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2023 | Book

Advances in Environmental Sustainability

Proceedings of 2022 8th International Conference on Advances in Environment Research


About this book

This proceedings volume presents the selected papers from the 2022 8th International Conference on Advances in Environment Research (ICAER 2022), held as an online event from April 22-24. The papers presented at the meeting and published here cover issues of environmental sustainability from both ecological and socioeconomic perspectives, including but not limited to cutting-edge topics such as biogas, green building design, climate change, and sustainable forest management. This book aims to educate readers on how sustainability research can help society understand and combat our most pressing environmental challenges. The proceedings will be helpful for graduate students, researchers, environmental planners, and industry professionals interested in understanding the utility of environmental sustainability research for improving our lives and sustaining our planet.

Table of Contents


Environmental Pollution Control and Renewable Energy Technology

Tree Bark as a Bioindicator of Atmospheric Contamination by Heavy Metals According to Vehicular Traffic Intensity in El Tambo, Huancayo, Peru
Tree bark is an excellent bioindicator of atmospheric heavy metal contamination. This study aims to determine heavy metals from tree bark in El Tambo, Huancayo, Peru. Salix babylonica, Populus nigra, Senna multiglandulosa, and Schinus molle bark samples were taken in 2021 and analyzed through Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Results show heavy metals concentrations (−1) of Zn (195.92 ± 125.97) > Pb (24.45 ± 15.57) > Cu (23.39 ± 11.01) > Cr (2.43 ± 1.13) > Cd (1.77 ± 3.06) > Ni (1.01 ± 0.70). The highest contamination levels were by Zn, Pb, and Cu, and the lowest by Cr, Cd, and Ni. The average concentration due to vehicular traffic intensity was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd > Ni. Cr reveals higher concentration at high traffic levels; Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at moderate, and Cd at low levels. Schinus molle showed the highest concentration of Ni, Populus nigra of Cr, and Salix babylonica of Zn and Cd. The lowest concentrations of all metals were found in Senna multiglandulosa. This and Salix babylonica are bioindicators of Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, the first report for the world on bark in Fabaceae and Salicaceae species.
Neddy Milka Baltazar Sedano, Andrea Jesús Schwartz Valverde, Alexis Jeanpeer Guerreros Chiri, Steve Dann Camargo Hinostroza
Nipa Sap (Nypa fruitican) as Supplementary Feedstock for Bioethanol Production in the Philippines: The Pamplona Experience
The bioethanol demand in the Philippines does not correspond with the available supply for the E10 and E20 requirements of the Philippine Biofuels Act. This paper aims to introduce Nypa fruitican as an additional bioethanol feedstock for the country. In Pamplona alone, more than 1000 ha of nipa stands can produce an additional 720,000–1,008,000 liters of bioethanol if 30% of these naturally grown nipa stands are tapped for bioethanol production based on 5–7% alcohol yield. In the Philippines, there are 8000 ha of reported nipa stands. In the Pamplona experience, more than 100,000 liters of sap were collected and processed as hydrous nipa bioethanol by four community partners in three different barangays using the Mariano Marcos State University village-scale reflux distillation facility and technologies. The hydrous ethanol produced in Pamplona was dehydrated in the distillation facility of Far East Alcohol Corporation on August 22, 2019, and marks the first nipa bioethanol distillation in the Philippines, suggesting that nipa is a technically viable feedstock despite the challenges encountered during this experience.
N. E. R. Mateo, R. A. Ulep, J. I. Rosario, M. P. Lucas, S. C. Agrupis, J. M. Sagadraca, C. C. Baga
Optimization of Fuel Cell Power Systems Using Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Plant
Nowadays, biogas is a globally significant alternative source of green energy. In Thailand, agricultural industries generate a vast volume of sewage, which can be utilized to produce biogas from anaerobic fermentation. Due to advanced research and technologies, biogas can produce a more valued option as hydrogen through a tri-reforming process. This hydrogen is introduced to generate power by integrating the tri-reforming process with a fuel cell. Therefore, power generation by a tri-reforming process combined with two types of fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was studied in this work by the Aspen Plus simulation program. Biogas obtained from a palm oil mill plant was employed as feedstock. The effect of several parameters, including tri-reforming temperature, S/C molar ratio, O2/C molar ratio, MCFC temperature, and SOFC temperature on power generation at atmospheric pressure, was investigated to find the optimal operating conditions maximizing hydrogen and power. The simulation results showed that the optimal operating conditions of tri-reforming were 700 °C of tri-reforming temperature, 3.0 S/C molar ratio, and 0.1 O2/C molar ratio. In addition, the optimal temperatures of MCFC and SOFC were 750 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Moreover, the system efficiency was evaluated, and the power generation system with molten carbonate fuel cell produced 2809 W/m2 of power density with 63.27% of system efficiency. The power generation system with a solid oxide fuel cell made 5526 W/m2 of power density with 76.09% of system efficiency.
Woranee Mungkalasiri, Jitti Mungkalasiri

Agricultural Ecological Environment and Safe Production

Identification of Community-Level Sustainability Indicators: A Climate Change and Risk Management Perspective
Measuring the sustainability of a community at a local level is fast gaining global prominence amongst policymakers, sustainability thinkers, and local stakeholders. It is crucial to measure sustainability to locate our present condition relative to conditions that have prevailed in the past and to develop relevant perspectives to frame actions for the future. Various indices have been used to measure sustainability. Every measure has its strengths and limitations, primarily due to sustainability’s contextual nature. This paper looks at sustainability from a climate change and risk management perspective and studies vulnerability as a sustainability indicator for an agroforestry ecosystem for two communities, Chandrapuri, Uttarakhand, and Guptapada, Odisha.
Hari Chandana Ekkirala, Debasish Brahma, A. R. Amritesh, Fernanda Imada de Lima, Maneesha V. Ramesh, Balmukund Singh, Maxwell Samaila, Prince Destiney Ugo
Study of Extreme Precipitations in Corn Culture in Chupaca, Junin – Peru 2009–2019
Using 11 years of data in Chupaca, Junin region, Peru, we studied the effects of extreme precipitation on the maize crop. For the project, extreme annual precipitation and temperature data were obtained from the Viques and Huayao meteorological stations of the National Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Peru, as well as crop yield and production data. The Spearman correlation method was used to carry out the research. The results indicated that in 2014 there was a higher yield of corn, and in 2011, there was the highest amount of rainfall. We conclude that extreme rainfall does not influence the yield of corn in the period under study.
Betsy L. Argomedo, Ingrid S. Galván, Diego A. Gaspar, Iralmy Y. Platero, Michelle A. Mollehuara
Spatiotemporal Mapping of Agroforestry Degradation of Five Districts of Uttarakhand, India with Spectral Indices
Land degradation adversely affects socio-economic status and ecosystem services. Land sharing, land separation, and land conservation are part of environmental conservation and are gaining momentum to serve the needs of humans and climate regulation. Simultaneous environmental changes challenge biodiversity persistence and human well-being. Ecosystem degradation resulted in numerous social and environmental issues, such as extreme weather events, reduced production of forestry and agricultural-based livelihoods, and endangered biodiversity. This study aims to determine the spatial extent of agroforestry ecosystem degradation for two time periods, 2013 and 2021, in five districts of Uttarakhand, India, the parameters that led to the changes, and the importance of each of the parameters. By considering the heterogeneous nature of agroforestry degradation, identifying relevant parameters and spectral indices for classifications is a critical process in agroforestry ecosystem degradation analysis. Remotely sensed satellite images are used to evaluate the degradation and preparation of spectral indices. Understanding the changes and the underlying parameters help to deploy corrective measures to prevent further degradation and restore the ecosystem to provide functional outputs.
Susan V. Panicker, Ekkirala Hari Chandana, Maneesha V. Ramesh

Urban Planning, Pro-environmental Behaviour and Sustainable Development

Wood as a Catalyst for Construction and Architecture that Facilitates the Creation of Sustainable and Resilient Communities. The Case of the Palafitos de Chiloé, Chile
The present study explores how wood can act as a catalyst for construction and architecture that facilitates the creation of sustainable and resilient communities, preventing landscape degradation and restoration. We selected the stilt houses of Chiloé Island as a case study due to (1) the unique vernacular architecture; (2) the geographical morphology that has allowed from its genesis as a city to build in wood and sustainable materials; (3) the unique transportation system (minga), (4) management of its gentrification, despite being an iconic tourist destination in Chile, and (5) being a sustainable territory, with the management of its density, despite being an island and highly populated. We developed the methodology through the constructive analysis of a typical stilt house, woods used in its process, and interviews that show these constructions’ internal dynamics. We conclude that wood acts as a catalyst for construction and architecture that facilitate the creation of sustainable and resilient communities, preventing landscape degradation and restoration, as has occurred in the Chilote case.
Stefania Pareti, David Flores, Loreto Rudolph, Martina Pareti
Identifying the Most Significant Factors Affecting Urban Housing Sustainability and Their Scales/Sectors of Influence: A Systematic Review of the Recent Literature
Housing is always crucial for the sustainable development of communities, specifically in urban areas, due to the population density of cities. The present study constructs its own structure based on the recent papers investigating various sustainability factors for the urban housing sector. A comprehensive systematic literature review gathered one of the most extensive lists of urban housing sustainability factors from 118 recent related papers. The factors are prioritized by their frequency of investigation and categorized by their scale(s) and sector(s) of influence. According to the results, the top three significant factors affecting urban housing sustainability are “natural resource or energy consumption/efficiency of the building/equipment (during the construction, operation, etc.),” “materials performance (durability, cost, thermal capacity, permeability, ability to re-use, recycled, eco-friendly materials),” and “access to public services/infrastructure: availability/quality of services and/or distance/time of travel time to the services (public transport, education/health/shopping/leisure facilities, parks, etc.).” By analyzing the results with an integrative approach, we found that environmental factors are the most considered ones, whereas institutional factors received the least attention from sustainability sectors. Also, the most significant measures are the ones that have impacts on both the ‘building’ and ‘neighborhood/community’ scales. We noticed that the neighborhood/community scale indicators are almost as important as the measures that affect the building itself. The results of this study can help establish future housing-related policies and more efficient housing sustainability assessment tools.
Mohsen Sanei, Mina Khodadad, Fernando Calonge Reillo
Academic Study of Tourists’ Pro-environmental Behaviour: A Literature Review
While research on pro-environmental behaviour has garnered considerable attention, little attention has been paid to tourists’ pro-environmental behaviours (TPEB). The concept, dimensional division, and determinants of tourists’ pro-environmental behaviours are discussed in this paper. The study discovered that (1) TPEB research requires additional investigation and that its measurement scale does not adequately account for the unique characteristics of the localised context, (2) the majority of literature overlooks the impact of social interaction on TPEB, (3) additional contextual factors affecting pro-environmental behaviour should be considered, (4) a variety of research methods is urgently needed to study TPEB. Several theoretical viewpoints are necessary to study TPEB development. Future research should use qualitative methodologies to focus on TPEB’s structural dimensions.
Xiao Yue, Yee Choy-Leong
Green Building Design as a Mechanism to Strengthen Resilient and Sustainable Communities: The Case of the Churches and the Stilt Houses, Chiloé Chile
This research aims to explore how strengthening Green Building Design initiatives can facilitate the development of resilient and sustainable communities. The case study selected is the route of the 16 churches declared a UNESCO heritage site and the Pedro Montt axis, which have the main Chiloé stilt houses, since (1) both churches and stilt houses are built in wood, (2) both types of construction are part of the vernacular architectural heritage of the place, (3) they are resilient structures, and (4) the construction of the churches and stilt houses is a crucial element in the development of sustainable and resilient communities.
The methodology starts with the constructive analysis of both cases. It ends with a cadaster of the geographical location of the 16 churches along the island, together with the two main axes of stilt houses in the city of Castro. The results indicate that using native wood as a flagship material adapted to the environment responds to the needs of a humid and rainy climate in a sustainable way. The improvement in the use of wood by the vernacular Chiloé communities allowed the development of complex techniques such as the herringbone box or stake pillars. We conclude that the development of Green Building Design facilitates the development of resilient and sustainable communities, as observed in the case of the Chiloé neighborhoods with their churches and stilt houses that make up vernacular architecture.
Stefania Pareti, D. Flores, I. Tampe, L. Rudolph
Analysis of the Vicugna pacos (Alpaca) Wool Fiber in the Properties of Concrete
This research aimed to analyze alpaca (Vicugna pacos) wool fiber as a reinforcement in the properties of concrete. For this purpose, methodologies such as ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), ACI (American Concrete Institute), and Peruvian Technical Standards (NTP) were used; likewise, the experimental design methodology was employed. The sample consisted of 45 specimens; 30 were cylindrical, and 15 were in the form of beams. The alpaca wool fiber was used in percentages of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, with 60 mm length cuts added to the concrete mix. The results showed that the compressive strength in the specimens containing the alpaca wool fiber at 28 days complies with the percentages established by the ACI standard. However, the compressive strength of 33.48% was decreased in the control specimen. As for the tensile strength, compared to the control specimen, an average increase of 1.19% was observed on day 28. Finally, compared to the control specimen, the values obtained in the flexural strength of the alpaca wool fiber specimens showed an average reduction of 19% and 18% on days 14 and 28, respectively. In conclusion, when analyzing the samples containing the alpaca wool fiber, we observed that the tensile strength improved thanks to alpaca wool fibers.
Levi Acevedo Villazana, Cristian Starky Mora Altez, Steve Camargo Hinostroza
Assessment of Bridge Damage Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process
For a comprehensive assessment of the technical condition of bridge structures, combining domestic and international bridge assessment methods, this paper establishes a time-influenced Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to assess bridges in a hierarchical and graded evaluation. At the same time, based on the hierarchy model, we constructed a comprehensive condition assessment system, a judgment matrix for long-span cable-stayed bridges, and the consistency validation method of AHP to determine the reasonableness of the assessment results. We used ANSYS simulation analysis software to validate the method proposed in this paper and used the current structural condition of a cable-stayed bridge as an example. The results show that the current structural condition of the bridge is good, and the assessed structure corresponds to the actual state of the bridge. This paper’s bridge condition assessment system is based on bridge wear and time-influenced AHP. This technique is conducive to an accurate grasp of the bridge’s operational status and is significant to bridge maintenance and repair.
Han Chen, Mengzhu Liu, Xiaoning Wang
Hill-Patch System as a Strategic Management Model to Activate and Conserve Urban Axes: The Case of the San Bernardo Green Corridor, Santiago, Chile
This study explores how the patch-hill system works as a strategic model to activate and preserve urban axes located in peripheral areas of the city, mediating between urban and rural areas. The Green Corridor of San Bernardo in Santiago de Chile has been selected as a case study, due to (1) the opportunities present in the peri-urban geography of the city to harmonize the ecological-urban imbalances, (2) it is a set of five hills interconnected by a network of canals in a territory in the process of urban expansion, (3) functioning as a transition area on a metropolitan and communal scale and (4) reducing the erosive impact of the city, and increasing recreational and productive areas and promoting the mobility of the local fauna. The methodology consists of an analysis of the phenomenon of territorial expansion in San Bernardo. Then, the relationship between the project and the hills through which it passes is studied, with emphasis on the agricultural proposal of the Hasbún hill. We conclude that constructing a border that generates relationships between city and hill contributes to the conservation and activation of peripheral urban axes, mediating between the urban and rural, contributing to the consolidation of sustainable cities.
Loreto Rudolph, Stefania Pareti, Vicente Valdebenito, Samuel Carmona
Advances in Environmental Sustainability
James T. Anderson
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