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About this book

This book provides readers with a timely snapshot of ergonomics research and methods applied to the design, development and prototyping – as well as the evaluation, training and manufacturing – of products, systems and services. Combining theoretical contributions, case studies, and reports on technical interventions, it covers a wide range of topics in ergonomic design including: ecological design; cultural and ethical aspects in design; Interface design, user involvement and human–computer interaction in design; as well as design for accessibility and many others. The book particularly focuses on new technologies such as virtual reality, state-of-the-art methodologies in information design, and human–computer interfaces. Based on the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Ergonomics in Design, held on July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA, the book offers a timely guide for both researchers and design practitioners, including industrial designers, human–computer interaction and user experience researchers, production engineers and applied psychologists.

Table of Contents


Design Methods, User Interfaces and Interaction Design


The Role of Design in Technology Driven Ergonomics Product Development

Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) have been considered in New Product Development (NPD) to develop solutions that are useable and useful while maintaining productivity. The importance of technology and design has increased at the intersection between NPD and HFE. Developing a new product driven by technology is known as a technology driven approach which can be infused into existing ergonomic product development processes and may result in the development of effective, new and innovative products. The purpose of this study is to instigate design methods and tools that can be applicable to the technology driven NPD process. The literature regarding existing design methods and tools used and potentially utilized in technology driven NPD process has been reviewed in this study. Also, the role of HFE experts in a technology driven NPD process is addressed in the discussion section. In addition, when to use the design methods and tools found in the literature in the front end of the technology driven NPD process is suggested in this paper to help develop new and innovative products.

Byungsoo Kim, Sharon Joines

Teenagers Postural Effects Through Videogames Therapeutic Approach

Over the school year, children tend to get poor posture, which will gradually be manifesting through malaise, pain and the risk behaviors, even dysfunctions of musculoskeletal component causing affectation muscle groups and overload in structures. This study aimed to implement an exercise program using videogames through the Wii Fit platform, in order to verify if the intervention is effective in the postural alterations of 54 children and adolescents, in relation to the posture, flexibility and decreased back pain. After 8 weeks of intervention, significant results were obtained in the reduction of complaints of back pain (p = 0.040) and pain while in video game activity (p = 0.033), and improvements in posture and flexibility, but without significant difference. This study demonstrated that the exercise plan in the Wii platform allows positive effects on the variables and allows a greater incentive to the participants, the awakening for its future application.

Ernesto Filgueiras, Gustavo Desouzart, Ana Silva

Eye-Tracking Examination of the Anthropological Race, Gender and Verbal-Pictorial Relative Positions on Ergonomics of Visual Information Presentation

Information on how to present visual content in an ergonomic way is crucial in various fields. The current study examines how the gender, race of a person, and picture-slogan relative location influence subjects’ perceived effectiveness about a social advertisement. Relative scores of 45 participants from Wrocław University of Science and Technology were measured by binary pairwise comparisons and formally analyzed by the loglinear model for frequency data. While making comparisons, subjects’ visual activity was recorded by an eye-tracking system. Mean fixation durations were comprehensively analyzed in the context of examined factors by a standard, five-way analysis of variance: Picture race (black, yellow, white) × Picture gender (man, woman) × Picture location (left, right) × Stimulus location (left, right) × Subject gender (male, female). Subjective results regarding perceived effectiveness of the advertisement variants were compared with objective fixation durations.

Rafał Michalski, Joanna Koszela-Kulińska

How to Read Red: Red in Western Culture (Part II)

This article is part of the research project “Glossolalia, an alphabet on Design”. It focuses on the symbolic features of the color red, particularly in material culture in the West, traveling through words representing the various actions that elicit or derive from the use of red (correcting, punishing, prohibiting, protecting, distinguishing, loving, politicizing…). It also discusses similarities in the meanings of pink, purple and orange, the three colors that border RED.

Leonor Ferrão

Contribution of Visual Ergonomics to a Holistic View of the Symbols Applied in Touristic and Cultural Signage: The Portuguese Case

Traffic signs are not globally standardized, and there are different signage systems all over the world. The system of traffic signaling in Portugal comes from the European System, ratified on 19th September 1949 in Geneva, which has slowly evolved, with occasional changes and often driven by international agreements. Currently the road signaling system is regulated by the Regulatory Decree No. 22-A/98 of October 1st, which approves the Traffic Signaling Regulation. For the present research it is vital to include, in the vertical signaling system to be placed on public roads, tourist-cultural signaling, which is intended to convey information about places, buildings or groups of buildings and other motifs of particular relevance (cultural, historical-heritage or landscape). Following a first case study, it was found that not all pictograms present in vertical signaling are perceptible and understandable. The level of simplification and development of pictograms for application in projects for vertical signaling is very disparate, some of them extremely simplified and easily perceptible and other require a higher level of interpretation by the user, due to sign complexity.

João Neves, Fernando Moreira da Silva, Daniel Raposo, José Silva

Design, Objects and Memory: A Sustainability-Oriented Project Itinerary

Concerns related to sustainability are recurrent in Design. Questioning project practices, reassessing principles which are intrinsic to the design process, promoting the dissemination of sustainability-oriented actions, and contributing with a new awareness-raising process about consumption are attitudes that might help in the inclusion of environmental and social requirements in design practices. The relationship between sustainability and esthetic, symbolic and affective aspects is under explored in project elaboration. The project process that emphasizes subjective and material characteristics of objects with a view towards the appreciation of affective memories, through the analysis of users’ real-life experiences, might allow the designer to rethink time, tradition, aesthetics and perception to comprehend characteristics at play that are emotionally sustainable. This paper presents and discusses the ongoing research, whose main objective is to design a sustainability-oriented project itinerary, through affections and memory embedded into the relationship between people and objects.

Myrla Lopes Torres, Paulo Maldonado, Leonor Ferrão

Effectiveness of Coach Marks or Instructional Overlay in Smartphone Apps Interfaces

Some mobile applications present a level of complexity with respect to the functionalities of the graphical interface that are not easily understood by all users in a first approach. The use of instructional overlays (IO) or coach marks is a technique used to guide users to where these features are located in the interface by using a darker layer superimposed to the interface (overlay) where elements are placed such as arrows and text (instructional elements). The effectiveness of the IO was tested by measuring the completion time of a pre-established flow in a prototype. A between-subject design was used, with one experimental group completing four tasks with the help of IO, and the control without. Results show a tendency for lower times to complete tasks with instructional overlays, however, due to the reduced sample, a larger study is needed to confirm this result statistically. Interaction design of non-trivial interfaces should consider the implementation of instructional overlays.

Paulo Noriega, Diana Carvalho, Igor Correia, Jose Luís Alves, Tiago Oliveira, Francisco Rebelo

Communication Design as Tool for Social Transformation: A Co-design Project with the Residents of the Rego Neighborhood, in Lisbon

Organizations that develop work in neighborhoods with complex social problems can benefit from collaboration with communication designers. This paper presents a study of a co-design project, developed with young people from Rego Neighborhood, in Lisbon, with the purpose of creating the image for an event called “Festival Passa Sabi – Geração RG”. The preparation of the festival consisted of a set of meetings that involved IPAV workers, residents, former residents and the young people that we considered to have good leadership skills and responsibility. The graphic images and medias were created in close collaboration between the designers and young leaders. The responsible work carried out by the young leaders involved allowed them to acquire skills so that in the future they could lead other similar projects, building bridges between different communities. We therefore believe that this study may help other designers who work in the social field.

Teresa Olazabal Cabral, Inês Farmhouse Coimbra

The Brand Mark Competitors Map as Visual Research Tool. Using Graphic and Symbolic Data in the Brand Visual Identity Project

In the scope of Branding projects, the (re) designing of the Visual Identity of Brands or in the scope of audits of Brand Image, we proceed to the research on Brand Marks. This analysis falls on the Brand Marks that will be intervened, but also on Brand Marks of competitors or cases considered as good practices. The research stage on Brand Marks is common in academic or professional projects and students and professionals have difficulty in giving meaning and usefulness to the information collected. The most widely used visual analysis tools allow for the characterization of samples made up of Brand Marks, but these do not help in the extraction of specific conclusions centered on meaning and design. This article describes the development of the competitors map, the Visual Research Tool which allows the objective analysis of Brand Marks, which allows for decision making about the design effectiveness of an isolated Brand Mark or about its (re) design by comparison to a sample of competing Brand Marks. This Visual Research Tool has been developed through literature review, analysis of other tools, the inclusion of a semantic, syntactic and pragmatic analysis, which also includes classifications such as the iconicity scale or the Vienna Classification, as well as principles of visual rhetoric. Using visual and symbolic data, this Visual Research Tool supports professionals and students to create strategic strategies for Brand Visual Identity. This article reports on the creation and evaluation of the Brand Marks’ competitor map.

Daniel Raposo, Rogério Ribeiro, Mariana Amaral, Fernando Moreira da Silva, Juan Ramón Martin Sanromán

Boundary Dimension Design of Graphical Symbols Based on User Preference

As the core element of the public oriented sign system, graphic symbols play an important role in People’s Daily life. This study explores the humanized design of the boundary dimension of graphic symbols from the perspective of ordinary users. Thirty subjects were recruited for the experiment, and the boundary size design of graphic symbols had 7 levels. The results showed that people did have an obvious preference for the boundary size design of graphic symbols.

Zhongting Wang, Ling Luo, Linghua Ran, Liang Zhang

An Ergonomic Assessment on the Detectability Design of the New Generation Currency (NGC) Coin Series and Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Coin Series

The study assesses the detectability design of coins produced by Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Two sets of coins are currently in circulation: the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas and the New Generation Currency Coin Series. Three types of timed detection tests were performed under controlled conditions to measure effectiveness (accuracy) and efficiency (duration) in detecting coins. These tests differ in sense/s used to detect the coins: visual only, tactile only, and both visual & tactile. Results show that BSP coins are generally easier and faster to identify than NGC coins. Furthermore, subjects find it easier to detect the obverse side of coins compared to the reverse. When using the visual sense only, subjects respond faster as compared to only using the tactile sense, and show no significant difference when using both visual and tactile senses. Thus, the tactile design features of the coins may be ineffective for detectability.

Diane Denise Francisco, Patricia Michaela C. Gregorio, Ninna Ysabel G. Layug, Nikole Andrei B. Mallare

Research on Optimization of Information Coding for Car Dashboard Based on Eye Movement Analysis

In order to research the effects of interactive designs for different car panels on driving efficiency, the layouts of the current common car dashboard were investigated and 35 experimental stimulus materials were obtained. Tobii X2-30 eye tracker was used to perform eye movement test on 30 subjects. SPSS V21.0 was used to analyze the corresponding data. Results show that the setting of the speedometer in the middle position has a significant impact on the reading of tachometer and water temperature meter. The area on the left panel got less attention and complex color dials get more fixations. The best layout for the overall reading of the instrument is class-A. Moreover, complex color matching design can depress the reading efficiency.

Guilei Sun, Qin Li, Yanhua Meng, Linghua Ran

Brand Identity in Motion. Structural Models of Brand Identity on TV Opening Credits

The television universe is a multibillion-dollar industry. Just like all other major products, tv series need branding. Here identity is used to guide the public into the continuity of the different episodes, and to differentiate them from other series in a highly competitive market. For a successful branding, a clear strategy is needed for these audiovisual products. Our study presents an understanding of the different types of opening credits, establishing a possible classification for them, and how they are used strategically to uphold brand identity ideals. To achieve this, it’s important to understand the audiovisual medium and its interactions with Graphic Design, typography and Motion Graphics, areas that play a part in the elaboration of these main title sequences. Based on the analysis of key structural elements and different typologies or structural models of main title sequences, we made the proposal for their classification, from the perspective of structural organization.

João Brandão, Ricardo Maia Pestana, Daniel Raposo

Human Factors Engineering Research on Folding Umbrellas Design

The folding umbrellas are widely loved by consumers because of their small size, light weight and easy carrying. And the comfort of use of folding umbrellas is inseparable from the study of human factors engineering since the folding umbrellas have the most direct contact with the human body. There are many different kinds of folding umbrellas on the market, but almost for commercial purposes, which has led to an increasingly terrible experience of the inconvenience of existing folding umbrellas. Consequently, in order to let consumers get a better experience during the use of the folding umbrellas, this paper, from the perspective of the human factors engineering, attempts to find out the deficiencies of the folding umbrellas design and the possible design breakthroughs, and propose innovative ideas for folding umbrellas design.

Xiaohan Zhou, Xiaoping Hu

Effects of Screen Brightness on Visual Performance Under Different Environments

This paper takes the office LED display screen as the object, and studies the impact of screen brightness on visual performance under different environmental illuminations when people were processing text tasks. Based on three dimensions of behavioral performance, subjective evaluation and physiological indicators, the optimal screen brightness value under different environmental illuminations and optimal brightness contrast range were obtained. Experimental data show that the interaction of screen brightness, ambient illumination and screen brightness has a significant impact on visual performance, while ambient illumination has no significant impact on visual performance. Brightness and contrast have significant effect on visual performance. When the ambient illumination were 50 lx, 300 lx and 500 lx, the optimal value of the screen brightness of the display were about 128 cd/m2, 178 cd/m2 and 214 cd/m2 respectively. The optimal brightness contrast range was 26–30.

Qi Tian, Linghua Ran, Cancan Zhao, Zihan Zhou, Haimei Wu

Study on the Effect of Key-to-Key Distance on Touch-Sensitive Key Operation

The current study investigated the key-to-key distance, which was defined as the distance between the margin points of two adjacent keys transversally and vertically. In view of forefinger operation, the combination of subjective measurement and objective measurement was used in the ergonomics assessment of key-to-key distance effects on the performance. 30 participants are recruited to attend the tests. One-way ANOVA is used to analyze operational performance at different key-to-key distance and then the S-N-K-hoc is conducted for pairwise comparison, α = 0.05. The results were obtained: when a reasonable key size is decided, key-to-key distance has no effect on the accuracy and efficiency of touch-sensitive key operation. Therefore, considering the user experience satisfaction, the recommended transverse key-to-key distances range for rounded corner key is from 6 mm to 12 mm, while lengthways key-to-key distances range is from 6 mm to 14 mm; the recommended transverse key-to-key distances range for round key is from 6 mm to 12 mm, while lengthways key-to-key distances range is from 6 mm to 16 mm. This research can provide a basis for the design of key size of enterprise electronic products, and has important guiding significance.

Xiaoli Fan, Huimin Hu, Chaoyi Zhao, Wei Zhang

Research on Standardization of Public Information Guidance Systems for Railway Stations

Public information guidance system plays an increasingly important role in the normal operation of railway passenger stations. National Graphical Symbol Standardization Technical Committee has investigated the public information guidance systems of 57 representative railway passenger stations. Nearly 290 main problems are summarized from standardization of guiding elements’ design, systemic degree of factor setting, coordination of guidance system planning and architectural design, which provides reference for further optimizing and improving the public information guidance system of railway passenger stations.

Chuan-yu Zou, Yongquan Chen, Ziding Chen

Methodology of Analysis of Brand Visual Identity of Food Products: Comprehension and Valuation of Graphic Signs

This study aims to contribute to the knowledge regarding the process of decoding Brand Marks and the perception of the Visual Identity of food products. Specifically, understanding how people understand the styles and connotations of Brand Marks in a given culture. The research is based on the visual identity of Olive Oils and Cheeses with DOP certification from the interior region of Portugal. The investigative process was conducted as Project-grounded Research, using a mixed methodology. The non-interventionist methodology included the review of the literature, the study of descriptive cases and questionnaires, while the active investigation comprised a study of exploratory cases based on the redesign of the visual identity of cheeses and olive oils. The research is organized in a Study 1 (non-interventional research) and Study 2 (active or exploratory research) on 15 brands of olive oil and 15 brands of cheese. The analysis of the data is based on the levels of semiotics of Semantics and Semantics and Pragmatics (through questionnaire) of Brand Marks and labels, using tools that exam the effectiveness of the Visual Identity of the brand, which in itself is one of the results of the research, along with the Brand Marks (re)design guidelines.

Daniel Raposo, Catarina Laginha, João Neves, José Silva, Fernando Moreira da Silva

Design and User Involvement


Evaluation of the Concept of a Smart City Gamification from a User Centered Design Perspective

Galvanize the citizen to be engaged with a smart city project projects are not an easy task, normally they feel that their voice cannot make the difference and leaves the project. Gamification can change this, by engaging the citizen with challenges and rewards, they will be involved creating “critical mass” to influence the makers and change the city. In this context, this paper presents the evaluation of a gamification strategy concept for the Smart City Sense Project implemented in a mobile application. The evaluation was done by a questionnaire with 41 questions, filled by a group of 23 citizens that was already involves in city civic activities related with security. In general, this special population has a positive reaction to our different proposals, but there is no unanimity in the aspects related to the gamification strategies associated with the rewards and the give challenges for their community. The user-centered design methodology proved to be robust to evaluate the proposed gamification strategy, allowing ergonomics to play a fundamental role in the development of an information system, that can prevent the occurrence of problems of acceptance in the future.

Francisco Rebelo, Paulo Noriega, Tiago Oliveira

Natural Human-Computer Interfaces’ Paradigm and Cognitive Ergonomics

Digital device ubiquity increased the need for HCI’s analysis, but academic research is frequently supported in week frameworks. The establishment of a structured body of knowledge is essential for the development of more efficient interfaces and interaction experiences.Contemporary interface design is grounded in the natural ways that humans interact with each other and/or interact with the environment, fostering the development of transparent interactions through the use of increasingly more natural modalities in HCI. Modalities and dimensions of information are at the centre of UX/UI and, as such, are at the core of the analysis hereby presented. Its naturality is the basis for the establishment of effective cognitive ergonomics in HCI. This paper proposes a natural human-centred system design paradigm, expanding the user centred system design paradigm towards an effective human-machine interaction centred in natural communication.

Victor M. Almeida, Sónia Rafael, Marco Neves

Grains of Memory: User Experience in the SandBox Interactive Installation

Departing from oral recollections we performed about the sea, we have developed the Sea Grains interactive installation series “SandBox” as a poetic instrument to research how a corpus of memories can be contextualized through digital art to illustrate the identity, emotional and social practices of people with the sea. The installation plays back the collected oral recordings to the participants as they playfully interact with a sandbox, stimulating multiple senses to evoke memories. The conceptualization involved cultural studies, oral history, and neuroscience. Through a series of public exhibitions, we have field-tested and iterated the installation, which progressively became more immersive‘ to better achieve the proposed goals. Our account can help inform artists and User Experience (UI) practitioners exploring and integrating memory into digital media artifacts.

Adriana Moreno, Arminda Guerra Lopes, Mónica Mendes

Measure of the Lived and Functional Effects of Gamification: An Experimental Study in a Professional Context

The aim of this research is to study the effects of gamification on end users. Several points of attention have already been highlighted in various research studies (e.g., motivational problems, corporate culture issues, ambiguous social relationships, cultural literacy and gamification paradox). The focus of our experimental study is the evaluation of the impact of a gamified system compared to a non-gamified system on the direct perception of its users. 20 employees tested two versions of the same application: one was gamified and the other one was not-gamified. Then, they responded to different scale-based questions, followed by an interview. It appears that gamification leads to a modification of the lived aspects of user experience without having any effect on the functional aspects. Thus, the application is perceived as being more playful, more engaging, more moving, more symbiotic. This research underlines that, in a work environment, gamification must be applied with an acute knowledge of its impacts.

Eric Brangier, Cathie Marache-Francisco

Comparative Analysis of Body Measurement and Morphology Between Subjects with Different Body Mass Index

The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of the interaction between clothes, body shape and measurements and how it affects 3 subjects with different body mass index. Also, it wishes to observe the application of a mixed, qualitative/quantitative scientific methodology. The plus size public, despite being already majority in many countries is still seen as a niche market. This is a promising and lucrative market and many companies are looking to embrace it. The increase in the quality of the clothing products depends on the knowledge development in several areas among which the ergonomics and anthropometry. The results indicate the statistical and morphological variation between the groups and within the groups, and in the visual analysis.

Caelen Teger da Silva, Maria Lúcia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto, Dominique Leite Adam, Kelli C. A. S. Smythe

A New Tool for Cognitive Workload Assessment in System Design Prototypes

Mental workload is an important indicator of an operator’s performance when executing a certain task. As a design concept, it is fundamental for monitoring and assessing his interaction with technological devices, such as imaging systems. A bad design can affect the mental workload of the operator, and therefore, becomes useful to assess it while performing the required tasks. This work presents a tool for cognitive workload assessment that is composed of two open-source and low-cost hardware parts: an electroencephalography system and an eye-tracker. Both are synchronized via an open-source software: Lab Streaming Layer. This paper describes the architecture of the sensor system, considering also specially developed hardware and software components that were included to allow the integration of the different subsystems. In order to show the performance of the system as tool to assess some psycho-physical indicators, examples of dedicated signal processing are also presented.

Pedro Mendonça, Manuel Adler Abreu

Research on Human-Computer Interaction Design of Bed Rehabilitation Equipment for the Elderly

The aging of the population is a relatively prominent social problem in China, and the proportion of elderly people living in bed in China is also increasing. This article takes the home rehabilitation equipment on the elderly bed as the research object. On the one hand, the needs of home users for home rehabilitation equipment are analyzed by using the user-tool-task model. Discussed the user psychology, the experience in the process of using rehabilitation equipment, combined with the specific scenes when using, found the “human” factor of the rehabilitation equipment for the elderly in bed. On the other hand, the hardware and software interfaces of the elderly rehabilitation equipment for the elderly are analyzed. Combined with the existing bed rehabilitation equipment in the hospital, the “machine” factor of the elderly equipment on the bed was discussed, and the software and hardware interfaces of the existing bed rehabilitation equipment were improved. On this basis, the rehabilitation combined with physical rehabilitation and psychological rehabilitation was further proposed. system design. In order to achieve the purpose of rehabilitation of the mental physiology of the elderly in bed.

Zhijuan Zhu, Wenzhen Pan, Xin Ai, Renjun Zhen

Visual Storytelling - Creative Strategy of Visual Clues Promoted by Archetypal Images

The following article describes a creative strategy in the learning environment regarding Digital Design, specifically the development of visual exploration on emotional archetypes to a group of students of Master of Graphic Design of the School of Applied Arts of the Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal in the academic year 2018/19. The research topic was introduced in the development of a communication project for the Agro-Food product, bee pollen. The article presents the introduction to the problem, hypothesis, objectives, strategy, results, and conclusion. The development of the visual exploration strategy included the theoretical framework of Wertime [8], and Woodside, Sood and Miller [9], Although the results point out the richness of the proposed strategy in communicating the importance of the emotional concept among students and the notion of structure in the communication, The authors assessed from the resulting experience, the complexity of communicating the possibilities of the use of archetypal images in the development of communication solutions.

Jose Silva, Daniel Raposo, João Neves, Fernando Moreira da Silva

Review of the Research on Car Seating Comfort

Improving car seating comfort is very important in the process of car development and design. This paper reviewed the research progress of car seating comfort at home and abroad. Firstly, the related concepts related to the comfort of car seats were introduced, and then the factors affecting the comfort were analyzed in depth. Finally, the subjective evaluation, objective behavior evaluation and physiological parameter evaluation methods for seating comfort were introduced with their advantages and possible problems being analyzed respectively. This paper will provide a large number of theoretical basis and important reference significance for the subsequent development of car seating comfort.

Xiaoli Fan, Chaoyi Zhao, Xuemei Chen, Yuwei Jiang, Yongjia Shen, Tong Shen

Ergonomics Assessment Criteria as a Way to Improve the Quality and Safety of People’s Transport in Underground Coal Mines

The article presents a comprehensive research aimed at identification of features to be embodied in new design ergonomic and safe suspended monorails. Survey regarding comfort of use of suspended monorails is presented – the results and conclusions drawn. The main criteria and factors to be taken into account during ergonomic assessment of suspended monorails – both the existing ones and new designed ones – were indicated. Operator’s cabin and people transportation units were covered by the survey. Two computer aided analyses were presented as well. In the first one, specialistic software was introduced to create anthropotechnical system and calculate static discomfort coefficient of different segments of a passenger represented by biomechanical model. In the second one, MBS numerical method was used to find solutions which enable to reduce vibrations of the operator’s cabin.

Jarosław Tokarczyk, Dariusz Michalak, Magdalena Rozmus, Kamil Szewerda, Leszek Żyrek, Gregor Železnik

Development of an Ergonomically Designed Backpacks for Junior High School Students

Backpacks are ever used to transport everyday essentials from one place to another which also come in a variety of design and specification that personify the person; yet most manufactures often overlook the importance of comfortability and posture support instead of aesthetics. Segment of the population suffer from excessively heavy loads of backpacks which lead to plenty of health problems. Contradictory to public beliefs, wearing heavy backpacks will not stunt growth [1], but will breed health problems nonetheless; bad posture, shoulders bending inwards and improper spine alignment. Furthermore, prolong carriage of heavy loaded backpacks brings great stress to a single muscle group resulting to muscle fatigue and causes the user’s body to compensate to the weight misaligning the axis of the body [2, 4]. As backpacks have a high demand of use for students the researchers envision of creating a backpack that diminish the payload by properly distributing the weight. This method utilizes the muscle’s carrying capacity and improves of the user’s posture [3, 7]. In order to develop this design, anthropometry and statistics are used to determine the appropriate dimensions for each part of the product: Shoulder breath (Bideltoid), Shoulder breath - (Biacromial), Lumbar height and average bag weight. Choosing junior high school students as participants, ranging from 13–17 years old, who are typically carrying a heavy loaded bag. Gathering the participant’s body segments and integrating it for the dimensions of the design with respect to the 5th and 95th percentile of the stated body measurements. The design serves the purpose of bringing materials with the minimal possibility of having discomfort due to overstressing of muscles [7]. Applying stress absorbers in the straps of the bag which will be designed to minimize the strain received by the user’s shoulders. The ergonomic design should bring the user comfortability as well as functionality.

Emmanuel Oliver D. C. Porciuncula, Leonard T. Aquino, Daniel G. Araneta, Jeremiah V. Austria, Briant Angelo M. Censon, John Michael A. Cruz, Patrick Henry S. Fernandez, Kent Xaivery L. Moreno, Joshua M. Ng, Genhino Glenn D. C. Reyes, Aroma M. Santillan, Wendel Jimver De Guia

A Study on the Correlation of Head and Face Data of Chinese Adults

Based on the data of the second national anthropometric survey conducted from 2014 to 2018, this study analyzed the correlations among 11 head and face measurement items, and the correlations between head and face measurement items and influencing factors. And the effective linear regression equations are established, which provided a technical reference for the optimization of human head and face measurement items. Head and face data were acquired according to the method defined in the Basic Project of Anthropometry for Technical Design (GB/T5703-1999). The research results can be directly applied to human head and face measurement, to update human head and face size data and reduce the difficulty of human body measurement field work.

Linghua Ran, Chaoyi Zhao, Hong Luo, Xin Zhang, Taijie Liu, Huimin Hu, Zhongting Wang, Nicole Sator, Erika Siebert-Cole, Peter Straßer

Directions Towards Sustainability Through Higher Education

The aim of this paper is to contribute to associating higher education in design towards meeting the challenge of global sustainability [1]. Ideas from several models and from within several disciplines as design are integrated to construct a framework through the challenges can be examined and then transacted into learning outcomes, expressed as graduate attributes. The focus of design education for global sustainability has been on encouraging consumers to modify patterns of resource consumption and waste management. To actualize this potential requires that higher education curricula in design offer experiences, which develop graduate attributes of self-efficacy, capacity for effective advocacy and interdisciplinary collaboration, as well as raise awareness of social and moral responsibilities associated with professional design practice It is important to consider the practicality of developing programs of study, which can prepare graduates with the necessary knowledge and values. Higher education in design must develop the capacity in graduates to prioritize actions after balancing all the social, environmental and economic costs and benefits [2]. So, the curriculum in design should include experiences, which lead to a greater awareness of social and moral responsibilities. Especially, in a larger self-awareness of personal value systems and a willingness to revise them is required to prepare design graduates for work towards sustainability.

Theresa Lobo

Information, Design and Visualization


Water Museums and Digital Media: Two Case Studies on Digital Media in Water Museums

The paradigm of museum as “a place without borders” meets new possibilities in the age of globalization and digital media. The highly technological driven audiences present a continuous challenge for most Museums to attract and engaged. The focus is now mainly on the experience – the Museum experience, that can also be modeled and enhanced by the use of digital media. This article presents a preliminary view on the presence of digital media in two identified Water Museums: two case studies from the Global Network of Water Museums (WAMUT-NET, an initiative of UNESCO). We’ve identified the presence of similar digital technologies and tools, but different forms of integrating them in each Museum’s scale, context and mission. Further research should follow, to identify in situ, and in articulation with curators and visitors, new findings.

Joana Lessa

A Human-Computer Interaction Framework for Interface Analysis and Design

Digital device ubiquity increased the need for HCI’s analysis. The establishment of a structured body of knowledge is essential for the development of more efficient interfaces and interaction experiences.The methodical analysis of interaction’s possibilities requires models fostered by robust classification systems. Its development is vital for the establishment of a common language between researchers and designers, towards praxis and innovation (clarifying the relationships between entities and interaction solutions).We propose an HCI Model, supported in agents positioning neutrality, as well as the required concepts and processes’ deconstruction.HCI is constructed on a succession of goal-related communicational events, here termed Interactive Processes. We propose an analytical classification system determined by the relation that Interactive Processes establish with each other within an HCI, as well as the ones established between the Interactive Processes of different HCIs, and also by the number of Interactive Processes’ Conjugated Pairs developed within an HCI.

Sónia Rafael, Victor M. Almeida, Marco Neves

Collaboration: Critical Roles of Academia-Business Partnerships and Challenges the Workforce Must Face

During the last few decades successive technological advances have brought innovation that facilitates our day-to-day life but also induces business transformation, bringing employment instability and constantly changing required skills. The intent of this paper is to help understanding what challenges workforce must face, which core skills must be mastered and what has been done so far. Reflecting about past challenges, present difficulties, and solutions found along the years may help us in preparing for the future. We first reflect on the changes caused by increased technological advances in every sector of activity during the last decades; then we analyze existing approaches in defining future challenges, present and future critical skills and solutions implemented by policy makers, universities and industry. We also analyze the most common barriers to that implementation, how to overcome them, and how may we prepare to those future challenges.

Sara Antunes, Rita Almendra

The ‘Place’ that Shows the Title of a TV Series: What to Name It and How It Has Evolved

Nowadays, television series occupy a significant part of broadcasting time, particularly in paid channels. In this communication we present a reflection about the terminology used in English, French, and Portuguese to designate the filmic object that helps identify the TV series’ episode by presenting the series name and who made it. This discussion of the different words and expressions and their meanings is followed by a brief account of the evolution of these objects from the beginnings of their production until the 21st century.

Ricardo Maia Pestana, João Brandão

Communication Design and Medical Procedures: Inform Citizens to Act in Emergency Situations

Emergency situations are unpredictable and happen very quick. They require citizens to be able to act to help victims until they are stable or until emergency entities arrive. Acting in these situations is crucial to save someone’s life. However, the average citizen does not always know about first aid. Communication for this matter is important as it allows a set of information to be transmitted in a variety of ways, such as verbal, non-verbal or pictographic. Therefore, first aid procedures should be communicated in a simple and objective way, to motivate citizens to act in emergency situations. We present a set of analog and digital media as part of a design project developed as a solution for these circumstances, where we explain basic life support and recovery position. We undertook an evaluation of project outcome, through questionnaires. Perception and effective learning of techniques to deal with emergency situations was improved.

Marco Neves, Ana Rafaela Poças

Color and Interaction in Journalistic Infographics: The Case of Online Portuguese Media

Infographics are an effective way to transmit messages, both as an information design artifact and as a journalistic piece. Its fundamental components are information, composition, typography and color. In this study, the main focus is the usage of color in infographics in online Portuguese media, particularly in generalist newspapers. We intend to discover if the color usage is different in interactive and static infographics or if color is applied to infographics unrelated to its interactive nature. The main method of research was a comparative case studies, based on the aggregation, organization and analysis of color samples of graphics, backgrounds and typography of static and interactive infographics in six newspapers. In this process, conversion of RGB samples to Natural Color System (NCS) was pivotal for the their effectual mapping in the color spectrum, according to luminance, saturation and tone. The study led to conclude that online infographics tend to have light and saturated colors in graphics, light colors or white in backgrounds, and saturated colors and black in typography. There were no significant differences between static and interactive infographics, neither in terms of number of colors applied or in aspects of luminance, saturation and tone. In both cases, there was a prominence of the tones of yellow, red and blue in the graphics and neutrals in backgrounds. In what concerns typography, the samples of colors where distributed in the spectrum, with no clear prominence of any tone.

Salomé Esteves, Marco Neves

Information Design in Presentation, Interpretation and Dissemination of Natural and Cultural Heritage

It has been established that an attractive heritage presentation is crucial for successful media coverage of natural and cultural heritage. New infographic technologies and audiovisual languages can accomplish this by communicating complex processes in simple, understandable information, thus providing a high-quality cultural experience to visitors. This study highlights the importance of information design in interpretation, presentation and dissemination of heritage, and in prompting visitors to direct their attention more closely to singularities and distinct heritage aspects of a place. Through a theoretical reflection and presentation of several examples, we strengthen guidelines that we think are determinant for way heritage is perceived and informed to public, further improving systems and processes used for integrating infographics into communication materials. We argue that an attractive and functional heritage presentation is crucial for its successful media coverage and we highlight the importance of infographics and graphic identity in heritage information and in preserving its memory.

Cristina Santos, Maria João Pereira Neto, Marco Neves

Virtual Reality


Evaluation of Behavioral Compliance with Safety Warnings at Different Levels of Cognitive Load in Warehouses

This study aims to evaluate the behavioral compliance with dynamic safety warnings, in different levels of cognitive load in warehouses. Participated in the study forty subjects between the ages of 17 and 47. Participants performed two simultaneous tasks, while compliance with safety warnings was evaluated. Cognitive load had three levels (neutral, low cognitive load, high cognitive load) modulated through difficulty of double task. Behavioral compliance was 77.1% in the condition where there was no double task (neutral condition), in the condition of low cognitive load, 90.7% were consonants, and in the condition of high cognitive load the percentage dropped to 45.7%. Results suggest that the presentation of safety information is sensitive to cognitive load. In a work environment, where the demand for cognitive resources is high, there is a need to design stronger warnings that can increase compliance.

Ana Almeida, Francisco Rebelo, Paulo Noriega

Locomotion-in-Place and Teleport: Which Is the Best Technique to Be Used in Human Behavior Research Using Virtual Reality?

In human behavior studies in critical situations, such as emergency situations, it’s necessary for the participant to feel that is in danger and that behaves the same way as in the real world. For this behavior to be natural, the technique to control the avatar in the virtual environment should not distract users. A wrong choice of locomotion technique distracts users from their task and result in poor performance, frustration and cybersickness. In this context, the objective of this study is to know if a new technique (locomotion-in-place) is more efficient than the teleport, for human behavior studies. We evaluated collisions of the avatar with walls and objects in the virtual environment, the level of presence and cognitive maps. The results showed that Locomotion-in-place is a technique easier to control, regarding the number of collisions, but we didn’t find differences in presence and cognitive maps between the two locomotion techniques.

Inês Galrão, Francisco Rebelo, Paulo Noriega

Openness Feeling on Height Direction in High Ceiling Room and Bending Pattern of Leading Passage

This paper investigates a psychological experiment was conducted for examine whether the openness feeling on height direction arising when entering a high ceiling room could be control by the bending pattern of leading passage. 32 college students as the participants walked around the virtual environment including the high ceiling rooms with the narrow passages. Seven experimental conditions are created by connecting six different shaped “narrow-passages” to one side of the “high ceiling room” or not connecting any approach. The result is that the ceiling height in the “high-ceiling-room” tends to adjust lower when connecting the “narrow-passage” of the upward slope than when connecting the straight “narrow-passage”. It is suggested that by adding a physical movement “climbing up an oblique road” could suppress openness feeling in the high ceiling room.

Takuya Sugiyama, Yohsuke Yoshioka

Exploratory Study to Investigate the Influence of a Third Person on an Individual Emergency Wayfinding Decision

Disorientation is an usual issue in many situations, namely during emergency into complex buildings. It may cause a lack of crucial time mainly during early evacuation stages, increasing the chance of harming. This exploratory study aims to investigate the influence of others over a personal route-choice decision during wayfinding into a complex building. A Virtual Reality-based methodology was used and a virtual hotel was adapted from Vilar [1] in order to present six T-shape intersections with two opposite corridors. Two conditions were considered, an everyday condition, that represents the occupant interaction in an ordinary situation, and an emergency condition, in which a fire occurs into the building. Virtual character was inserted in order to investigate the influence of others over a directional choice decision. Findings point to a social influence over wayfinding decisions, suggesting that it can be an important aspect to be considered by safety planners, graphical designers, architects, managers and all those related with safety into complex buildings.

Elisângela Vilar, Paulo Noriega, Francisco Rebelo, Inês Galrão, Daniel Semedo, Nuno Graça

How Deep Is a Virtual Reality Experience? Virtual Environments, Emotions and Physiological Measures

Previous studies have shown a relationship between virtual environments and subjectively evaluated emotions. The present study intends to understand if an emotion evaluated subjectively is related to an objective measurement like heart rate. In the study, a design between subjects with two virtual environments was used. A sample of 58 participants participated in this study, in two immersive virtual environments: Helix® (a roller coaster experience, n = 36); and Yana® (experience of sunset/sunrise, n = 22). Subjective and objective measures (heart rate) were measured. The results are consistent with previous studies and our hypotheses. As for the subjective measures it is concluded that these measures were related to physiological measures, so the emotional response to an event in virtual reality is not only an interpretation of the situation but also a physiological phenomenon.

Tiago Oliveira, Paulo Noriega, José Carvalhais, Francisco Rebelo, Vanessa Lameira

Emotion Through Narrative: Validation for User Engagement in Game Context

In the development of a gaming experience guided by the perennial search for user engagement, one of the relevant conditions to ensure and validate, it’s its narrative and context. If we associate this the dissemination of cultural aspects, the development of proposals able to give an engaging experience capable to attracting future visitors, is a relevant aspect to make known not only the place but also its culture. And so, the development of game narrative proposals can have a relevant function in involving potential tourists. Our goal in this study is to evaluate narratives in order to validate the one that will able to give an engaging experience, for later adaptation through a Virtual Reality game experience. The evaluation was performed using the Self-Assessment-Mannequin (SAM), Emotional Engagement Scale (EES) and Cognitive Engagement Scale (CES). After the analysis of the results of these two groups, it was verified that the long narrative was able to arouse great interest on these two groups. To achieve the goal, we have developed two narratives, (i) Neutral Narrative, (ii) Emotional Narrative. We started the analysis of the results for the participants of São Tomé island and it was verified that the results reveal that the longer narrative was able to arouse more interest of them. Considering the adaptation of this narrative in a virtual reality experience in a stand, we developed a second comparative study with an adult population of another country, in this case, the Portuguese. It should be noted that in this second sample we only use the narrative that aroused the greatest interest, the Emotional Narrative. The genesis of the comparison is due to the fact that the experience in a stand is open to a large and varied public, both by age and country of visitors.

Yanick Trindade, Francisco Rebelo, Paulo Noriega

Product and System Design


The Importance of Ergonomics in the Development of Sustainable Materials Applied to Footwear Design

The central objective of this research is the development of a footwear line, combining ergonomics and design, and subsequently resulting in its application to new proposals for recyclable and sustainable materials in the footwear sector. An objective analysis applying a mixed methodology focused on two areas, the non-interventionist when we study and analyse the starting point and what exists in the market, and the interventionist methodology exploring and developing materials with ergonomic studies. Thus, the intention is to stimulate and innovate with ergonomic and functional shapes, later being tested by a focus group. With the application of the design methodology the following hypothesis was formulated: Will it be possible to apply and test recyclable and existing raw materials in the footwear sector, creating an innovative and ergonomic product? In order to test the hypothesis, we resorted to an action-research methodology that allows us to answer the initial question.

Ana Margarida Fernandes

Effect of Body Weight of Wheelchair Care Recipient on Physical Activity Intensity of Assistant Person

The purpose of this study is to verify the intensities of physical activity of the assistant person who are helping the movement of a patient riding on a wheelchair. The effects of the body weight of the care recipient on the wheelchair and the obstacle on moving route on the intensities of physical activity were analyzed by the results of the behavioral experiment with the measurement of gas concentration in the exhaled breath.

Haruka Sugiyama, Yohsuke Yoshioka, Masaki Takahashi, Cheng Jiayu, Mitsuaki Shiraishi, Fumitake Hakozaki, Satoshi Kameno, Yoshihide Tokuda, Ken Nunota

Research on Body Pressure Distribution of Mattress for Different Genders

This paper researched the pressure distribution on mattresses for different genders. A total of 72 subjects were selected in this experiment and the ratio of male and female was 1:1. Seven mattresses with different hardness were selected. The body pressure measure system (BPMS) was used to get the pressure distribution data, and subjective comfort evaluation questionnaire was used to get the subjective comfort score of the mattress. Results indicated that the back pressure and waist pressure of subjects with different genders were different. The back contact area, waist contact area and hip contact area of subjects with different genders were different, too. The subjective comfort evaluation was combined to determine the maximum pressure value and contact area recommendation value of different parts of the body, which can provide technical guidance for the ergonomic design of the mattress and reference for consumers.

Huimin Hu, Mengjing Cai, Pu Hong, Yinxia Li, Ling Luo, Haimei Wu

Universal Design for Enhancing Accessibility of the Visually Impaired in Touristic Environments

Designing for accessibility and inclusion requires careful consideration of specific requirements. In particular, Universal Design promotes inclusion by enhancing access but without hindering the user experience for others. One of the principles of Universal Design is that the information must be perceptible, i.e. all given information must be presented using different sensory perceptual strategies. Here, different interaction design strategies were tested for a system that aimed at creating meaningful experiences for the visually impaired in a recreational environment. Volunteers with visual impairment participated in the evaluation of the system and were instructed to interact with the system using a mobile phone. Experimental results revealed that a combination of audio and tactile stimuli was the best combination to increase information recall. However, careful design of the tactile interaction must be met to avoid cognitive overload that could interfere with the experience.

Carlos Arce-Lopera, Juan Jimenez Garcia, Camilo Montoya, Jose Giraldo

Toothbrush Innovation Design Based on Man-Machine Engineering Research

Objective It discusses and researches how to better develop the use function of toothbrush, adds practical function tip replaced periodically. Based on the characteristics of the use of toothbrush and the user psychological needs, it studies the toothbrush appearance design again, perfects the effect of toothbrush. Method It researches the reference factors in the design of toothbrush, investigates and analysis the existing toothbrush market, based on the man-machine engineering theory, analysis the form, the material, and the operation of toothbrush, establishes the research direction. Result It optimizes and innovative designs the toothbrush from the form, the material and the prompt replacement function, gives the design scheme, provides the reference for the research of toothbrush product design.

Peng Han

Study on the Influence of BMI Difference on Pressure Distribution of Mattress

Mattress is a necessity in everyone’s life. Studies show that the BMI difference is one of the factors affecting the comfort of the mattress. The difference affects the pressure distribution in the contact surface of the mattress. In this study, seven mattresses of different hardness were selected, and pressure distribution test with 72 subjects was carried out to collect the pressure of seven parts of the body. The trend of pressure changing with BMI was got by difference and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that head pressure decreases with the increase of BMI. Back pressure, waist pressure, hip pressure, thigh pressure, calf pressure and whole body pressure increase with the increase of BMI. The research results can provide reference for the mattress design suitable for people with different BMI.

Huimin Hu, Pu Hong, Mengjing Cai, Yinxia Li, Hong Luo, Haimei Wu

A JACK-Based Ergonomic Analysis and Design of the Cockpit of Agricultural Material Handling Vehicle

The JACK ergonomic analysis software was used to simulate and analyze the driver’s driving posture and operating behaviors in the cockpit to simulate and optimize the driving comfort of the driver operating a certain model of agricultural material handling vehicle. Through simulation and analysis of the six tools, Comfort Assessment, Lower Back Analysis, Static Strength Prediction, Etc., it was found that the vehicle cockpit’s curve of the waist part of the seat was reasonable, but the design had poor comfort levels on the shoulder and neck part, which not only caused fatigue when the vehicle was operated for a long period of time, but also made it challenging for the knees and ankles from sustaining prolonged work at the cockpit. On this basis, the research proposed ergonomic optimization and improvement was also conducted. The research provides a significant basis of reference for designing the cockpits of special-purpose agricultural vehicles.

Sen Gu, Sheng Su, Cheng Huang, Zhiqiang Song, Shasha Yuan

Research on Comfort of Mattresses with Different Hardness Based on Body Pressure Distribution

About 35% of a person’s life is spent in bed. With people’s living standards improve, more and more people are paying attention to mattress comfort. Studies have shown that the pressure distribution between the mattress and the human body affects people’s sleep quality, and the pressure distribution is one of the main indicators to measure the comfort of the mattress. In this paper, the comfort of mattresses with different hardness is studied. The pressure distribution and the subjective comfort score are analyzed with the trend of the mattress hardness. The recommended values of the mattress hardness and the pressure are obtained. The research results can provide basis and reference for the design of the mattress.

Huimin Hu, Pu Hong, Mengjing Cai, Hong Luo, Haimei Wu

Cultural Aspects in Design and City Planning


Built Environment Preservation: A Process of Ergonomic Design

Portugal due to this geographical latitude, similar to that of California, with climate comparable to those of South Africa, Chile and Australia, and its location in the Mediterranean basin comprises a series of natural factors that facilitate the propagation of forest fires. The disasters caused by climate change or natural causes in 2017 were extremely significant in the context of Portuguese architectural and urban heritage. Our concern regards the contemporary housing through the heritage perspective, with all its historic, architectural, cultural and social attributes. In terms of spatial framework, we have selected the three Portuguese villages, located in the region of District of Castelo Branco, and which were in the centre of the tragedy. The objective of this work is to discuss heritage preservation and rehabilitation politics, particularly the ones concerned to the built environment and its interface with nature, allied to the ergonomic approach in the design process.

Conceição Trigueiros, Mario Saleiro Filho

Lighting Design at Workplaces: What Should Be the Concerns for an Architect?

The main goal of this article is to clarify and demonstrate that non-visual system should be taken into account at workplaces (offices) by architects, engineers and designers. Factors such as biophilia, the non-visual system, differences between natural and artificial light and illuminance, among others, should be important parameters when conceiving an indoor space especially a workplace environment. Health and wellbeing are much more than a layout or an image. Which questions should be questioned when conceiving a workplace and keep balance between the visual and non-visual systems? That is a question that should have an answer based on several factors, not just the ones concerned with the corporate image and preferences of the professionals in charge of the designing of workplace spaces. To achieve such goals, the research is conducted throughout a literature review and the analysis of two case studies: Camilo Castelo Branco Street and 24th July Avenue, both in Lisbon, Portugal. Lighting Design deserves much more attention.

Sandra Preto

Design for the Model of Shared Office Space Based on the Logic of Behavior: A Case Study of Chinese Users

Shared office space is on the rise in China, and at the same time, it is facing the challenge of improving service capacities. The traditional researches are mainly based on the logic of things in space, which emphasizes the rational configuration of the properties of “things”. This paper put forward a design model of Shared office space based on users’ logic of behavior. In the end, this paper got the types and demands of users and the characteristics of the behavior in sharing office space through analysis. Determined the requirements of which equipment would be used in Shared office space; Got the user’s logic of behavior and carried on the space plan of the equipment; Digital human model and equipment model were built and simulated. The simulation results of Shared office space design were evaluated comprehensively and the conclusion was drawn.

Zhang Ping, Yang Simeng, Liu Tingyu, Zhang Liang

The Italic Style: Understanding the Shape Through History

The italic cursive calligraphic style originates, in general terms, from the simplification of the gesture of writing, since the inclination is a consequence of the speed and movement of the gesture. Italic fonts and the calligraphic style are easily recognizable in the Western world. However, contrary to what happens in typography studies, it is noted that the history of italics has not been adequately addressed in the scientific literature on the history of design, where the formal characteristics are not analyzed in a coherent way. Therefore, the objectives of this research are: to clarify the historical origins of italics, taking into account, in particular, the morphological evolution of the style from informal to formal writing and the adaptation of the shape of calligraphic characters to typography; to identify and analyze its characteristics, differentiating it from both regular and oblique variants; apply the study of movement and gesture to the drawing of the letter in italics (calligraphy) and evaluate its repercussions on typography; and finally, identify the main designers and engravers throughout their diachronic journey. This study is supported on qualitative methods of historical research and on the observation and critical analysis of the calligraphic practice. Through bibliographical research and literary review, a theoretical framework is created for the design of italic types, from which we intend to validate the hypothesis that the understanding of the calligraphic gesture is fundamental to the comprehension of the formal characteristics of italics, be it calligraphic or typographic. This article is based on the master’s dissertation of C. Almeida titled “Origin and Evolution of Italic: from calligraphy to typography”, presented in 2017 at the Lisbon School of Architecture of the University of Lisbon.

João Aranda Brandão, Catarina Machado Almeida

Graphic Design and Cinema: Portuguese Movie Posters from the Nouvelle Vague Period

Graphic design and cinema are closely related, especially by the divulgation, in which the poster is a major vehicle. This article discusses the Portuguese poster history, focusing the movie poster in a specific period – the Portuguese Nouvelle Vague – 1962–1982. The choice of this period is related to its particularities, as it was a moment of great transformations, especially in Portugal – by this time living the dictatorship and the revolution that led to democracy (in 1974). It was also an important moment in graphic design, where the development of phototypesetting and offset printing led to the graphic “third revolution”. This research is based on bibliographical review, on the systematic collection of posters, interviews with designers and the detailed analysis of a sample of these posters. In this manner, we try to further study a pertinent topic that we consider important to introduce in the Portuguese graphic design history.

Elisabete Rolo, Maria do Carmo Kattau Lopes

At Hand, the Brain of Men

This paper intends to develop questions related to the creation and use of objects. We like to address the way the objects, can shape not only the world, but our self’s in the process. Taking the dichotomy brain-hand as a starting point, we wish to inquire, the interactions of the hand as a construct of the brain. The intellectual proximity between the two creates a bound: the hand acts, the brain thinks, they both create. Tendentially the hand that shapes a material, arouses as an instrument, more or less virtuous, that follows bioelectrical impulses capable of altering that material. The brain would then be the master of these movements, orchestrating the whole. The hand and its manual labour appear as subaltern of the brain, the centre of intellectual work. However, another image seems to emerge from this process. The hands shape the objects, not just as subsidiary servants of brain impulses, but as main actors. To finish we would like to arise the question of emotions and feelings, as a part of the brain process, and try to understand the effect of the fact that the hand was transformed from a prime actor to a mere supporting role.

Luis Miguel Ginja

Exploring Design Requirements of Outdoor Fitness Equipment for Young People

Outdoor Fitness Equipment (OFE) can support public health by making physical activity available to all segments of the society. However, our knowledge is limited regarding how young people can adopt this equipment. Therefore, this study set out to explore (1) motivators of young people to do sports, (2) their perspective towards being physically active outside and (3) how to increase their outdoor physical activity level and OFE usage through design. Therefore, a cultural probes study and interviews were conducted with twelve participants aged between 20–30 years old, who do sports at home or gym. As a result, three types of needs were identified namely personal, social and practical needs. Moreover, design requirements are identified which are focusing on equipment, space, and service. As a result, this study provides brief guidance for designers and urban planners to meet young people’s needs about doing sport outside.

Aylin Karadeniz, Melis Dursun, Gülşen Töre-Yargın

Design Ergonomics for Human Beings and Wild Animals in Densely Populated Cities: A Design Case in Hong Kong Country Parks

Country parks in Hong Kong are often located close to residential areas. The waste produced by people living in village houses has affected park wildlife, and animals such as wild boars (Sus scrofa; feral pigs, wild swine, wild pigs) have attacked people for food. Wild boars have destroyed waste management and collection points. Using Hong Kong as a case study, this paper examines the interaction between wild animals and humans in a country park and aims to develop a waste management system for both. Country parks in which wild boars were settled were investigated. Cleaning contractor staff, village lot residents, and policy makers were invited for interviews. Design perimeters and primary physical designs were then generated for testing.

Kin Wai Michael Siu, Yi Lin Wong, Chi Hang Lo

Research on Guiding Sign Ergonomic Setting Based on Visual Sensitivity in Long and Narrow Passageway

With the increase of building density in contemporary urban building space, the layout design of guiding signs has become a typical problem. There are few studies on the special characteristics of the building environment such as narrow passageways. Therefore, this paper studies the angle of clearly can be seen and the angle of comfortably can be seen based on visual sensitivity by experimental method, considering different eye heights and viewing distances so as to provide some references for the guided sign setting in narrow passageways and similar environment.

Ling Luo, Zhongting Wang, Linghua Ran, Chuanyu Zou, Haimei Wu

The Application of Ergonomics of the Built Environment in Architectural Projects as a Benefit for the Hearing Impaired

In design development, the architect must plan the space in a way that encompasses both physical and psychological comfort, taking into account the premises of universal design. The ergonomic intervention suffers some limitations due to the flawed design process, requiring a greater cost to adapt the space in specific cases. This study aims to demonstrate the importance of using universal design as a design guideline, to specify the restrictions experienced by people with hearing impairment that impede or hamper the process of social and cognitive interaction and to demonstrate how design solutions can bring solutions to these problems.

Aline da Silva Oliveira, Renata de Assunção Neves, Marcelo M. Soares

Design Applications


A Synthesis of Sociotechnical Principles for System Design

A set of Sociotechnical System (STS) Principles that aims to optimise both the social and the technical aspects of the work system have been derived from many STS design efforts and experiences. In particular, the sets of principles have been developed by Trist and Bamforth [35], Cherns [9, 10], Davis [14], Berniker [5], Clegg [11], Walker et al. [41], Read et al. [30] and Waterson and Eason [45]. The current paper reviewed and compared the aforementioned seventy years of mainstream sociotechnical principles for system design. The principles were identified from a systematic review, grouped by similarity, and synthesised into an updated set of principles for researchers and organisations to use and discuss. In the tradition of all previous sociotechnical principles, they seek to provide criteria for designing organisational structures, group work, work processes, design processes, technology and individual tasks. They are also used as criteria to evaluate a set of existing ergonomics methods. The fortunes of sociotechnical theory have ebbed and flowed over the past seventy years, but the value of sociotechnical principles has remained. They are now increasingly relevant to a host of distinctly 21st century problems, all of which share a common imperative to effectively integrate people and technology. A synthesis of existing sociotechnical principles is overdue.

Amangul A. Imanghaliyeva, Pauline Thompson, Paul Salmon, Neville A. Stanton

Cut Me Off: An Exploratory Study About How the User Perceives the Information of Clothes Textile Labels

Textile labels contain important data for consumers about the care and maintenance of clothing, but the knowledge regarding the information being passed on by them is relatively scarce. Existing literature describes how people behave before and after buying clothes but there is few information about the comprehensibility of the graphic symbols that allow consumers to take care of the products. Some studies focus on analyzing the consumer literacy of this information. In this paper, we introduce the results of a survey applied among Brazilian respondents. The inquiry helped to understand the attention paid to labels by the consumers, and their capacity to read the symbols and apply them to clothing care. Based on quantitative and qualitative research, we also try to know the context in which the clothing care is done and by who, emphasizing the importance of developing solutions to enhance people’s understanding of this code.

Maria Aurileide Ferreira Alves, Gonçalo Falcão

Ergonomic Research in Civil Aircraft External Service Design

Civil aircraft external service design has great impact on the maintainability and economy of civil aircraft. At the same time, it also has an important impact on the workload, operation pattern and accessibility of ground crew. Due to all above reasons, ergonomics research should be paid attention to in the design phase. This paper mainly discusses the ergonomic considerations in the layout and design of external service in the aircraft design phase, which provides some guidance for the civil aircraft external service design.

Yu Chen

Design for Children - Ergonomics in a Ceramic Tile’s Project

A ceramic tile’s project, which is intended to stimulate the interaction of the child with his/her surroundings, was developed and prototyped. It focused on physical and emotional comfort through visual and tactile properties, targeting children but also parents as users and consumers. This project aims to create diversity by appropriation of the users, who may customize it using their imagination. The contribution of Human Factors and Ergonomics in a stage of evaluation of this design project had to be taken under account and applied as a useful tool in the design process. Besides literary review, this paper reports a study with primary school children with 9–12 years of age, based on interview and a quasi-experimental approach with drawing sessions, facing prototypes of the ceramic tiles’ project. The results revealed much diversity and gave clues about their preferences, their interaction with indoor home environment, ceramic coatings and the child’s imaginative universe in the context of the pre-teenage phase of their development. Also conclusive is the overall importance that HFE revealed once more in the development of a design project.

Cristina Salvador

Graphic-Semantic Expressions Map: A New Tool on Design Teaching

This paper aims to contribute to the discussion in design teaching and its consequent research context, considering participatory practices and methodologies. We propose a methodologic map, which will assist the process of synthesis expressive code and also boost the relationship between graphic expression and semantics in design practice. At the end, an attempt is made to evaluate if the association of semantic elements with graphic elements promote the convergence between the project goals and the synthesis of expressive codes, while facilitating the interpretation and creation of new graphic products.

Cátia Rijo

Research on Ergonomic Design and Evaluation of Office Backrest Curve

The rationality of chair back design is an important index of comfort of an office chair. Sitting in a comfortable office chair can Improve work efficiency and prevent disease. Through the existing literature investigation and preliminary experiments, it can be found that the current defects and difficulties in the design of chair back mainly lie in the curve of chair back, which also attracts the researchers’ interests recently. In this paper, we will study the curve of the back of the chair, measure the spine curve of the human body sitting posture with Qualisys, investigate the existing design problems of the back curve of the chair, and finally put forward suggestions and design basis for the back of the chair based on ergonomics.

Yumeng Zhang, Ling Luo, Jie Wang, Huimin Hu, Chaoyi Zhao

Assessment of Portuguese Firefighters’ Needs: Preliminary Results of a Pilot Study

Firefighter’s job tasks require intensive physical work and involve a range of movements in a wide variety of hazardous environments and thermal conditions. It is thus critical that personal protective equipment allows firefighters to perform their duties with minimal limitations and maximum safety. However, many studies have shown concerns regarding turnout gear fit and comfort. This paper presents preliminary results of an in-progress study, for which the main goal is to develop design solutions to Portuguese firefighters’ protective equipment. With the aim of identifying specific needs from this population, a pilot study was conducted in northern Portugal. Data were collected through an online survey and a semi-structured interview, which allowed a deeper understanding of issues encountered. Findings from this pilot study served as a guide to adjust the study and provided insights to recommend an ergonomic redesign of firefighters’ gear.

Anna S. P. Moraes, Miguel A. F. Carvalho, Rachel S. Boldt, Fernando B. N. Ferreira, Linsey Griffin, Susan P. Ashdown

“Possible But Improbable Spaces”: From Interior Design Experience to Jewellery Creation

The present project was born from the interaction between jewellery scale and interior design principles. We had started with drawings and cardboard models around housing typologies inspired by nature, by its asymmetric and modular geometrical shapes, by its capacity to metamorphose. This experimental process was the platform for the creation of contemporary jewellery lines, focusing main principles such as spatiality, abstraction, mutability, versatility ad ergonomics. We had explored the movement of undulating surfaces, the relation between shadow and light, scale variations, the opposition between empty and full spaces, chromatic or texture contrast. On the other hand, jewellery can be an extension of our selves just like interior design, assuming changes everyday life according to our mood. Our methodology also includes 3D software and 3D prototypes without forgetting traditional jewellery skills or the assemblage technique applied to the most recent pieces. From printed components, wastes or mass-produced objects that are no longer useful, crossed with a traditional material like copper, we proceed to the production of limited series pieces suitable for a public who values jewels by its unique design regardless of the value of its material.

Mónica Romãozinho

Service Mapping: Case Study of University Waste Management System

This paper has the premise of understanding the people’s relationship with the waste generated in a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a place designed to be the locus of knowledge construction, the proper waste management issue is still neglected. This research with the exploratory character has the goal of understanding the reason for such a situation, identifying the main agents and mapping the system in order to further reframe it. Through a holistic approach, service design methods and ergonomics were integrated. Ergonomics and its ethnographic methods and tools regarding service design contributed to accurately mapping the current system, giving a basis to plan its reconfiguration with its stakeholders.

Flávia Azevedo, Luciana Cruz

Current Theoretical Developments and Applications of Fitts’ Law: A Literature Review

Fitts’ law is a performance model of human movement especially the act of pointing which is widely used in Ergonomics and Human-Computer Interaction. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the discussions and extensions of Fitts’ law as well as the relevant applications in recent years (2013–2018). The present paper shows that the related discussions mainly focus on the theoretical basis and performance of Fitts’ law. In addition, several new predictive models are proposed to improve accuracy or extend the law to three-dimensional space. The applications apply Fitts’ law into different input methods and user populations to explore the feasibility of it in specific conditions. The review shows that despite the theoretical and practical development about this topic, differences of views still remain and further research is needed.

Rong Jiang, Zhenyu Gu

On Girls Bra Design for the Demand of User

Good bra design has an important impact on the healthy development of women’s chest, especially on the breast health of adolescent girls. This paper selected Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China for field interviews and questionnaires to collect girls’ needs and expectations for bra design. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to select the demand factors that have a greater impact on bra design: chest protection, corrective posture, size standards and pain relief, and the weight ratio of different factors was defined. It is found that protecting the chest and correcting posture are the most important requirements of bra design for adolescent girls. Establishing the size standard of underwear for adolescent girls and alleviating the pain during development are important complements to the optimization strategy, which can provide basic data support for further optimization research of underwear design for adolescent girls.

Ding-Bang Luh, Yu-Lin Zhao

Effects of Playing Surface on Physiological Responses and Performance Variables of Hockey Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of playing surface on physiological responses and performance variables of hockey players. Astroturf, also known as synthetic grass, increases the physiological demand of the game. The game is faster as compared to the game played on grassy field. It may be attributed to the fact that there is a natural difference in the design characteristics of both the courts. The performance of a player depends upon a combination of all the human factors including physical, physiological and biomechanical components of the player. Energy demand of the game is more on Astroturf as compared to the grassy field. Similarly agility of a player to cope with the fast defensive movements and to hold the ball is a deciding factor to escape from getting injured. As the game is fast on astroturf and the player has to depend upon more sprints or in other words more anaerobic components. The present study was conducted on selected national level hockey players of Punjab. The findings of the study indicated the significant differences in terms of physiological components like VO2max, Anaerobic threshold and ATVO2 but no significant difference in the physical characteristics of the player.

Ajita D. Singh, Ajay Deswal

Role of Postural Control Exercises and Pelvic Floor Strengthening Exercises on Chronic Low Back Pain of Women with Sitting Jobs

A lot of factors can give rise to low back pain and spinal instability attributes to one of them. Stability of spine is directly dependent on the strength of postural muscles which can be linked easily with postural control. Hence, postural control is likely to directly alter the spinal stability. Muscles of pelvic floor function along with muscles of back and abdomen to support the spine. This study aims to evaluate the effect of exercises to strengthen pelvic floor muscles and exercises for postural control in the treatment of chronic LBP and on posture, pain, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Sample size of twenty-five participants was taken based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided to three groups namely PFM exercises group (n = 8), postural control exercises group (n = 8) and the control group (n = 9). All the three groups were given treatment for half an hour a day, thrice a week for 5 weeks. Conventional treatment that includes electrotherapy and general exercises was given to control group. Experimental groups received conventional treatment and additional exercises for pelvic floor muscles and posture control. [Results] Pain and functional disability was significantly reduced after treatment (p < 0.01) in all the three groups, but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) found in both experimental groups. All the outcome measures were improved significantly (p < 0.01) in all groups although both experimental groups demonstrated significant improvement in Visual Analog Scale scores, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF scores in contrast to control group. [Conclusion] Study concluded that the exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles combined with conventional treatment and exercises for postural control combined with conventional treatment can provide better outcome as compared to conventional treatment alone in patients with chronic low back pain. Controlling the posture and muscular activities through these exercises also improves the patients’ quality of life.

Ajita Dsingh, Amanpreet Kaur

The Role of Organizational Factors in Development and Progression of Wrist Disorders: Psychosocial Aspects

Psychosocial risk factors are closely associated with organizational structure. Although psychosocial factors do not act directly like physical risk factors, still they exert a significant proportion in progression of the wrist disorders. The aim of this study is to identify the optimization points for psychosocial risk factors of CTS and other wrist disorders in present context. A survey was done among a cluster of subjects suffering clinically diagnosed wrist disorder in a group of workplaces. With the responses principal component analysis was done. The PCA extracted 4 psychosocial or organizational factors. The Stress factor contains 5 components. The job satisfaction factor consists of 4 components. The work environment factor also affects the total risk of wrist disorders. This factor is consisted of two components. The fourth important factor is reward factor in a workplace. These extracted factors can be used to reduce the risk of wrist disorders from organizational and work design perspective.

Arunita Paul, Urmi R. Salve

Developing a Framework that Can Assist Designers to Identify and Incorporate Notable Cultural Elements into Products Designed for Tourists

In the ever-changing lifestyles and trends of today, preserving culture and tradition and projecting them to tourists can give a boost to the Tourism Industry. In many cases, travelers have created a mental model of stereotyping a place based on what they hear or feel. There is a need to find out methods that can incorporate deeper meanings of a culture into the products and services designed to give travelers the much-needed exposure to culture and in a way preserving it. A case study has been done on three states of India. These include Bengal, Kerala and Meghalaya to find out the notable and identifiable cultural elements and categorize them based on their projection in the field of tourism by designers. For this study card-sorting method was used to cluster and categorize cultural elements. A framework is devised to assist the designers in designing cultural products to be presented to the tourists.

Wanrisa Bok Kharkongor, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Design Interventions of an Exergame for Fall Problem in Indian Older Adults

In the field of elderly - exergame research, there is limited information available in the Indian context. There is a need to explore how the Indian elderly respond towards such interventions to do the exercise, and if it is not positive what kind changes need to make it more context specific. A study is conducted among Indian elderly (three sets of pilot studies with twenty Indian elderly (age 60 years and above)) with an existing game (DDR) and a tailored exergame as a fall preventive measure. The aim of the study is to give a few design recommendations to design exergame for Indian elderly. The new stepping exergame design process includes the Technology Acceptance Decision Tree (TADT), Indian Anthropometric data. The design recommendations include the prescribed sets of exercise need to convert into a game goal, repeated movements to complete one goal to avoid confusions, self-paced game speed, game theme, and avatar in the Indian context, etc. The findings of the study will be helpful for the researchers in the field of exergame for the elderly while designing for Indian or similar context.

Nilakshi Yein, Swati Pal

A Re-look into the Information in Multimedia Design and Animation Theme Presentation

Human factors and ergonomics involves the “fit” amongst the user, tools, and surroundings is to take into account the user’s abilities and limits that can be used to look for, to confirm that jobs, purposes, information, and the surroundings that can be the fit that a user can be provided with. An experience of hand rendering was used effectively, using the final frame of the hand render, to be used to design a moving visual. The frames used to design a moving visual through a stop-motion animation technique showing the abstract display of the refinement in the design. The design student learns the fineness of the technique to communicate imaginative exquisiteness. The procedure was used to bring the behind the scene technique forward, such that it is useful for users to assume the technique after inputs of their peers, such as to allow students’ to imagine and enrich to provide an experience.

Manoj Majhi, Debkumar Chakrabarti


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