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About this book

This book focuses on the emerging role of human factors in understanding, communicating with and engaging users. It reports on innovative approaches, highlighting visuals cues, such as new typographies, geometries and graphics for mobile and computer interfaces. The book also covers image and video processing, user-focused data compression, generative visuals, computational photography, and interactive design. Further topics include creative and empathetic design, human touch in digital graphics and experiential graphics. Based on the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Communication of Design, held on July 24-28, 2019, in Washington D.C., USA, this book reports on new findings, best-practices and case studies, providing readers with a fresh perspective and novel insights into the applications of human factors for enhancing the communication of design to users.

Table of Contents


Communication Design and Practices


Nudge Users to Healthier Decisions: A Design Approach to Encounter Misinformation in Health Forums

Health websites have increasingly become one of the main sources of health information for people around the world. Although health-seekers potentially benefit from these sources, misinformation in health forums significantly misleads people. We hypothesize that nudging users to think critically about the information might be an effective approach to encounter with effects of misinformation on their’ health. To this end, we applied elaboration-likelihood-model (ELM) in web design to explore how central and peripheral cues influence on information evaluation and eye-movement data. The results show that providing central cues such as trusted links and discussion threads encourage the participants to look at the information with more critical thinking compared to the peripheral cues such as number of stars and likes. Similarly, fixation duration and time spent in each scenario confirmed that users engaged in higher level of cognitive processing and critical thinking when central cues are dominated ELM initiators.
Mahdi Ebnali, Cyrus Kian

How Creative Mindset Operates with Respect to Creative Performance: Pedagogical Factors that Ignite Creative Mindset in Design Education

This research investigated college design students’ mindset for the “decision to be creative” when they have a design project in front of them; moreover, this research investigated factors that influence students’ creative mindset and how educators enhance creative mindset to students. In order to address these purposes, a qualitative triangulation was used. The major findings of this study provide a number of important implications for improving pedagogical strategy, utilizing the concept of the creative mindset within a design education context. Moreover, this study provides directions for future research regarding the creative mindset in design education and suggestions for expanding this study to contribute to other disciplines that is needed creative thinking.
Joungyun Choi

Exploration and Thinking on the Cultural Communication of Guangdong Museum

The cultural communication of traditional museums is centered on the exhibition of real objects. With the upgrading of cultural consumption, the public is no longer satisfied with the museum cultural consumption mode of reading-style. In the context of consumption of new culture, Guangdong Museum tries to explore a new form of museum culture communication by taking the cultural and creative product as a breakthrough. The way of cultural communication with the core of cultural and creative products is a multi-level mode of interactive communication, which is based on the cultural consumption demand as its starting point, the modern design as its means and the new media as its channel. This mode of communication breaks through the time and space boundaries of museum culture communication and makes the museum culture really enter the public life.
Xiaobao Yu, Ting Wang

Bullet Points: Applying Emotional Symbols in Information Management

Bullet points are a set of symbols commonly used in typesetting to organise and present different points or notes in a well-organised list. Various shape options for bullet symbols, such as circular, square, dot, or diamond shapes. At the same time, some word processors and publishing design software offer other shapes and colour options. In handwriting, bullet points are usually drawn in any freestyle at the preference of the creator. This could reveal that specific user’s select bullet symbols based merely on their preferences without concerning the use of bullet points and icons regarding the nature of communication, not to mention the feeling or mood that these bullets symbols project onto the reader. Misconceptions sometimes create chaos for communication. This study aimed to investigate the nature of the bullet system and how the application of bullet points constructs the information hierarchy. It also assesses the influence of bullet symbols on the organisation and typesetting structure of a document.
Amic G. Ho

Impact of Inspiration Sources on Designer’s Idea Generation Strategy

The idea generation phase in the design process is often referred to as ‘the fuzzy front end’, which combing inspiration from a large amount of stimuli and pilot experience into concepts. How to lead designers is a significant task in design method research. This paper is firstly aim at visualising the idea generation and concept deepening processes of designers with different levels of design experiences. Second, to find out the influence of inspiration sources with different stimulation distance on designers’ creativity, and classify designers’ preference of inspirational stimuli. This paper select design students and expert designers who have more than two years experience as test subjects. Two groups of subjects are asked to conduct same design task within a certain period of time. The design task involves three sub-sessions, each of which provides a type of stimulus information, including text, pictures and design plans, representing different levels of stimulation distance, and requires the subjects generate design alternatives as much as possible based on the given stimuli. Observe the subjects’ design outputs under different inspiration sources, using the extended linkography as a tool to visualise designers’ problem space evolution. It measures the designers’ creativity and fixation preferences of different inspiration sources by analysing the number of design alternatives, the number of transformation links and stimuli distance. This paper may have significance for the study of idea generation methods and the development of related tools.
Xinyu Yang, Jianxin Cheng

Design in Advertising and Media Communication


Emotions in Advertising: How Emotions Affect Creativity and Communication

Advertising delivers messages in innovative ways to attract target audience. While some evidence shows that emotions, as well as cultural values, are key factors affecting the process of advertising and communication. In this paper, the influence of human factors, including social recognition and emotion concerns in the communication design process. However, few studies investigated how human factors can enhance creativity and interact with the communication process. Hence, this research study aimed at investigating the relationships between emotion and social recognition to motivate the interactions between the roles in the communication process. The effects of introducing emotional concerns into the design process of advertising design is also discussed. This study was conducted to develop a new strategy that could provide an optimised communication process, which would essentially include the emotional concerns of the creative and target audience.
Amic G. Ho, Sunny Sui-kwong Lam

An Investigation into the Power of Digital Media in Hong Kong

In view of the surge of digital media and their overwhelming influence over the communication practice in Hong Kong, this preliminary study is to reveal its power through ten digital advertising cases. These cases cover the recent popular technologies used in digital advertising and the preferred ways of communications among the target customers. This paper dissects the cases according to the functional affordances of the discursive interface analysis and concludes that these cases do share a subset of the functional affordances forming the boundary and exclusion in the digital media in Hong Kong subtly and affecting the designing of the next generations of these digital media.
Edward C. K. Hung

Understanding How Advertising Gamification Influences Consumers: The Effect of Image Experience and Interactivity

In recent years, advertising gamification has considerably evolved as an approach to increase consumer engagement and motivation. Given the continuous development of game interactivity and the multi-dimensional technology, the potential of advertising gamification still needs to be fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate how advertising gamification influence consumers’ advertising attitude, brand image and brand attitude by looking into the effect of different image experience (2D/3D) and interactivity (interactive/non-interactive). This paper conducts an experiment (N = 40) among young people aged 20–26 years old to compare the effects of advertisements. The main effects are significant, which provide strong evidence of how an interactive gamified experience and higher media image experience can increase advertising attitude, brand image and brand attitude, and provide new insights about the effectiveness of several game mechanics. Ultimately, we can also explore the importance of interactive design in the process of advertising gamification and the possibility of its application in the fields of AR.
Yunbo Chen, Huijie Yao

Locality and Local Identity Discourses in Post-handover Hong Kong Brand Advertisements

Since the handover in 1997, identity politics have arisen in Hong Kong social and political movements. Locality and local identity discourses have become unprecedentedly salient to rearticulate Hong Kong culture and identity. People’s feelings, thoughts and behaviors in relation to community solidarity and identity construction in the name of “bentu” or locality are significantly advocated among Hongkongers in terms of the sense of belonging and emotional bonding. Similarly, brand advertising deploys emotional appeals to build brand trust and loyalty among target consumers. Brand advertisements have increasingly deployed much more complicated multimodal semiotics and metaphors to create identity myths to emotionally affect and persuade consumers by the sharing of collective representations of local cultures and identities. This study will investigate how Hong Kong advertisers deploy multimodal semiotics in their brand advertisements to establish brand equity in line with the recent cultural emotions and sentiments of Hongkongers.
Sunny Sui-kwong Lam, Terry Lai-sim Ng

Mainstreaming Culture Jamming? Revisiting the Socio-Cultural Impact of Viral Campaign

This paper revisits the socio-cultural impact of culture jamming, a practice which stems from social movement to derail mainstream values and corporate branding. Culture jamming aims to convey messages of social resistance by adding satirical and alternative cultural meaning to the icons representing corporate brands and social mainstream values. However, in view of the rise of social media networks and viral campaigns, culture jamming could paradoxically be incorporated by authorities and corporations for their own promotional purposes. By conducting textual and content analysis of a viral campaign in Hong Kong—a fictitious icon promoting life-saving by the Fire Services Department of Hong Kong government, this paper discusses the conditions which facilitate such mainstreaming incorporation of culture jamming. The study hopes to foster scholarly dialogue on the versatility of culture jamming across the fields of social movement and business branding.
Chi-kit Chan, Anna Wai-yee Yuen

Digital Generation’s Meaning-Making in Web-Based Communication Activities

In the communication process, the human is not the message recipients solely but also the interrupters of the message meaning. Theorists of social studies developed some concepts of message meaning as semiotic theories. These theories highlighted the essential features of individual. Introducing the approaches of interpreting semiotics concepts, the meaning-making process was considered according to its meanings, which certainly involved an interpreting agent. These theories were the principles to explore various sign system with different cultural backgrounds. However, the limited understanding was explored for the digital generation who have grown up with complicated digital information system and advanced communication technologies. This paper offers a brief revision of the semiotic theories. It also examined the roles of interpreting meanings those involved in the semiotic process through web-based communication activities. Content analysis of several web-based communication activities would be employed as the research method in this study. It is expected that the result of this study would provide insight for more exploration of the communication principles of the digital generation.
Pui Wa Chau

Creative Arts


Improvement of Safety Sign Design Based on Analysis Comprehensibility Test Result

Object: To improve the effectiveness of safety signs, it is necessary to study their comprehensibility and design features. Methods 100 respondents and 6 safety signs were selected to conduct research on the comprehensibility and design features of safety signs. Results The design features of safety signs directly affect their comprehensibility. Abstract, and relevance can be taken care of during design, while familiarity can be improved by pre-education and training.
Chuan-yu Zou, Yongquan Chen

Research on Design Communication Mode Based on White Bi Theory

Chinese traditional aesthetic philosophy pursues “natural beauty”, “essential beauty”, “simple beauty” and “simple beauty”. The aesthetic system in Chinese culture often ends up with a simple beauty. It can be seen from the Chinese poetry culture evaluation system that rhetorical beautiful poetry in Chinese history has never been the highest standard. As a representative work of Chinese poetry, the Book of Songs conquers the peak of poetry art. This is from the appreciation of beauty to the transcendence of beauty, but also from the process of understanding beauty to knowing beauty. Both the “category” and the “process” are expounding an ancient Chinese philosophical thought: the theory of “White Bi”. The “White Bi” comes from the book of Changes, meaning no decoration. In the aesthetic system of ancient Chinese design culture, White Bi was regarded as the highest realm. In the end, it is still a natural concept of pursuing simplicity, turning the natural things and the universe and human factors into a state of harmony and unity.
It has been more than 3,000 years since the birth of the theory of White Bi, representing the most traditional philosophical in China. Decoration is an essential element in design. The most important theory in the day is that the decoration will reach a pole and it will show a minimal state. Minimalist design is one of the manifestations of the theory of White Bi. The design of White Bi design has its unique way of communication. The design communication of White Bi is very important to human factors. This paper studies the design communication methods contained in the theory of White Bi. Relevant discussions were carried out in terms of human factors, culture, art, and communication channels. Under the premise of combining ancient Chinese philosophical thoughts, it puts forward a more effective reference method for the current design development.
Xinying Wu, Minggang Yang, Xinxin Zhang

3D Scanning and Visual Dimension – Technological and Creative Evolution

Humans have been trying to imitate and represent the world visually since ancient time. With the development of technology and computational visualization, the transformation of the imaging techniques from conventional media to 3D scanning as a new representation method with digital data generated has been widely applied especially in the creative aspect in recent years.
3D scanning technology provides us a new insight to understand the formation and essence of photographic imaging, in which the 3-dimensional image formation provides us with more layers to understand the sensory and knowledge about time and space, cognitive of being, and the technological and creative evolution in art.
This paper attempts to discuss the essential transformation in dimensional imagery with human factors and its aesthetic experiences through digital art means and philosophical approach.
Man Lai-man Tin

Communication in Design


Kids at Preschool. Designing Products and Wayfinding Systems to Enhance Kids’ Skills, Facilitating Wellbeing Through Communication

In our society kids spend a significant part of their life outside home up to eight hours a day there. In this environment, to feel safe kids “need” both rules to respect and freedom to live experiences. Still today pre-school are designed mainly according only to the ergonomics rules without considering emotional aspects. The main objective of this research is to identify a set of good practices to design pre-school products, furniture, interior settings and wayfinding systems able to enhance quality experiences on education and growing to integrate learning and teaching methods in pleasant experiences, improving awareness among the users. This paper aims to underline the importance of the communicative aspects of design for a new education approach based on “learning by doing”.
Laura Giraldi, Elisabetta Benelli, Marta Maini, Francesca Morelli

Viral Marketing in Political Communication: Case Study of John Tsang’s Campaign in the 2017 Hong Kong Chief Executive Election

Viral marketing is one of the trends of the marketing strategy for building up a brand image because of the rapid development of internet. Viral marketing helps the information spreading quickly and widely on the internet through the sharing from the youngsters. Some politicians use the strategies of viral marketing to create noises and exposures for their political campaign and communication in Hong Kong through social media such as Facebook. This study will focus on how viral marketing works in political campaign and communication. A case study of John Tsang’s campaign in the 2017 Hong Kong Chief Executive Election using the Berger’s STEPPS framework is analyzed to assess how viral marketing was applied to political communication. The focus of analysis will be on the changes of the youth perceptions and attitudes toward John Tsang’s image during the Umbrella Movement in 2014 and after his Election campaign in 2017.
Daren Chun-kit Poon, Sunny Sui-kwong Lam

Study on How Television Commercials Affect Consumer Reactions with Visual Strategies

Visual communication is not only significant and indispensable in outstanding in advertising, but also a form of language for art to visually communicate the idea of advertisements. This study aimed at discovering how can visual elements be applied in television commercials to associate with the observers’ emotion psychologically as well as to affect their decision-making process behaviourally through conducting the depth interview, content analysis and library research. This is done by showing the application of visual elements and the findings on the research in term of lighting and colours, mood and tones, signs, symbols, key signifiers, and typeface. This research focuses on the use of visual strategies, and explore how they could evoke male and female audience using different approaches. Another goal of the study is to reveal the impacts in terms of sociology and psychology when certain visual elements applied in television commercials.
Pikki Fung, Amic G. Ho

A Comparative Study on the Language Expressions of Cultural and Creative Products in the East and West

The concept of cultural and creative industries was first proposed by the United Kingdom. After that, UNESCO defined the cultural and creative industries. In recent years, China has proposed a series of new ideas and opinions on the innovation and development of cultural and creative industries, more and more experts and scholars have proposed to guide the development of China’s cultural and creative industries by studying the cultural and creative industries of Western countries. However, the difference between China and the Western countries is not only reflected in the differences in the cultural heritage of the two sides, but also in people’s understanding and expression of the respective cultures. For cultural and creative products, the cultural base is the design of the soul, then when how to transfer cultural concepts to product design in a subtle manner, the method is especially important.
In the paper, first of all, literature search, field research, expert interviews and other methods are used to find differences in lifestyle and state, cultural understanding and expression between China and Italy, representative of the Western countries. Through the KJ method and cluster analysis method, the cultural design language expressions of the forms, structures, functions, colors, human factors, materials and techniques of cultural and creative products in China and Western countries are summarized and compared. The design thinking and methods that can be used in the development of Chinese cultural products are obtained. Finally, taking China’s Songxi culture and creative products as an example, the design practice has been carried out and has obtained good social and user evaluation. The research results will have important theoretical and practical significance for the design and development of Chinese cultural and creative products.
Chen Cheng, Junnan Ye, Hui Gao, Guixiang Wu

The Advertising Effects of Typotecture: Associated Learning Factors and Emotions

Typography undoubtedly plays a critical part in print advertisings. While most of the typographies we encountered in advertisings are two-dimensional, typotectures are types that hybridise architecture and typography together. A remarkable feature of typotecture is that its semantic language directly combines with the semiotics of the visual sign. This paper aims at discussing the possible benefits of using typotecture on print advertisings. In order to do so, six representational typotecture advertisings will be used to conduct studies and to find out what perceived experiences and emotions can audience perceive in the typotectural designs.
Man-Yee Mak, Amic G. Ho

Research on the Historical Context of Guangzhou Time-Honored Catering Brands’ Narration

The culture of Guangzhou food is extensive and profound for a long time. It contains the unique culture history of South five ridges. Importantly, its unique dining custom constitutes local traditional folk culture. Guangzhou time-honored restaurants update their way of brand narration, no matter in content or in form as they correspond to a alteration, such as the TaoTaoJu restaurant, LianXiangLou restaurant, Panxi restaurant and Guangzhou Jiujia restaurant. In fact, this reveals the historical context of Guangzhou’s catering consumption culture from another perspective.
Xiaobao Yu, Qian Peng


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