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This book comprises select papers presented at the International Conference on Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE 2018). The book presents results of experimental investigations into the latest topics related to energy and built environment. The topics covered include green and clean technologies, zero energy buildings, solar energy, energy conservation and heat recovery, and solar architecture. The contents of this book will be beneficial to students, researchers and professionals working in the area of energy and built environment engineering.

### Comparative Study of Earth Air Tunnel and Borehole Heat Exchanger Applied for Building Space Conditioning

Abstract
In this communication, energy and exergy analysis of building-integrated “earth air tunnel heat exchanger” (EATHE) and “borehole heat exchanger” (BHE) has been studied for a composite climate of Delhi. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the energy and exergy of the system. Computational fluid dynamics software has been used to compare the exergetic performance of both the systems. This work is the extension of Kaushik et al. (J Renew Sustain Energy 6(1), 2014 [1]) and Lal et al. (J Renew Sustain Energy 6(2), 023123, 2014 [2]) where economic analysis has been done for both the systems using year-round performance analysis method. It is found that the borehole heat exchanger is more economical in fixed cost and recurring cost and gives improved year-round performance than earth air tunnel heat exchanger.
Shiv Lal, S. C. Kaushik

### Advances in Reliability of Solar PV Systems

Abstract
The problems of solar PV system reliability and its improvements have been addressed in this paper. Reliability is the ability of solar PV system to perform adequately without failure during the intended period of time under the operating environmental condition encountered. It also considers the capability of the system to cater the needs of the load that it has been designed for. In this situation, the energy balance between the energy generating unit (array), storage unit (battery bank) and load becomes important. However, the consideration of unit array output instead of equivalent hour full sunlight (EHFS) can ameliorate the system capability to serve the load at a particular location and effective unit array output (EUAO) for a wider region. The consideration of quality and redundancy is also found to significantly help the improvement of reliability.
Anil K. Rai

### Exergy Analysis of Dedicated Mechanically Subcooled Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle Using HFC-R134a, HFO-R1234ze and R1234yf

Abstract
The current work presents the exergy analysis of dedicated mechanically subcooled vapour compression refrigeration system. It involves the performance comparison of dedicated mechanically subcooled cycle (DSC), overall cycle (OC), subcooler cycle (SC) and simple VCR cycle using HFO-R1234ze, R1234yf and HFC-R134a. A computational formulation model has been developed in the EES software for the computation of various performance parameters, viz. COP, exergetic efficiency, exergy destruction rate and exergy destruction ratio. The effect of variation of effectiveness of subcooler (0.3–1.0) and isentropic efficiency of compressors (0.1–1.0) has been investigated on the performance of the cycles. Exergy destruction in each system component has also been checked. It has been observed that performance wise, the dedicated mechanically subcooled VCR cycle is an improved version of simple VCR cycle. The overall cycle also performs better than simple VCR cycle. The HFO-R1234ze competes with HFC-R134a and supersedes R1234yf. It proves itself a good alternate to R134a being a friend of the environment. Condenser1 is the most sensitive system component of dedicated mechanically subcooled VCR cycle for the refrigerants considered.
Shyam Agarwal, Akhilesh Arora, B. B. Arora

### The Effect of Eco-friendly Refrigerants on Performance of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System with Dedicated Mechanical Subcooling

Abstract
The demand for high-performance refrigeration systems with eco-friendly refrigerants is increasing due to global warming. In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of a vapor compression refrigeration system with dedicated mechanical subcooling using eco-friendly refrigerants R1243zf, R1233zd(E) is carried out and their performance is compared with refrigerant R134a. The parameters like COP and exergetic efficiency of the system is computed. The effects of subcooling temperature, condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, compressor efficiency, and effectiveness of heat exchanger are also investigated and discussed. The performance of the system can be directly related to subcooling temperature. There is an optimum value of subcooling temperature predicted for the system in this article. In the study, it is observed that low GWP refrigerant R1233zd(E) is a better-performing refrigerant than R134a, whereas R1243zf is also a low GWP refrigerant which has slightly lower COP and exergetic efficiency than R134a.

### Performance Analysis of ORC with Environment-Friendly Working Fluids Novec 649 and R1233zd[E] as Alternative to R245fa

Abstract
In the present work, two low GWP fluids, viz. Novec 649 and HFO1233zd[E], have been considered to replace R245fa in ORC with and without IHE. A computational model is developed in EES software for the evaluation of cycles. The cycles are studied on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics, and exergy analysis is also carried out. The results substantiate that the first law efficiency of Novec 649 is lower than R245fa, whereas R1233zd[E] shows better first law efficiency than R245fa. The first law efficiency increases with increase in evaporator temperature, whereas it decreases with increase in condenser temperature. The usage of IHE improves the first law efficiency. The exergetic efficiency for R1233zd[E] is higher than other fluids in comparison with R245fa and Novec 649. The effect of degree of superheat in both cycles on exergetic efficiency is to decrease it.
Pradeep Kumar Jain, Akhilesh Arora, B. B. Arora

### Identifying Deterrents to Greening Existing Buildings

Abstract
Green retrofitting of existing building stocks is inevitable as governments across the world are striving to formulate and implement relevant policy measures to achieve the sustainability goals. Green retrofitting or simply greening existing buildings is a very novel concept to reduce the impact of the existing building stock on the ecosystem through energy retrofits and technologies that in turn improve and enhance the overall energy efficiency of buildings, therefore reducing its carbon footprint. In this paper, various policies and processes of green retrofitting systems are investigated. The paper relies on qualitative techniques to capture the perception of different stakeholders to gain better understanding on the barriers and deterrents to greening existing building stocks. A framework of six indicators is derived based on the existing case studies to analyse the different components of Green retrofitting process. The subject of green retrofit and its practice is an under-researched area, mainly in Indian context. The paper attempts to bridge this gap, and the strength of the paper lies in the empirical nature of its investigation.
Devendra Pratap Singh, Ekta Singh

### Field Investigation on the Orientation of 11.2 kWp Rooftop-Based PV System for Hot-Humid Location of India

Abstract
Solar photovoltaic is becoming a major power generation means increasingly affordable and proving to be as reliable as the utilities. In fact, in recent years it has become a several billion dollar global sunrise industry growing well over 30% every year. In India, the rooftop-grid-connected solar PV systems are being subsidized to bridge the gap in demand and supply of power. At SOA University, Bhubaneswar, 11.2 kWp rooftop-grid-connected solar PV system has been installed and operated for over 3 years. This paper presents an outline of the setup, operational experiences, and limitations and highlights the measures to combat the limitations. It is concluded that seasonal adjustment of rooftop modular arrays will affect space conditioning in the building and significantly enhance the yield.
Bibekananda Jena, Renu Sharma

### Rural Electrification Using Hybrid Solar and Biogas System in Phulwaria Village, Bihar: A Case Study

Abstract
The economic development plans in the developing as well as developed countries have accelerated the consumption of electrical energy. Consequently, the gap between the demand and supply for power is widening around the world. In the present scenario, power generation by renewable energy sources has gained significant importance. In India, approximately 70% of the people live in rural parts where power from grid supply is scanty. This paper investigates and proposes a viable option for supplying power to Phulwaria village in Bihar by adopting hybrid energy systems (HESs) of solar photovoltaic (SPV) and biogas to produce electricity. Here, combined heat and power (CHP) model is used for biogas where the wasted heat is used to heat water and supply clean drinking water.
Sushmita Mohapatra, Saurabh Agrawal, Himanshu Ranjan

### Electricity Demand Forecasting Using Regression Techniques

Abstract
Accurate demand forecasting is very important for electric utilities in a competitive environment created by the electric industry deregulation. By using regression analysis, we have analyzed the electricity demand forecast of all-India demand data. Forecast is compared with partial end-use technique. Multiple regression method has been used for forecasting electricity demand by selecting various combinations of independent variables such as Net State Domestic Product (NSDP), Sector-wise Domestic Savings Household sector, Consumers, Connected Load, etc. It was found that sector-wise Net Domestic Savings Household sector was very effective for ascertaining the future electricity demand in the domestic sector in the country.

### Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Isolated Wind Power System Based on Voltage Indices Using ANFIS Tuned STATCOM

Abstract
Among renewable sources of energy, wind energy sources (WES) are the most demanded globally. Wind energy systems are usually facilitated with fixed velocity type induction machines that provide comparable lesser costly options for power generation. Although these asynchronous generators are used to consume reactive power, having numerous advantages over synchronous machines make them so popular. The shunt capacitors can be used to generate this consumable reactive power, but usually, these circuitries do not yield desired results during the contingencies or turbulent behavior of the system. Therefore, effective and continuous solutions such as flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) are compulsory in such cases. In the presented paper, the stabilization of the voltage stability indices of energy system during the turbulent behavior of the integrated WES-based energy systems using the static compensator (STATCOM) is investigated. Furthermore, the proportional–integral controller of the control system is tuned by an adaptive technique, i.e., adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The considered WES generators are the squirrel cage induction generators (SCIG). Simulation studies are performed on the IEEE-9 bus test system. Obtained results prove that the SCIG with ANFIS tuned STATCOM improves the performance of the designed power network during the turbulence.
A. Gandhar, S. Gupta, S. Gandhar

### Improvement of Voltage Stability of Renewable Energy Sources-Based Microgrid Using ANFIS-Tuned UPFC

Abstract
The paper proposed an impact strategy to stabilize the reactive power variations in islanded microgrid, which results in the control over voltage instability. The required voltage compensation is achieved by injection of an accurate synchronous voltage supply into the microgrid through the power electronics-based converters. This work is accomplished by using advanced flexible AC transmission (FACTS) device and unified power flow controller (UPFC) connected to the microgrid. This compensation reference is obtained through a synchronous voltage management, avoiding the load frequency control loop. In this paper, the improvement in the voltage stability of power system during the transient period in the integrated renewable energy sources (RES)-based microgrid using the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is investigated. Furthermore, the proportional–integral controller of the control system is tuned by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique. The ANFIS-tuned UPFC yields the better control on the bus voltages of the test system. This strategy does not require any hardware modification. This strategy is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to prove its effectiveness.
S. Gandhar, Jyoti Ohri, Mukhtiar Singh

### Analysis, Design, and Comparison of Different Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Thermal (BIPVT) System for Indian Meteorological Condition

Abstract
Analysis of BIPVT system has been carried out in this paper based on arrays named as solar cell tile array and semitransparent array. Previously, comparisons and performance analysis were carried out for opaque and semitransparent system in a non-optimized way, but in the present case, optimization has been done to get better results. As far as energy effectiveness and exergy are concerned, semitransparent PVT has an edge as compared to others in all respects. Semitransparent PVT has relatively higher useful energy gain by 2.5 kWh as compared to SCT. Further, the electrical and thermal effectiveness has been derived, and a conclusion has been made that semitransparent PV cell has an edge in all respects as compared to SCT. The electrical effectiveness has been enhanced to 17.17% from the previous 16% and overall exergy to 18.4% from the previous 17.1%, i.e., an overall growth of 6.8 and 7.6%, respectively.
Amit Kumar Dash, Sanjay Agrawal, Sanjay Gairola, Shweta Shukla

### Nonlinear Coupled Ion Acoustic Wave (IAW) with Inertial Alfvén Wave (AW): An Application to Solar Coronal Heating

Abstract
This paper mainly represents the analytical nonlinear coupling of ion acoustic wave (IAW) with inertial Alfvén wave (AW) in the low-$$\beta$$ plasmas. The pump IAW is perturbed by the inertial AW. Under the consideration of ponderomotive force in the IAWs and inertial AW dynamics, the governing equations come out to form a modified Zakharov system of equations (MZSE). Through this, the growth of modulational instability has to be evaluated. It has been also presented that the growth also depends on the perturbation in their wave number. From this investigation, it is obvious that the IAW becomes unstable as it interacts by the inertial AW nonlinearly and modulational instabilities appeared. The importance of these analyses for solar coronal plasma is to be described.

### Embodied Energy and Carbon Emissions of Pavements: A Review

Abstract
Energy consumption takes place at each stage of pavement construction, right from extraction of raw materials to finished products like roads. Carbon emission is an undesirable product that materializes simultaneously with energy consumption that is indispensable right through the construction activities. Reusability is another important feature that we should consider when we speak about sustainability. Though pavements made of bitumen have a higher embodied energy, it readily yields to recycling, when compared to concrete pavements, thereby reducing the energy consumed. Reducing consumed energy helps to save the resource for the future. Many situations warrant compromised sustainability when a particular type of pavement is preferred to serve a special function. In such cases, alternative materials with low embodied energy and low carbon emission may be used for the pavement design. Designs using waste materials and recycled materials would help to make energy-efficient pavements with lesser carbon emissions. This paper presents a review on various studies that have been conducted, and focuses on embodied energy and carbon emission of different types of pavements. Alternate options are suggested considering best-suited pavement types that consume minimal energy and ensure reduced carbon emissions.
Sharon T. Abey, Sreevalsa Kolathayar

### Life Cycle Energy Analysis of a 3.4 kWp Stand-Alone Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic System in Eastern India

Abstract
Life cycle energy analysis is important for the estimation of greenhouse gas emission and global warming parameters. This paper presents the assessment of energy payback time (EPBT) and energy return on energy investment (EROI) of a 3.4 kWp solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed in the rooftop of ITER, Siksha “O” Anusandhan, Bhubaneswar, India. The photovoltaic system is analyzed to find its viability aspect to its cost economics and energy and to compare its performance with some previous work available in the literature. The energy analysis was carried out by embodied energy basis and the results of the installed stand-alone PV system were compared with an equivalent grid-connected PV system. The EPBT was found to be 4.61 and 3.78 years while the EROI was found to be 5.42 and 6.62 for stand-alone system and grid-connected system, respectively.
Sonali Goel, Bibekananda Jena, Renu Sharma

### Carbon Balance and Emission Factor for the Cookstoves

Abstract
The main upshots from the fuel are heat and emissions. The aim is to get high thermal energy with low emission factors. The carbon balance and CO2 mitigation study have an important decision to play in energy planning. In this context, it is necessary to understand how the bioenergy can help in mitigation by considering its potential for carbon emission reduction and sequestration.
Harshika Kumari

### Evaluation of Natural Ventilation Potential for Indoor Thermal Comfort in a Low-Rise Building in Arid and Semi-arid Climates of India

Abstract
Natural ventilation potential (NVP) has been evaluated for two climate-specific Indian cities New Delhi and Jodhpur in terms of pressure difference Pascal hour (PDPH), under various indoor conditions. Indoor temperature, indoor heat gain, and natural ventilation rate because of both buoyancy and wind effect have been evaluated for a conceptualized low-rise building using an analytical model for NVP. Thermal comfort in these stations has been evaluated in terms of percentage of time the indoor temperature falls within the thermal comfort zone. Qualitative assessment of NVP has been carried out through the cumulative frequency curves for adequate pressure variation throughout the indoor and outdoor environment of the building. The thermal comfort assessment shows that New Delhi and Jodhpur have indoor thermal comfort for 40% of the time in a typical year. Thermal comfort is found to exist for 45–90% of the time during the months of July, August, and September, whereas least thermal comfort period of 20–40% is observed during winter months of December, January, and February and PDPH curves confirms the fact that natural ventilation alone does not provide indoor thermal comfort. To achieve thermal comfort in the building during the rest of the time, an active system or complex passive systems are required to be employed.
K. N. Patil, S. C. Kaushik, Ayush Aggarwal

### Hybrid Absorption Cycles for Solar Cooling

Abstract
In this paper, a comprehensive review of vapour absorption refrigeration systems and hybrid absorption refrigeration systems is carried out for solar cooling application. The review shows that a lot of research work has been done on vapour absorption refrigeration systems which include single-effect, double-effect and triple-effect configurations. However, studies pertaining to hybridization of vapour absorption refrigeration systems with vapour compression refrigeration system, ejector refrigeration system or other types of refrigeration systems are quite scant. Also, most of the available studies on hybrid absorption refrigeration system are based on first law of thermodynamics and only a few studies are there which analyse them from the viewpoint of exergy and exergoeconomics. Hence, there is a need to carry out exergy and exergoeconomic analyses of hybrid absorption refrigeration systems together with energy analysis.
S. C. Kaushik, Akhilesh Arora, Manoj Dixit

### Solid–Liquid Flow at Higher Concentration Through Bend

Abstract
Slurry flow through a pipe bend is of most important concern as it contributes not only to high pressure drop and prone to extra erosion in the pipeline. Pipe bends also provide flexibility in a route of slurry pipelines. Pipe bends acquire relatively higher pressure drop. In this paper, experimental data generated for pressure drop 25 µm on fly ash slurry through 50 mm diameter of pipeline with velocity in the range 1–4 m/s at average efflux concentration of 32.52–46.61% (by volume) using the experimental setup (pilot test loop) facility and to carry out numerical simulations (CFD) using Ansys Fluent software intended for better visualization of complex flow pattern. Furthermore, simulated results have also been presented for qualitative analysis of fly ash slurry at the bend.
Navneet Kumar, D. B. Singh, D. R. Kaushal, S. K. Sharma, G. Singh, A. K. Singh

### Basin-Type Solar Distiller Associated with PVT Collectors—A Comprehensive Review

Abstract
Potable water is one of the prime needs for the existence of life on earth. However, the amount of water on earth is getting polluted due to industrial growth and fast urbanization. The need for potable water is gradually increasing due to exponential growth in human residents. The use of contaminated water is responsible for many waterborne diseases and it sometimes leads to death depending on the intensity of contamination . There are various methods for producing potable water; however, solar desalination is one of the best economical and user-friendly methods for potable water production as its operation resembles natural hydrological cycle and it works solely on solar energy. Basin-type active solar stills are capable of providing potable water as well as DC electric power to the society. The potable water yield for passive solar still ranges from 1 to 3 kg/m2 and that for active solar still, it ranges from 4 to 15 kg/m2. In this work, basin-type solar still integrated with PVT collectors has been reviewed and the future scope has been presented.
A. K. Singh, D. B. Singh, Navneet Kumar, V. K. Dwivedi, Gajendra Singh, Rajeev Kumar

### An Easy-to-Understand Expert System for the Prediction of Direct, Diffuse and Global Solar Radiations in Indian Region

Abstract
Building is a modifier of indoor climate to provide comfort to its inhabitant. The building walls and roof often have sloppy surfaces, and the thermal performance evaluation of the building requires simultaneous values of direct, diffuse and global solar radiation. Such values are available only for limited locations. Consequently, the thermal evaluation of building in regions of complex climate and design of efficient air-conditioned system has continually suffered a setback. This paper presents an easy-to-understand expert system for the prediction of direct, diffuse and global solar radiation in the Indian region. The approach is based on a multi-frame output model of the artificial neural network analysis. The computational algorithm includes estimation of direct, diffuse and global components of solar radiation through clear sky conditions. The deviations of these estimates from measurements are considered to be due to random weather phenomena characterized by atmospheric clearness indices which are determined by an artificial neural network analysis based on interrelationship of direct, diffuse and global solar radiation. The target values of atmospheric clearness index achieved as a result of ANN analysis are expressed by an explicit polynomial representation which in turn enables the determination of atmospheric clearness index as a function of latitude and longitude of location, time of the day and month of the year. The whole computational scheme is embedded in a graphical user interface which is designed to assist a wide spectrum of users such as energy planner, engineers, architects, scientists and researchers to predict direct, diffuse and global solar radiation.
R. K. Tomar, Prakhar Duggal, N. D. Kaushika