are going to see the various effects of regenerative braking on the battery life of a vehicle. We have focused on various parameters of degradation of battery life, especially lithium-ion batteries which occur during regenerative braking such as variation in charging C-rate, variation in temperature, etc. and their dependency on the cycle life of the battery. We have found that charging the battery beyond a particular C-rate which usually happens during regenerative braking leads to degradation of battery life.

Akshay Thakur, Kaleem Uz Zaman Khan, Jatin Gupta, Kunal Gupta, Mukund Vats, Chetan Mishra, Aditya Roy

Development of the Latent Heat Storage System Using Phase Change Material with Insertion of Helical Fins to Improve Heat Transfer Rate

The phase change materials are having capability to store the latent as well as the sensible form of heat. These materials are having poor rates of heat transfer during solid to liquid phase transformation and vice versa. It happens because of poor thermal conductivity of phase change materials. For improving rate of heat transfer, the fins with helical design are introduced in the phase change material. The paraffin wax was used as phase change material. Different experimentations were carried out by maintaining constant flow rate of heat transferring fluid and varying its inlet temperature. With the use of helical fins, the effect on the total time required for melting and solidification of phase change material was determined. The Reynolds and Stefan numbers are used as the performance parameters. This paper illustrates that the use of helical fins reduces the total cycle time of charging and discharging process of the phase change material compared with the plain latent heat storage system.

Vishal Godase, Ashok Pise, Avinash Waghmare

Experimental Investigation of Helical Coil Tube in Tube Heat Exchanger with Microfins Using Al2O3/Water Nano Fluid

In this work, three passive heat transfer augmentation techniques are used in counterflow tube in tube heat exchanger. First is transforming the straight heat exchanger tubes into helical coil heat exchanger tubes, second is to make use of nanofluid in heat exchanger and third is to make micro fins over the outer surface of inner tube. The experimentation was done on plane tube as well as micro fined tubes by varying the concentration of Al2O3 nanoparticle in deionized water. 500 micro fins created within 1 m length of heat exchanger tubes. Height and thickness of micro fins are 0.4 mm and 1 mm, respectively. Heat transfer rate, overall heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, effectiveness, Nusselt number, and entropy generation of helically coiled tube in tube heat exchanger were experimented by varying the volume concentration of Al2O3 nanoparticle as 0%, 0.25% and 0.3% [1]. Mass flow rate through inner tube as well as annulus were kept constant for observing the variation of various quantities, e.g., heat transfer rate, effectiveness, etc. Results obtained from micro finned helical coil heat exchanger have compared with the plane helical coil heat exchanger. Heat transfer performances increased in helically coiled heat exchanger using nanofluid with different concentrations of nanoparticle. Also, the effectiveness of heat exchanger increases and entropy generation decreases as the concentration of nanoparticle increases.

Nilesh K. Kadam, A. R. Acharya

Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System in Terms of Convective Heat Transfer

An air-conditioning unit releases large amount of heat through the condenser during the process of heat rejection. This heat is released to the environment in the form of hot air and is considered as wasted heat. Through this experimental research project, an attempt has been made to use this heat released in terms of convective heat transfer and analyse its effect on the vapour compression refrigeration system in an air-conditioning unit. The heat is used to increase the temperature of the refrigerant travelling from the evaporator to the compressor. This is done by installing extended copper tubing with calculated length to generate convective heat transfer in front of the condenser. When the refrigerant is passed through the tubing, the temperature of the refrigerant increases. In order to check the improvement in the air-conditioning system, experiments were done to observe the power consumed by the compressor after the structural redesign of the system. With experimental observations and calculations along with certain assumptions, it is found that there is a decrease in the load of the compressor in terms of power consumption and an increase in coefficient of performance of the system.

Pinaki Das, Dheeraj Chhabra, Mukul Krishnatrey, Mayur

Microwave Welding of Mild Steel

In this research, microwave welding of mild steel has been carried out at different exposure time, and mechanical characteristics at the weld zone are examined. Commercial mild steel specimens with the dimension of 20 × 20 × 2 mm are used in this study. The process parameters used in the microwave welding are microwave frequency, interfacing material, power rating, susceptor, separator, exposure time. Microstructure, porosity, and hardness tests were performed to evaluate mechanical characteristics of the welded piece. Results show that the reliable welding was occurred between 630 and 840 s, below which the weld is partial and above which the specimen gets deformed. The microstructure of the weld region exposed clear grains of the austenitic structure. No porosity defect was perceived in the weld zone. The hardness at weld joint and on HAZ are 58–59 HRB and 51–52 HRB, respectively, and is more significant compared to the hardness of the base metal which is 49–50 HRB.

Sourav, Uma Gautam, Akshay Marwah, Ankit Sharma, Lakshay

Synthesis of Nanocellulose Fibrils/Particles from Cellulose Fibres Through Sporadic Homogenization

Turbak, Snyder and Sandberg have used the term microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or nanocellulose first time to describe the work done by them. Plant fibres have abundant cellulosic mass and are renewable in nature. This work aims to utilize the commercially available cellulose fibres (synthesized from cotton linters) as raw materials for the synthesis of nanocellulose fibrils/particles through intermittent homogenization process. Various parameters of homogenization like speed and time of processing were varied in each step and were chosen from several keen experimental observations. Soaking time of cellulose fibre solution allows swelling of them, and lopsided processing steps make the solution at room temperature, and no burn of fibres was noticed. The obtained particles have a mean diameter of 845.4 nm. An AFM image of different sizes was taken to understand the shape of obtained nanocelluolse.

Nadendla Srinivasababu, Kopparthi Phaneendra Kumar

A New Design of Li-Ion Battery for a Smart Suitcase

Lithium-ion battery, a high energy density resource has played a major role in revolutionizing current the era of digital electronics by acting as the major power mode for various power tools, mobile-computer, and electric vehicle industries. But recently, logged battery accidents have clearly highlighted the risk associated with it, in-turn, making its reliable and secure use a major concern. Therefore, we are designing a battery pack for a semi-autonomous suitcase with the aim of preventing shock, mishandlings, and over-heating while integrating it with a simple lock-in and easy removal mechanism. Also, our work features mobile charging and regenerative system for charging of the pack at run-time.

Anant Singhal, Karan Bhatia, Kaleem Uz Zaman Khan, Shivam Tyagi, Tarun Mittal, Chetan Mishra, Aditya Roy

Comparative Study on the Formability Behaviour of Different Grades of Aluminium Alloys Using Limiting Dome Height Test—An Analytical and Experimental Approach

The objective of this present work is to the comparison of simulation and experimental results on the formability behaviour of dissimilar aluminium alloys such as AA6082-O, AA5083-O, AA5052-H32 and AA6082-T6 using limiting dome height (LDH) test. This research work is divided into four main parts. In the first part, experiment is performed on LDH test is used to predict the failure criteria of formability of all aluminium alloys. The experimental dome height values were measured and recorded. In second part, the uniaxial tensile test for all aluminium alloys was performed, and the combined curve of true stress–strain values and force-displacement was drawn. In third part, the simulation of LDH test is performed on simulation using Hyperform software to estimate the forming behaviour of used aluminium alloys. In simulation process, the comparative study of forming limit diagram (FLD), plastic, minor and major strain of used aluminium alloys was studied. With the help of simulation result, the forming limit curves (FLC) were drawn to develop the minor and major strain paths. In last part, the comparison of simulation and experiment result of dome height was prepared when localized necking occurs. It is showed that the simulation results have a good agreement with the experimental result at 93% accuracy for all aluminium alloys. Both the result shows that the AA6082-O has better formability followed by AA6082-T6, AA5083-O and AA5052-H32.

Praveen Kumar, Satpal Sharma

A Novel Approach of Gearbox Fault Diagnosis by Using Time Synchronous Averaging and J48 Algorithm

Gearbox fault diagnosis is a major research area in mechanical engineering at the current generation. Due to the important role in industries, gearbox makes a huge impact on mechanical engineering research. A lot of faults occur in the gearbox such as tooth crack, wear, plastic flow, and spelling. These types of gearbox faults can lead to major production disaster which is the cause of huge financial losses and decrease the efficacy in the production unit. Thus, it is very important to detect any fault at an initial stage to stay away from an unexpected breakdown of the gearbox. Therefore, this paper presents a unique gearbox fault diagnosis method based on time synchronous averaging (TSA) and J48 algorithm. An electromechanical system was used for experimental work. Two types of faulty gearset were introduced along with a healthy gearset for the study of the gearbox vibration. A computer-aided DAQ was used for acquiring the vibration signal. The experimental work was carried out by three different loads and speeds conditions with duration of 30 s. The results of this work are very promising and make a clear idea of some future research work.

Subrata Mukherjee, Rishubh Kaushal, Vikash Kumar, Somnath Sarangi

Programmable Logic Controller Controlled 360 Degree Flexible Drilling Machine

This paper focuses on controlling a flexible drill machine using a programmable logic controller (PLC), so that the speed and time of drilling can be controlled and accuracy of the drilling could be increased. Hence, fabrication of the drill machine whose DC motor can be controlled using a PLC is discussed. The drilling machine finds its application in drilling in any direction (x, y and z) and at any angle which makes it work in 360 degree. Complicated parts having alignment problems could be drilled horizontally, vertically or even upside down. The components used and their specifications in fabricating drilling machine are discussed thoroughly. Parameters of machining, i.e., speed of cutting, rate of feed, cutting depth, material removal rate and time of machining of the drill machine, are calculated which makes it convenient to drill in materials like metals, wood and plastic.

Parth Patpatiya, Varun Bhatnagar, Harshita Tyagi, Nupur Anand

“VISIO”: An IoT Device for Assistance of Visually Challenged

Technologies and systems adopted by laboratories and workplaces are turned too primitive to be operated upon. Experiment performed by using routine tools and equipment. Hand-operated tools are just too much of energy and time taking, whereas one which is automated is just too expensive. Using of these tools requires a great deal of knowledge to be gained and to operate without any loss and lessening the time consumption. But the need of the time is for the portable devices and tools which can be combined with different platforms like android. Along with meeting, the requirement of time Arduino is an open-source platform. Arduino board along with software developing kit (SDK)-based programming used for interacting and commanding different sensors. Tools like this will attract and inspire a lot of young researchers and developers to aid with the crises in our society. We are using the same development platform to develop a device called as VISIO. And it is developed to help the blinds with their suffering and misery.

Rashbir Singh, Prateek Singh, Deepak Chahal, Latika Kharb

A Retrospective Investigation of Mechanical and Physical Properties of ABS Specimen Developed by Manual Injection Moulding and Fused Deposition Modelling

Fused depositions modelling (FDM) has been developed over three decades from now and still has much scope for new improvements. The mechanical and physical properties of the product prepared by this technique depend on different processing parameters. This paper focuses on the effect of two diverse manufacturing processes on the mechanical behaviour of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) specimen. In the first case, the specimen manufactured by the conventional manufacturing process, i.e. hand moulding technique, and in the second case, the specimen printed by additive manufacturing process with different raster angles. The tensile test of all the specimens has been carried out on the computerised tensometer instrument. Results demonstrate that the fused deposition method technique has the edge over the moulding technique. The tensile properties further enhanced by altering the raster angle within the stipulated range. The moulded specimen shows more resistance to breaking load, whereas the 3D printed specimen has a better peak load value. Maximum tensile strength obtained at ±45° raster angle and 90° offered the least resistance. Experiments established that the dimensional shrinkage in the 3D printed specimen is found 2% more than the moulded specimen.

Md Qamar Tanveer, Mohd Suhaib, Abid Haleem

Effect of Magnetic Pole Orientation on Viscoelastic Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process

The advancement of material technology has created a need for new methods and technology which can provide a better Machining and finishing process. Viscoelastic magnetic Abrasive Finishing is a new method which has evolved from traditional MAF process where there is a use of abrasive-Ferromagnetic laden media which provide an effective machining option. In this process, Ferromagnetic particles, along with abrasive particles in presence of viscoelastic medium provide better surface finish as viscoelastic medium increases the bonding of ferromagnetic particles with abrasive particles. In the present paper Ansys Maxwell 16.0 is used to obtain the distribution of magnetic field on the workpiece through which the effect on machined surface can be predicted. The pattern is obtained using combination of 6 magnetic poles taken 2, 3 and 6 at a time by arranging them at different angles. After observing the pattern, it was found that the most effective machining would be done by taking 6 poles, surrounding the workpiece as it would cover the entire surface of the workpiece and the combination of 3 magnet at an angle of 60° is effective when 3 poles are taken at a time.

K. Srinivas, Q. Murtaza, A. K. Aggarwal

MHO Shape Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for X-Band

In a research work, MHO-shaped slotted microstrip patch antenna is proposed. An antenna proposed on Rogger duroid 5880 substrate with thickness of 0.79 mm and relative permittivity of 2.2 have a dielectric loss tangent of 0.0009. This antenna is composed of rectangular slots. There is HFSS software used to design and analysis gain, directivity, VSWR, radiation pattern, and return loss.

Palak Jain, Sunil Kumar Singh

Optimization of Process Parameters in Electric Discharge Machining for SS420 Using Taguchi Technique

With growing need through the competitive industrial world, there is acute need of ultra precision while machining the given material through different machining processes, primarily non- traditional machining (NTM) processes. Thus it’s needed to realize the specified output by regulating the process parameter as per the requirement. This has given rise to a scenario which needs the data of optimum values of varied input parameters to maximize or minimize the desired output. Though there are different methods available, still Taguchi Method is one of the capable methods for modeling of such problems. This paper deals with optimization of Electric Discharge Machining process parameters for SS420 based on the Taguchi technique. Also the effect of Gap voltage, Current, Duty Cycle and Pulse on Time output responses on the EDM has been investigated. The Material Removal Rate (MRR) is taken as output responses for the investigation. The experiment is designed by Taguchi methodology orthogonal array (L16). These have been conducted on the SS420 utilizing copper as Tool electrode by taking four levels of each factor. It is found that the Pulse on Time is the most significant factor to affect MRR and Gap Voltage is least. The result showed that the Gap voltage of 45 V, Current of 10 A, Duty Cycle of 96% and Pulse on time 100 µ/s bears the optimal quality characteristics.

Sudhir Kumar, Sanjoy Kumar Ghoshal, Pawan Kumar Arora

Improvement in Starting Characteristics of a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor by Offset Cylinder Arrangement

Better starting performance of hermetic compressor has become one of the primary development targets due to variations in operating pressures of refrigerants. At starting reciprocating mechanism is subjected to critical conditions which impose greater forces on piston this causes the starting process difficult. In this work, an Excel program is developed to calculate the torque requirement of hermetic compressor by considering gas force, inertia of components, and frictional resistance. This saves time and cost associated with testing and performing iterations for motor selection. It is observed that 90% of total torque is required to overcome gas force, 9% for inertia, and 1% is loosed in friction. For reducing torque demand and improving starting ability, various methods were studied but offset cylinder method is implemented. Compressor prototype was built with cylinder offset by 0.6 mm which causes reduction in torque demand by 27% as compared to inline cylinder compressor. Prototype is tested on calorimeter for startability and results show that compressor has better starting ability than inline cylinder compressor and it can start satisfactorily in specified voltage range. Also, effect of various refrigerants on torque demand is discussed.

Himanshu Kalbandhe, Anil Acharya, Sumedh Nalavade

Stair Shape Microstrip Patch Antenna for X Band

A Stair shape microstrip patch radiator is designed and analyzed in this research paper by using HFSS 13.0 version. Designed microstrip patch radiator is in shape of rectangular with circular sots for X band application. In this radiator, substrate material is used FR4 epoxy, which dielectric constant is 4.4. Microstrip feeding technique is used with lumped port. Resonant frequency is 8 GHz, it is within ‘X’ band. Mostly X band frequency range is used for satellite & radar communication.

Nivedita Dash, Sunil Kumar Singh

Power Consumption Estimation of SHA-3 for the Internet of Things Applications

Recent trends of Internet of Things (a network-connected wirelessly between smart devices and the Internet) and ubiquitous/pervasive computing require everything to be IP addressable and accessed on the Internet. Internet of Things (IoT), a rapidly developing market which not only connects people and things but also billions of devices and smart objects. A steady increase in security vulnerabilities has been witnessed with the widening of the Internet of Things. The accuracy and reliability of data also referred to as data integrity makes certain that data is not modified while its transfer, storage, or retrieval. For the verification of data integrity, generally, hash functions are used. In order to provide the real-time or near real-time checking of data integrity, hardware implementation of cryptographic hash functions is necessary for the Internet of Things. The IoT world constitutes billions of devices that can sense the data, share information, and communicate it over Internet Protocol (IP) network. The present work presents an implementation of the Secure Hash Algorithm—3 (SHA–3) on NS2 and undertakes power analysis of the algorithm for the Internet of Things applications.

M. Tariq Banday, Issmat Shah Masoodi

Joining of Metals Using Microwave Energy

Welding is a joining process in which metals are joined to form a permanent joint. This is done by melting the edges of the substrate to form weld pool which becomes a strong joint after cooling. Research reveals that the processing of microwave energy in materials is not only a green manufacturing process but also a more versatile, rapid, and cleaner process in relation to low cost and has a huge impact on production. Microwave welding is a form of welding using electromagnetic energy, similar to laser, radio frequency, IR, and induction, using radiation energy having a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Facileness of processing and hazards related to the environment are the issues related to conventional welding that need to be addressed, so this type of welding evolved. Microwave materials processing leads to high energy consumption heating method generally used in industries. In microwave processing, electromagnetic waves energy is directly transferred to the material through the interaction of molecules that lead to volumetric heating. Heat is induced internally within the material, instead of emerging from the external sources, and transfer in an outward direction. Microwave having unique characteristics of volumetric heating, selective heating, lower energy consumptions, and lower processing time due to which its applications are increasing rapidly.

Uma Gautam, Vipin

Correction to: Weed Detection Approach Using Feature Extraction and KNN Classification

In the original version of the book, the following belated correction has been incorporated. The reference citation in figure 1 and figure 2 has been changed as follows.

Gurpreet Khurana, Navneet Kaur Bawa
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