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This book addresses current research trends and practice in industrial design. Going beyond the traditional design focus, it explores a range of recent and emerging aspects concerning service design, human–computer interaction and user experience design, sustainable design, virtual & augmented reality, as well as inclusive/universal design, and design for all. A further focus is on apparel and fashion design: here, innovations, developments and challenges in the textile industry, including applications of material engineering, are taken into consideration. Papers on pleasurable and affective design, including studies on emotional user experience, emotional interaction design and topics related to social networks make up a major portion of the contributions included in this book, which is based on five AHFE 2020 international conferences (the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Design for Inclusion, the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Interdisciplinary Practice in Industrial Design, the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Affective and Pleasurable Design, the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Kansei Engineering, and the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Human Factors for Apparel and Textile Engineering) held on July 16–20, 2020. Thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, it provides graduate students, researchers and professionals in engineering, architecture, computer and materials science with extensive information on research trends, innovative methods and best practices, and a unique bridge fostering collaborations between experts from different disciplines and sectors.

### Human Centered Design Methodologies Applied to Complex Research Projects: First Results of the PLEINAIR Project

One of the data that national and international organizations – including the World Health Organization (WHO) – are observing is regarding people’s sedentary lifestyle, of all age groups and without distinction of ethnicity, social or territorial characteristics. To try to give concrete and possible solutions, the PLEINAIR (Free and Inclusive Parks in Networks for Recreational and Physical Intergenerational Activity) was developed; a research project funded under the action 1.2.2 POR FESR 2014–2020. The project started in July 2019 and will last 24 months. Outdoor parks and recreational areas are the scope of the project, which aims to improve and design inclusive contexts to promote the adoption of active lifestyles for all and for all age groups. The operational tools through which we will try to provide real solutions are the OSOs (Outdoor Smart Objects): urban furniture, ludic tools or customizable inclusive strategies to encourage physical activity, conviviality and socialization among people.

Giuseppe Mincolelli, Gian Andrea Giacobone, Silvia Imbesi, Michele Marchi

### Envisioning the Future and Going Back: A Human-Centered Strategy to Develop the Styling of a Sports Car

Developing a vehicle means uncertainty because the competitiveness of global market implies investing high sums in advance without knowing if the final solution will be successful after its launch. Therefore, automotive styling must be well executed to reduce management risks and adopting a Human-Centered approach at the early stages of the process is one of the best strategies to avoid negative outcomes. In particular, the research used the Vision in Product Design, a strategic model to envision the concept in the future to anticipate future trends or upcoming wishes. However, since ViP generates a prediction because its context factors belong to the future, the research would risk of not completely matching costumer expectations because of future uncertainty. Therefore, the research pushed the intent of the vision backward, in a mediated context, where the character of the vision was merged with the real expectations of people gathered in the current context.

Gian Andrea Giacobone, Giuseppe Mincolelli

### The DfA Quality Label: Design for All Practical Evaluation Experiences for Inclusive Design Solutions

In order to give everyone equal opportunities to benefit from environments, products and services, thus favoring social inclusion through the enhancement of human diversity, in recent decades various design approaches have been developed, with common objectives, but different principles and methodologies. Among these, Design for All proposes a holistic approach to the project, focusing on the individual as a whole, trying to satisfy everyone’s needs, from requirements to desires and aspirations. To do this it is also necessary to involve the entire supply chain of the decision. In an effort to investigate and experiment in practice this approach, for some years the DfA Italia association has issued a DfA Quality Label for product, service, environment or system, developed according to the Design for All approach. It is assigned through a particularly complex process, and declined with respect to two different levels. The highest level is assigned to design solutions meeting all the DfA principles and requirements; the lower one is assigned when not all the principles and requirements are fully satisfied (but can be, following some specific suggestions).

Giuseppe Di Bucchianico

### Social Innovation in Fashion Design: Can Design Provide Opportunities of Inclusion to Refugees in Greece?

Nearly 60.000 war refugees remain stranded in Greece [1], without any plan of amelioration for their living conditions. Design thinking strategy combined with social innovation could generate new scenarios of inclusion in the Greek society through the exchange of culture, knowledge and practical skills. In order to examine this hypothesis, members of Politecnico di Milano collaborated with Ankaa, a social NGO that offers vocational training to refugees in Athens. A one-month pilot period of workshops was organized to share practices of higher education in design of clothes and to awaken the creativity of participants by handmade processes. This period provided feedback for a long term educational offer designed specifically for this group of people. The aftermath planning included also a marketing strategy and entrepreneurial new scenarios to strengthen the organization, generate profit and finally to create a dialogue between the Greek society and this marginalized group.

Giovanni Maria Conti, Maria Angeliki Panagiotidou

### Fashion and Inclusive Design: Assistive Technologies Applied to Clothing

The present work reports the results of a research project carried out by the Textile Engineering Department at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (Blumenau, Brazil). The project’s main objective was to develop inclusive apparel textiles, meeting the different bodies and biotypes of people with or without disabilities. Contributing to the development of assistive technologies applied to clothing. Thus, in 2018, an inclusive fashion collection was developed for people with physical disabilities, co-produced with the members of ABLUDEF - Blumenau Association of Physically Disabled. The methodology used was based in a bibliographic research, deepening the approached themes in the project, as design and inclusive fashion, assistive technologies, and accessibility, as well as field research, conducted with ABLUDEF members. Among the final results, the garments made for the project were highlighted and modeled at the 6th South Brazil Awards for Inclusive Fashion, in Florianopolis (Brazil).

Grazyella C. O. Aguiar, Leonardo M. Rincon, Miguel A. F. Carvalho, Christian Mailer, Fabieli D. Breier, Fernando B. Ferreira

### Analysis of the Sensorial Characteristics of Materials for Inclusive Design

In recent years the study of materials has extended from technical-engineering characteristics to sensory and perceptual ones. The material of an interface, in fact, also assumes a communicative value as well as contributing to improving or promoting the interaction of individuals with products. This also considering the different levels of reaction to sensory stimuli that individuals can have, and therefore the different perceptions, also in relation to their socio-cultural experience. Here we present the results of an educational laboratory which had as its theme the analysis of materials for industrial design and their sensorial characteristics, with particular attention to inclusive design. In particular, the analysis process initially envisages a reading of the characteristics of the materials through the students’ descriptive skills related to the visual, tactile and acoustic dimensions, with reference to their use in the conformation of a product. Subsequently, the objects analyzed are also broken down into their main parts, while an original graphic summary rendering allows to evaluate the relative weight of each sensory aspect in the perception of the products, also in relation to human diversity.

Stefania Camplone, Emidio Antonio Villani

### User Friendly Eco Bag for Everyday Life

The bag is a multi-tasking accessory for women, which combines their vain dimension with the utilitarian one related to different female personalities, the narcissistic character and the need to carry some “tools”, which satisfies and adapts to their changing needs during the day. A bag is an accessory that “helps” but that, at the same time, “confuses” because of some problems, including the difficulty of finding objects inside, where everything is often stored in a disorderly way. Starting from these assumptions, here is the result of a research developed at the Department of Architecture of the University of Chieti-Pescara as part of a master’s degree thesis. In particular, specific analyzes were conducted on the types of bags most used by a wide variability of female users in different contexts of use. The research ends with the concept design of a storage bag that responds to the main female needs, with particular attention to the realization through the use of environmentally sustainable 3D printable materials.

Stefania Camplone, Giuseppe Di Bucchianico, Grazia Ventrella

### Exploring Boundaries and Synergies Between Inclusive Design and Service Design

Service design is assuming a strategic role in contemporary society. From a design for inclusion perspective, this paper tries to outline a theoretical reflection based on the assumption that describes the possibility to identify four categories for understanding how service design and inclusive design can establish a relationship, i.e. (i) inclusive service design; (ii) design for inclusive services; (iii) service design for inclusion; (iv) inclusive design for service design. After a systematic literature review, the authors provide theoretical case studies from deliberately selected academic papers for each category. The result is the identification of a set of relationships between design for inclusion and service design to be studied in the inclusive design research field. Discussion and conclusions underline how these relationships can be helpful to practitioners in design and design researchers that would like to orient their activities understanding multiple ways of relating service design and design for inclusion.

Daniele Busciantella-Ricci, Libertad Rizo-Corona, Carlos Aceves-Gonzalez

### Evaluating Possibilities in Chinese Market and Media for Strategic Design for Sustainable Development and Inclusion

China is constantly changing, swiftly. The vastity of the country and the numerous challenges that it’s facing simultaneously, allow for disparities and contradictions. In the last decades, China had impressive economic growth (the 2018 GDP of 9030.95 billion CNY, increased 2.6 times compared with 2009) and pulled out of poverty millions (from 98.99 million in 2012 to 16.6 million in 2018). In the last years, a growing population could tackle not only needs but quite some aspirations. Now that China has a thriving market and it’s establishing its soft power, how is human diversity perceived in the society at large and the market? How are the market and its stakeholders following the growing suggestions of the government policies on sub mentioned topics of the last decade? Would it be possible to detect a role for strategic design for sustainable development in the commercial sectors? Can singular happening facts be escalated through the support of a design-driven approach to sustainability and inclusion? The authors attempt to highlight meaningful events in the mainstream media and the market and, combining them with government’s and private institutions’ actions, to understand and evaluate a possible framework for further strategic design action.

Avril Accolla, Ziquan Wang, Huichan Liu

### Employing the Inclusive Design Process to Design for All

The 2019 EIDD Design for All Europe Summer School in Viana do Castelo, Portugal brought together 20 international doctoral students and design professionals to explore and apply Design for All knowledge. The program culminated in a capstone design challenge, during which participants were divided into teams and asked to apply Inclusive Design (ID) principles to address Viana’s urban planning issues. This paper presents the results of one of the four teams—outlining the design process, considerations, objectives, and outcomes. During this challenge, the team followed a prescribed ID process (based on the EIDD Design for All Europe-supported Inclusive Design framework [1] created by Design and Architecture Norway (DOGA) in collaboration with the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design (HHCD) at the Royal College of Art (RCA)), testing its applicability. By engaging directly with lead user group members and relevant stakeholders, the team identified creative, pragmatic design solutions to meet design goals and innovate across people, planet, and profit. Thus, by applying ID as a people-centered strategy, participants created a conceptual urban design likely to result in sustainable innovation and resonate across demographics.

Jenna Mikus, Victoria Høisæther, Carmen Martens, Ubaldo Spina, Janice Rieger

### Using AI to Enable Design for Diversity: A Perspective

Inclusive design focuses on diversity. The contextualized user-sensitive design framework of the interaction system needs to analyze and deal with complex diversity factors, which challenges the traditional design process, tools, and methods. Therefore, new technological progress is needed to provide more innovation potential. The authors point out that the design process of smart products is evolving in response to uncertainty. In the future, diversity-oriented design will tend to allocate design resources and values in an algorithmic way rather than the compromised unity solution. This paper analyzes the limitations and potential of the application of AI technology represented by deep learning in diversity-oriented design practice and design research, puts forward the goal and direction of further research, and discusses the critical links of AI-enabled diversity design in interdisciplinary research environment.

Fang Li, Hua Dong, Long Liu

### Design for Inclusion and Diversity: Developing Social Competencies in Engineering Education

This research proposes a novel method to design didactic products that favor the social inclusion of people with disabilities by creating learning experiences for engineering students that develop disciplinary and personal competencies. This manuscript briefly describes the notions of inclusion, diversity, and urgency to foster community equality, involving governments, companies, and society. We propose a methodology based on Experiential Learning, Challenged-based Learning, and Competency-Based Education to impart learning experiences that ignite awareness of social inclusion competencies and lead to improved learning outcomes. The methodology describes the design application for inclusivity, showing the interactions of students in different civil partnerships and institutions that support the needs of people with visual impairment, Down Syndrome, and Alzheimer’s. The Results section discusses the participation of students in the learning experiences at host institutions that facilitated their involvement to understand social needs and then contribute to the design and production of supportive products.

Claudia Lizette Garay-Rondero, David Ernesto Salinas-Navarro, Ericka Zulema Rodríguez Calvo

### Design for Inclusion in the Nautical Field. DfA Guideline for Small Motorboats

During the last decades a strong attention to the issues of human diversity, social inclusion and equality has developed in different fields and in the nautical one. This has allowed more and more users to approach the world of pleasure boating, including people with disability. Accordingly, several small motor boats are designed or adapted for different kinds of users. This state-of-art represents a breeding ground to employ Design for Inclusion approaches in this field. The research’s aim here described is to define DfA-based guidelines for small motor boats, in particular. To obtain this result, the study has been conducted throughout different phases. During the early stages, different case studies have been selected, filed and analysed to comprehend what their strength and lacks about accessibility and ergonomic matter are. During the last stages, starting from this critical perspective, we have drawn up design guidelines based on the principles of “DfA Italia” for small motor boats.

Jessica Lagatta

### Diary Methods Used in Research on Visually Impaired People

The diary method is a good way to figure out what practical needs visually impaired people (VIP) have based on their experience. The objective of this study is to investigate how to conduct the diary method in the research of visually impaired people through literature review and interviews. This study summarizes the research purpose of the existing studies, detailed methods such as input method and duration, and issues raised during the study. As a result, we derives considerations for researchers to perform efficient and effective diary methods. The research field for VIP needs a new type of the diary method applied with new technologies such as mobile, IoT, and blockchain.

Dawoon Jeong, Sung H. Han

### Designing Accessible Maps on Mobile Devices for Blind and Visually Impaired Users

Currently, there is a high percentage of people with visual disabilities worldwide. Sometimes, these people do not have access to the information of online geographic maps. A traditional map published on the Web does not provide the necessary alternative information for people with visual disabilities. This research presents a mobile application with geographic maps that provides the information in audio format to blind and visually impaired users. The application uses the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG Tiny) format that allows additional information to be stored within the map code. SVG Tiny provides to screen readers the content inside of map code to transform text to audio. The tests were carried out through accessibility assessment tools, which showed a level of accessibility greater than 90%. In addition, tests were carried out with blind people, who were satisfied with the level of accessibility of the mobile application.

Tania Calle-Jimenez, Sergio Luján-Mora, Hugo Arias-Flores, Carlos Ramos-Galarza, Isabel L. Nunes

### Balance of Considerations Between Technological and Social Factors: A Case Study on SmartrackTM for the Visually Impaired

Rebuilding inclusive facilities in old districts in metropolitan cities with high population density encounters a number of problems. It is necessary to find a solution to renew the city with minimal interruption of people’s everyday life. Through a case study of Hong Kong, the paper addresses the conditions of the public facilities provided for the visually impaired persons (VIPs) in Hong Kong. VIPs’ needs and concerns while using the facilities were investigated. Based on the findings, a new tactile guide path using smart technology, named Smartrack™, is designed. It is argued that supplementary actions have to be taken to help people with special needs to understand the issues of public privacy when smart technology is being brought to them. Inclusive researchers, designers, as well as educators, should collaboratively attain a balance among different considerations between technological and social factors.

Yi Lin Wong, Kin Wai Michael Siu, Chi Hang Lo

### Design and Development of an All-Terrain Wheelchair for Rural Areas in Mexico: The First Stage of the Project

Estimates that around 10% of the world’s population, some 650 million people have some disability. Studies indicate that about 10% of these people need a wheelchair to move. Therefore, estimates that 1% of the total population requires a wheelchair, about 65 million people worldwide. Calculations by the UN show that 80% of that amount lives in developing countries. In 2010 it was estimated that 20 million of those who needed a wheelchair to get around did not have one. In developing countries, moreover, chairs are required to allow people with disabilities to move through irregular surfaces since they either live in the countryside, or in cities where the infrastructure is not adequate, and there are no sidewalks, ramps or wheelchair facilities. From this problem arises the need for the design and development of an all-terrain wheelchair of low cost and simple manufacturing, which allows its reproduction in almost any developing country.

Alberto Rossa-Sierra, Ana Paula Diaz-Pinal, Fabiola Cortes-Chavez, Felix Maldonado de la Fuente, Gilberto Carrillo-Alvarado

### Building Communities Through Digital Data Sharing

Social inclusion through data management is a new challenge in the urban transformation processes, which is highly relevant for the real estate sector. Digital technologies can accelerate the formation of accessible urban districts, where a district manager collects and analyzes data to provide feedback to inhabitants. Neighborhoods and urban areas, with their inhabitants, work as a platform connecting tangible and intangible elements.

Soroosh Nazem, Valeria Bruni, Elena Fabris, Alan Marcus, Barbara Melis, Graziella Roccella

### How to Democratize Internet of Things Devices: A Participatory Design Study to Improve Digital Literacy

The global introduction of affordable Internet of Things (IoT) devices offers an opportunity to empower a large variety of users with different needs. However, many off-the-shelf digital products are still not widely adopted by people who are hesitant technology users or by older adults, notwithstanding that the design and user-interaction of these devices is recognized to be user-friendly. Considering the habits and preferences of those who have used mainly analog devices for most of their lives, such users may encounter challenges such as digital illiteracy and technology anxiety when faced with newly-released digital IoT-based products. In view of the potential of IoT-based devices, how can we reduce the obstacles of a cohort with low digital literacy and technology anxiety and enable them to be equal participants in the digitalized world? This article shows the method and results achieved in a community-stakeholder workshop, developed through the participatory design methodology, aiming at brainstorming problems and scenarios through a focus group and a structured survey. The research activity focused on understanding factors to increase the usability of off-the-shelf IoT devices for hesitant users and identifying strategies for improving digital literacy and reducing technology anxiety.A notable result was a series of feedback items pointing to the importance of facilitating educational experiences through learning resources to support individuals with different abilities, age, gender expression, to better adopt off-the-shelf IoT-based solutions. This fundamental first step of user experience research generated considerations for designing open-source learning tools to foster inclusive and more accessible use of IoT-based technologies for improving older people’s daily activities.

Matteo Zallio, John McGrory, Damon Berry

### Talking About Inclusiveness: How Inclusive Are Transportation App Services?

This research aimed to know the perception of users with motor disabilities who need to use assistive devices about how inclusive it is one of the leading ride-hailing platforms. Transportation app services have become aware of the needs of people with disabilities and the difficulties they face to integrate into active life to satisfy their basic and recreational needs. Thus, companies behind these services have developed alternatives in their service to reach the goal of inclusiveness. However, the remaining question is if they achieve such a goal. Two surveys were applied to assess the service. Results suggest that whereas the app advertises the inclusiveness of its service, more than half of users are not receiving the required attention. Eighty per cent of the participants considered necessary the provision of a vehicle physically adequate to their needs with only 36% who responded to have traveled in suitable cars.

### Emotional Design and Human Factors Design as Tool for Understanding Efficiency in Information Design Process at Medical Documents

This work will focus on improving the design that currently has medical documents, specifically results of blood chemistry used in Mexico, which are not designed to be understood by the different users who really interact with this product. It is important to propose a taxonomy of the different users that interact with the documents that correspond to the results of clinical analysis, in order to develop products that are focused on the cognitive requirements of each of them.

Mariel Garcia-Hernadez, Fabiola Cortes-Chavez, Marco Marin-Alvarez, Alberto Rossa-Sierra, Elvia Luz Gonzalez

### Moving Beyond Visitor and Usability Studies: Co-designing Inclusion in Museums and Galleries

Museums and galleries have made efforts to be more inclusive over the last ten years, primarily through the emphasis on visitor studies, however they continue to have issues with making their environments and content accessible. This research addresses these issues and presents an alternative approach to creating inclusion in museum and galleries through co-design. By using co-design methods to actively engage people with differing abilities, this study creates new trajectories for inclusion that address the full spectrum of need and choice, for all users of the museum and gallery. Moving beyond visitor studies, the research presents new methods and strategies for museums and galleries when designing for inclusion. This paper presents key findings from case study research undertaken through the Vis-ability exhibition in Australia, to propose alternative ways of creating inclusion in museums and galleries, and how co-design can deepen our understanding of design for all.

Janice Rieger

Holiday time is one of the most important and pleasurable occasions when daily routines can be changed for healthier and beneficial for well-being: physical as well as psychological. The opportunity to both enjoy and use this time well is important for all, and also crucial for persons with disabilities and the elderly. In this article the author collects and presents specialized solutions in universal design for coastal resort architecture and planning, provides an assessment of a case study, and presents her own project for a the Międzyzdroje Promenada Zachodnia competition in Poland.

Agata Bonenberg

### Accessibility to Cultural Heritage from the Urban System to Museums. Innovative Solutions

When talking about accessibility, it is essential to underline the different concepts and perceptions of disability: as the ideal man does not exist, we can say that we are all disabled. This paper focuses on the paradigmatic case of Cultural Heritage, whose accessibility is very complex because it includes all possible access difficulties. Yet there are still few cases in which it can be said that the Heritage is really accessible to all. In order to proceed to a true inclusive design, the first step is to know the status quo and recognize the elements that prevent a complete and wide accessibility. The results of the knowledge have to be mapped and communicated both to planners/designers and to citizens. In these phases, at least three very important functions are performed by the web: the availability of information, the interoperability, the dissemination of a “culture of inclusion”.

Michela Benente, Valeria Minucciani, Graziella Roccella

### Inclusive Museums: From Physical Accessibility to Cultural Appropriation

Cultural Heritage belongs to all people, and its preservation is dedicated to the cultural growth and human promotion, then it must to be available to all citizens. Today, sensitivity has increased on this issue, and over time different levels of accessibility to Cultural Heritage have been recognized: social, financial, physical, perceptual and cognitive, cultural accessibility – but the final stage is related to “appropriation”, when people get the Cultural Heritage not only from the intellectual point of view but also from the emotional one, really benefiting from it. In museums, as confined places where the communication of heritage is the main goal, it is clear that physical accessibility is only a prerequisite for being able to really appropriate the contents. Several guidelines have been developed, but the sensitivity of curators and designers (from the museological and museographic point of view) is crucial. This paper aims to discuss these issues, with particular reference to a wider concept of accessibility.

Michela Benente, Valeria Minucciani

### Bathroom Handrail Requirements for Use by the Elderly

Getting in and out of a bathtub during bathing can be difficult as people grow older, but Japanese people prefer to go into the tub. Experiments were conducted on the effectiveness of handrail positioning to assist their bathing activities. The height of a tub edge (measured from the outside) was changed along with different positioning of a handrail, both vertical and horizontal. General finding was that subjects preferred the floor height between 350 mm and 450 mm for the tub edge. The preferred handrail height they grabbed was between 760 mm and 1060 mm from the floor, with acceptable handrail position just above the edge or 100 mm inside the tub. Observation of subjects’ behavior and past experiences suggest that seating area such as bath board be provided for frail seniors to sit down to get in and out of the tub rather than forcing them to step across.

Yoshiaki Goto, Satoshi Kose, Shinji Tanaka, Hajime Yada

### Beyond Walking: Improving Urban Mobility Equity in the Age of Information

With the ubiquitous cellular network and smart devices, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have significantly influenced our everyday mobility. However, there is still lack of accessibility information for limited mobility groups, including old, disabled public transit users and disabled pedestrians. This paper aims to present some practical inspirations to overcome the informational barriers for disabled people to be involved in urban activities. A review and an analytical explanation of current solutions is carried out to explore the possibility of ICTs application in the context of Asian high-density cities. The ubiquitous ICTs offer a huge potential to help and liberate people (disabled or older) who face challenges with an access to a certain minimum level of mobility.

Dadi An, Jiangchao Wang, Puxian Wang, Yuheng Yang, Yunchen Pu, Haorui Ke, Yuqin Chen

### Acceptable Handrail Diameter for Use by the Elderly

Psychological experiments were conducted to determine allowable range of handrail diameter for use by the elderly on stairs and in the toilets. The results were cross-examined with ergonomic standpoint. The present findings are that: 1) Simple grab of handrails yields the optimal diameter of 40 mm; 2) Simultaneous application of body weight against the handrail indicates 36 mm or slimmer as the optimal diameter. The latter result is more important as seniors need stability and reliability when using handrails. These findings are in accordance with the guidelines in Sweden, New Zealand, and England & Wales, where diameters between 30 and 50 mm are unanimously accepted. Present research results point toward a revised recommendation in Japan on handrail diameters to secure safer traverse on stairs.

Satoshi Kose, Yoshihide Sugimoto, Yoshiaki Goto

### A Holistic Approach to Inclusive Mobility Under Resilience and Sustainability Goals: A Pilot Project in Brazil

Today’s societies are dependent on increasingly complex and interdependent safety-critical systems with often poorly understood vulnerabilities. If their provision of service is cut off or drastically reduced, the dependent activities will either fail or perform at a lower level. Transport systems are a good example of such propensity to natural and man-made disruptions. Due to their complexity, uncertainty, and safety criticality, Mobility offers a high number of opportunities for research and innovation, particularly in the present technological era. Thus, objectives like disaster risk reduction, sustainable development strategies, and sustainable transport, are nowadays included as well. The holistic approach is based on the principle of promoting inclusive mobility without creating any negative impact in other areas of each targeted community, thus requires an integrated perspective of the work towards inclusion under safety, sustainability and resilience conditions.

Magaly Romao, Anabela Simoes

### “Grit” Assessment of First Year Design Students

Author Angela Duckworth’s book “Grit” [1] raises interesting questions about the idea of how perseverance and passion play into the development of young design students. Talented students are well appreciated but sometimes talent isn’t enough to address complex design problems, sometimes one needs hustle to overcome obstacles. This study uses Duckworth’s “Grit Test” and “Activity Test” to quantify the level of “grit” of a student population entering the first year of an intensive industrial design program. The resulting data was used to identify and track “gritty” students through the summer and fall semesters. While grit is an incredibly important attribute for students to have in the industrial design profession, subsequent assessment reveals the grittiest students did not necessarily improve academically over the two semesters. This paper identifies the methods of research and speculates how grit applies to students beginning their studies within an established industrial design curriculum.

Benjamin Bush, Chris Arnold

### Identity, Wayfinding and Construction for an Underserved Population in Ecuador

Socially responsible design is a topic of significant interest to designers in all design disciplines. Socially responsible design manifests itself in multiple ways as designers explore how to integrate the concept into their practice. This paper is a case study about a particular manifestation of socially responsible design. It documents a collaborative effort between educators in graphic design and building science attempting to impact a poor neighborhood in Quito, Ecuador. Important elements of the project were that it accommodates a service learning class for students, that it utilizes local building methods, and that it meets a genuine need of the community. The project serves as an example of interdisciplinary collaboration finding a unique way to integrate socially responsible design into practice and as an educational tool.

David Smith

### ID Case Study: The Value of Intellectual Property in Innovative Product Development

A new category in the vacuum cleaner industry was created in 1979 when Black & Decker introduced its first Dustbuster hand vac. B&D sold more than a million Dustbusters in that first year and inspired competitors to rapidly flood the market with knockoffs. Enterprising manufacturers in Asia reverse-engineered the Dustbuster and tried to sell their reproductions in the U.S. market. B&D embraced its intellectual property and successfully litigated imitators because of patents covering its unique appearance and configuration. Eureka saw this new market category as an opportunity to embrace emerging Asia manufacturing, first creating its own hand vac that did not infringe on B&D’s patents and then following up with a new product by adding a handle and floor nozzle to introduce the very first light weight battery-operated upright vacuum cleaner.This case study discusses the value of intellectual property in innovative product development.

Joyce Thomas

### PET: Polyethylene Terephthalate – The Ubiquitous 500 ml Water Bottle

Only 10% of worldwide PET production is recycled. PET is associated with Single Use Plastics, used a few min and discarded. A PET bottle in a landfill takes 500 years to decompose. That same bottle in the ocean will break down into micro plastics that last 500 years. Micro-plastics are consumed by organisms as part of a food chain, which includes us! Since 2009, Coca-Cola distributed more than 35 billion PET bottles worldwide and introduced a PlantBottle packaging that converts sugars in plants into ingredients for fully recyclable PET plastic bottles.China stopped buying 2/3’s of the world’s recyclable plastic in 2018.Ideonella sakaiensis is a bacterium capable of producing enzymes that consume PET plastic as its’ sole carbon and energy source. Producers of PET bottles are encouraging recycling, pursuing plant based PET and bacterial consumption of PET to promote decomposition in landfills and oceans as an alternative to recycling.

Clark Lundell, Joyce Thomas

### Leveraging Design Competitions to Enhance Learning Goals and Student Motivation Within a Studio Project

Industrial Designers traditionally use models to visualize and test designs. As fabrication processes shift from analog shop equipment to digital technologies, ID education must adjust curriculums. As a result, graduates often have gaps in their training. Accordingly, the School of Industrial Design at Georgia Tech. created a new course to bridge this gap between digital and traditional modelmaking.This course has consistently featured the project that is the focus of this paper. Recently, a competition was leveraged so that project deliverables would satisfy the entry requirements while the prizes could add value to successful project completion.The results of this most recent project were noticeably improved. Clearly leveraging the competition motivated students and enhanced the learning goals inherent in the project. Through a comparison of the results of this project over multiple semesters, it will be shown that competitions can serve as a useful motivational element in undergraduate design education.

Wendell Wilson, Young Mi Choi

### Strategic Pathways for Interdisciplinary Design Education

Pathways for understanding critical components of interdisciplinary design education are necessary in the expanding universe of design. As the design of interactive products, environments, systems, and services expands, the shift has been profound for an academy historically immersed in product design education. New disciplines think and work differently. Facilities are often outdated and are not well-designed or equipped for interactive learning. Some collaborative partners are overly bureaucratic, isolated, and often have low budgets. Understanding the critical components of interdisciplinary design education is key to the development of new and more effective models. The author draws from over four decades of experience in education conducting interdisciplinary product design studies for industry.

William Bullock

### A Student Driven Model for Creative Pedagogy

This literature review discusses the possibility of students being the driving force of an interdisciplinary research educational model for creative pedagogy. Current models lack the robust interdisciplinary and individually oriented approach for disciplines in the field of creative studies such as Graphic Design, where the students are the driving force for their educational methods and assessments. This paper posits that, if the education system is designed for the average learner, then the system is designed for none. The purpose of this literature review is to initiate discussions about customized learning plans for the graphic design discipline and to provide ideas about how to progress towards a more user-driven interdisciplinary approach for accomplishing this goal. This review seeks to shed light on the possibilities of individual learning plans across creative disciplines. Finally, the paper synthesizes these diverse ideas into an early stage interdisciplinary model for developing a student-driven learning model for creative pedagogy.

Angie Fahlman, Lois Frankel

### Steps to Safer and More Sustainable Industrial Design Studios

In many industrial design studios different materials, methods and processes are used which are not sustainable or eco-friendly and are often toxic or hazardous for students to be exposed to. Foam board, high-density urethane foams, blue and pink insulation foam, Bondo, spray adhesive, epoxy and thermoset plastics are some examples of materials that are commonly used in the modeling of concepts and prototypes but are neither healthy or sustainable. An effort has been made by many educators to encourage students to create designs which are eco-friendly and sustainable but the materials, methods and processes in which students use to create their designs still remains largely non-environmentally friendly and toxic. This paper explores steps, materials and methods that were utilized in a sophomore industrial design studio case study to provide a healthier, more environmentally friendly setting for students to generate their designs.

George K. Chow

### Project Pilot Run 2.ZeRo

Educators have a responsibility to prepare students for their profession through a building of methods and skills and understanding, increasing in complexity, over the course of a four-year degree. However, educators cannot be expected to know everything and are sometimes limited in course content based on factors such as class size, studio level, curriculum, and the total amount of credit hours. It is the educator’s responsibility to their students to develop advanced student research experiences (ASRE’s) such as professional student work experience. Sponsored or funded projects are great ways to provide students an understanding of work for a client; these experiences are where educational pedagogy and professional practice converge. Although working for a client is a positive experience for students, it is the educator’s responsibility to maintain rigor and studio standards. This paper will follow a third year industrial design sponsored project and highlight the areas of pedagogy and profession.

### Industrial Design + Horticulture: A Collaborative Approach to Greenhouse Design

Creating collaborative environments between design and the sciences has the potential to solve problems in new and creative ways through the design process, a process unfamiliar or unknown to many scientific fields. This type of collaboration has been an ongoing pursuit, with a recent instance being a cross disciplinary workshop between Schools of Industrial Design and Horticulture. This unique workshop consisted of a studio-style multidisciplinary workshop in which professors guided students to generate innovative concepts for greenhouse cooling. The focus of this particular collaboration was the creation of energy-efficient, long-term, and cost-effective solutions for greenhouse designs that allow year-round food production in both food-poor locations and temperate climates that are home to a significant portion of greenhouse farming. Opportunity for creative and novel solutions to cooling are vitally important and timely due the negative impact of climate change on food production in many at-risk and low-income regions.

Carlton R. Lay

### Designer Thinking, A Unique Combination of Cognitive Modes

The theory of cognitive modes states that individuals have unique and dominant ways of receiving, processing, and using information and that these styles influence behaviors and abilities. These abilities are natural talents. Every profession uses different. The work someone is most likely to enjoy and be successful in is work that uses his or her specific abilities. Research identifies three dominant cognitive modes for industrial designers: creative thinking, visual thinking, and adaptive thinking. This paper describes a series of experiences developed to help assess creative, visual, and adaptive thinking in students that are considering the industrial design program at Brigham Young University.

Paul Skaggs

### Redefining User Needs

There is consensus in the field of medical device development that successful product development requires a deep understanding of the user and their needs. Despite the importance placed on identifying user needs, from practitioners and academics alike, there is little agreement on what constitutes a user need. This is problematic for medical device development teams, as they are responsible for defining user interface requirements and ensuring they meet the needs of intended users. The author proposes a framework for defining user needs for medical device development to improve consistency and to optimize the development of user interface requirements.

James Rudolph

### The Role of Design in Consumer Behaviour: How Design Can Influence Consumer Decision Making at a Point of Purchase

Numerous disciplines are attempting to discover how consumers behave at a point of purchase (POP). One factor that is significant to the development of the content behind what influences consumers’ behaviour is design. Existing design and brand research will be explored; this literature review reveals that these traditional research methods do not produce the intended target behaviour. New forms of research that provide an interdisciplinary approach, such as the Design with Intent Method (DWI Method), Neuromarketing, emotional design or sensory design applications, may allow for more authentic results to help influence consumer behavior. If designers can design with the intent to change consumer behavior using more genuine methods of research, then behavior can be influenced and predicted. By exploring numerous examples of how design has provoked emotion and influenced consumer behavior, this literature review suggests that design influences consumer decision making at the point of purchase.

Ruzbeh Irani, Lois Frankel

### Designing an Experience Ecosystem on Campus

This paper summarizes an inclusive pedagogical experience from the perspectives of design educators and students. It is a case study of a collaborative capstone course at an established design program at a major university and a narrative of a sponsored project to redesign a service/experience-driven ecosystem on campus. Non-linear journey of interdisciplinary teams showcases how contextual experts from diverse background were able to embrace unfamiliar challenges. The participants in this study include senior level undergraduate students from various majors.The author will discuss inclusive pedagogical examples from a 14-week capstone studio course that was defined by three key design phases: Design Intent and Opportunity, Conceptualization, and Implementation, each employing its own relevant tools, methodologies, and design approaches. This collaborative design development course inspired participants to engage in design learning from a holistic, user-centered, and interdisciplinary approach.

Scott Shim

### Ageless Design: A Design Method of Product Longevity for Cross-Generation

Product longevity is a method for sustainable production and consumption in the current consumerist culture driven by planned obsolescence. While product aesthetics affect the product lifetime, existing approaches from industrial design perspectives are limited. Timeless design has been mentioned as one of the design strategies for product longevity. However, timeless design has limitations because it is largely focused on a product’s appearance and lacks consideration of varying needs for different age groups. This paper introduces ageless design as a more comprehensive method with an inclusive perspective and usability added to timeless design. Ageless design aims to address the needs of multiple generations as well as to make a product accessible and easy to use regardless of age so that a product can not only be used across generations but also endure long years of use. Subsequently, this paper examines the differing VOCs for multiple generations and builds a framework for ageless design. A representative product of ageless design is analyzed based on the framework, then the elements and the guidelines for ageless design are verified.

Yong-Gyun Ghim, Cliff Shin

### Analysis of Design Elements of Automatic Household Food Waste Composting Machine Based on Perceptual Engineering

With the improvement of people’s living standards, the pursuit of material life has also been continuously improved. The improvement of life has also brought new kitchen waste and realized local resource utilization. Kitchen waste composting is of great significance for sustainable development. The product’s styling design of the machine is an important design element for achieving householdization. The analysis of its design elements such as color, material, surface texture, and styling technology through the analysis of perceptual engineering provides a reference for product design and production.

Chuyi Zhao, Huabin Wang

### Have the Display Illumination Design Misled Customers on Color Perception? A Study on Differences of Color Caused by LED Lighting on Leather Products

This research aims at identifying the differences of color perception by applying 6 types of LED lighting on 4 types of leather finishing. The 6 lighting types include three levels of correlated color temperature (CCT) multiplied by two illuminance levels. The 4 types of leather finishing include red and brown, with grains and without grains. The dependent variables were blackness, saturation and hue of 3 characteristics encoded for each color in the Natural Color System. A total of 15 volunteers participated the experimental study. The results reveal that CCT, illumination and color have significant effects on the perception of color differences. At the same time, a three-factor interactive effect of grains, CCT and color, also shows significant effects. The results of this study can provide references for the display lighting design of leather products and the color design of leather products under different lighting conditions.

Cong Xu, Chih-Fu Wu, Dan-Dan Xu, Ying-Shan Lai

### The Development Trend of Personalized Bank Card Design from a New Perspective

In recent years, bank card business has become a very important profit growth point of major commercial banks, but the homogenization of bank card is becoming more and more serious, and the competition for bank card market is becoming more and more fierce. In order to attract more customers, banks have launched personalized bank cards. Personalized bank cards not only have different functions, but also pay more attention to improving the internal attributes of products compared with ordinary bank cards. This paper analyzes the design characteristics of the existing personalized bank card products of the major banks, and forecasts the development trend of the personalized bank card design combining with various factors in the new perspective.

Xinxiong Liu, Jingyang Du

### A Conceptual Model for Designing Sustainable City Development

This literature review highlights key factors of sustainable cities by looking at the World Design Capital (WDC) programme of the World Design Organization (WDO) which is an international organization representing the profession of industrial design. Exploring the WDC, helps recognize cities for their effective use of design. This literature review explores successful design strategies, which could be utilized as preliminary steps towards sustainability and suggests a conceptual model for sustainable city development.

Amira Ashraf, Thomas Garvey

### The Challenges of Interdisciplinary Participation and Anti-oppressive Principles

Championed as an emancipatory, bottom-up approach, participatory design (PD) continues to be a popular method for collaborative and interdisciplinary designers. PD approaches not only emphasize, but require for their success, the engagement of key stakeholders throughout the design process, including end-users, interdisciplinary team members and subject matter experts. This literature review examines contemporary perspectives on PD, highlighting participation and challenges to PD approaches, before introducing the reader to the principles of Anti-Oppressive Practice (AOP). Reframing challenges to PD approaches as issues of participation allows for the consideration of AOP principles to meet these challenges.

Dawson Clark, Lois Frankel

### A Dimensional Themes’ Matrix for Identifying Design Problem Structure

Designers use various design methods and tools to understand user needs, identify using process and context, and set a design direction in the design process. Generally, Human-Centered Design (HCD) process requires the process of classifying and interpreting a vast amount of raw user data into meaningful information. Designers frequently use affinity diagrams to transform the data into meaningful information. However, it is difficult to get rational insights only within the affinity diagram, since it is challenging to synthetically analyze the derived keywords. This paper presents a new method of analyzing user data called ‘dimensional themes’ matrix’. The matrix enables designers to understand the design problem structure by positioning user data on the intersections of two keyword dimensions. It provides rationales to insights by enhancing the connectivity of the keyword themes, which is difficult to capture with the original affinity diagram.

Dabin Lee, Sangjin Joo, Soyoon Park, Hwang Kim, KwanMyung Kim

### Reconstructing Social Identity Through Physical Attractiveness

Attractiveness is an attribute of an individual’s interest and desire for someone or something that outlines affiliative behaviors in human interaction. Physical attractiveness is the aesthetic perception of the physical traits of a human-based on individuals’ subjective preferences and/or cultural and social differences. It has a significant contribution to how people are judged in sexual attractiveness, physical attractiveness, physique, social opportunities, relationships, and more.In a previous study, we discovered that physical appearance was a significant factor of happiness for young adults, as they desire flawless images of themselves in social media [1]. The psychological driving forces of improving physical attractiveness are mainly two-fold – 1) it comes from one’s eagerness to satisfy the needs of beauty and shape themselves as “the ideal one in mind”, and 2) it comes from the pressure of the external, such as public opinion, employment and so on.The aim of this present research is to address the relationship between social identity and physical attractiveness trends based on Eastern and Western cultural differences. Social media was used as a measure of social identity because it is a primary interaction tool for current young adults. The research displays significant differences between Eastern and Western cultures in terms of preferences for cosmetic interventions. Comparisons from two Instagram hashtags, #beautiful and #happiness, indicated significant bias of social media images that represent the preferences of cosmetic interventions by culture.

Young Ae Kim, Qiuwen Li

### Happiness Participatory Media: Cultural Differences in Happiness on Instagram

The Happiness Participatory Media analyzes Instagram data for visual cues with emotional expression (happiness), hashtags (words), gender, age, and locations, in order to get a clearer picture of how people portray their happiness from different cultures. This research looked at the actual patterns of the dataset to see how it is different and/or similar to the generalized idea of happiness today.In our previous research, we were curious about how to approach theoretically social media images in general and to understand one’s emotional expression through social media, in particular, Instagram. We incorporated an ensemble of computational methods from machine learning, image processing, and information design to extract useful psychological indicators from photographic data. Hence, we discovered that the daily communication method has been changed drastically, which heavily influenced individuals’ perceptions of what they considered to be happy. In fact, physical appearance was by far a more important factor for young adults’ happiness than relationships, achievement, or travel/experience (Li & Kim 2019).Happiness Participatory Media centralized disparate archives of happiness expressions through Instagram from 3 countries in the international locations Seoul, Korea (four seasons), Naha Japan (one season), and New York (four seasons) and Los Angeles (one season) in the United States using a mix of theoretical, artistic, and quantitative methods. This rich media visualization will be assembled with thousands of photos to reveal interesting patterns and allow participants to navigate the whole set of 4,000 photos (1000 images of each location) with hashtags of #beautiful, #relationship, #achievement, and #travel. In addition, we will address social media as not only a function of emotional expression through images of oneself, but also opportunities to display a perfect version of oneself with a desired lifestyle. The project brought to light the development of participatory media and the diverse social & cultural contexts.

Qiuwen Li, Young Ae Kim

### Collaboration to Improve Experience in Hospital Environments

Hospital environments are continuously responding to external pressures and societal expectations for healthcare. This results in increased demands for practitioners and hospital staff, which greatly impact the quality of care for patients. The need for interdisciplinary collaboration is emerging within the public sector in response to these changes. This literature review aims to identify the ways that patients and practitioners could or have been engaged with co-design methods, to improve the user experience within stressful environments, specifically in hospitals. In order to frame the current pain points within a hospital, this literature review also identifies current issues within the environment, and previously explored solutions relative to patient and practitioner experience. Furthermore, the different disciplines that can likely be involved in improving the experience within this context through interdisciplinary collaboration will be addressed, specifically, ties to architecture, sensory design, psychology and cognitive science, and social sciences.

Kayla Daigle, Lois Frankel

Study the connotation, value and design methods of emotional interaction design in landscape installations, let people generate emotion-level interactions in their interactions with landscape installations. Through case analysis, and summarizing the methods of integrating emotional interaction design into landscape installation, emotional interaction in landscape installation is divided into three levels: instinct layer, behavior layer, and the reflection layer. It is considered that incorporating emotional interaction design into landscape installations is an effective way to improve the attractiveness of landscapes and meet the emotional needs of users and proposes an emotional interaction design method for landscape installations.

Jiang Yuhao

### Exploring the Potential Uses of Ocean Plastic and Public Engagement Activities for Raising Awareness

This research explored the qualities and properties of ocean plastic as an accessible material in design and examined public perception by conducting public engagement activities. From addressing the needs of ocean plastic challenge by reviewing the literature, the author finds complex meaning in ecological and economic agendas of ocean plastic. The laboratory experimentation with recycling ocean plastic includes mainly Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polystyrene, which were collected on the beaches in Scotland. The context of ocean plastic is reframed through working with design students to raise the awareness of ocean plastic and encourage them to take actions to recycle ocean plastic in the future.

Xingyu Tao

### Application of Typical Technical Features in Industry 4.0 for Product Innovation Design

Objective: The research on the impact of advanced electronic information technology on industrial design innovation and application that has appeared since Industry 4.0, combined with the inspiration of “Made in China 2025”, provides a new innovation path for product design in the era of Industry 4.0. Methods: A conceptual model was established based on industry 4.0, the typical technical features of industry 4.0 were expounded and summarized in blocks, and the mechanism of technology’s effect on product innovation design was studied by case analysis. Results: Verifying the rationality and universality of the conceptual model, and proved the influence of typical technology characteristics in the 4.0 era. Conclusion: The analysis of the functional mechanism of technology characteristics in the 4.0 era and the induction of innovative design ideas have certain guiding significance for future enterprises to apply technology to design.

Huabin Wang, Zhanwen Gan

### Effects of Industry 4.0 on Human Factors/Ergonomics Design in 21st Century

The fourth industrial revolution as known as Industry 4.0 becomes a big part of the digitized economy in the 21st century. Industry 4.0 considerably drives the entire supply chain through digital infrastructures and significantly changes work systems. There are many new jobs and work opportunities available for workers with different skill levels due to society and technological changes. Understanding user needs and new technologies is a key factor for the design and development of products and systems where human exists. It is to ensure that the operation and maintenance of such systems are compatible with human abilities and limitations. The purposes of this paper are to explore theoretical and empirical concepts of Industry 4.0 influencing the design of work systems and present factors affecting human factors/ergonomics design in terms of physical, cognitive and organizational perspectives.

Manutchanok Jongprasithporn, Nantakrit Yodpijit, Chanakamon Phaisanthanaphark, Yotsuda Buranasing, Teppakorn Sittiwanchai

### Human-Machine Interaction Design Process for Complex Product Systems as Spacesuits

The research is an exploratory case study of the lunar landing suit. The purpose is to explore innovative prototype solutions to improve the Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) efficiency of the lunar landing suit based on human factor ergonomics simulations, simulation experiments, and modern industrial design theories.The HMI design in Complex Product System (CoPS) such as spacesuit is mainly based on functional requirements. The main principle is to apply human-centered HMI symbiosis as the design guiding ideology. The goal is to improve people’s efficiency in system control, including reducing operation response time and improving operation accuracy. The result is the establishment of a new framework of HMI design for the spacesuit, which can effectively support the design practice. Based on this framework, a new conceptual rendering of the spacesuit is designed.

Gang Liu, Li Huang, Mengyin Jiang, Yi Su

### Integration of Multi-domain-Simulation into the Design of Cyber-Physical Systems

The development of smart systems is a multidisciplinary process that is gaining in importance. The share of software integrated in a smart product will continue to increase in the further course of Industrie 4.0 and the increased use of cyber-physical systems. At the same time, a prolonged time-to-market will not be accepted, so that the development of this kind of products must be further accelerated. This can be achieved by increasing the parallelization of the product development phases using supportive methods and tools.Within the scope of the presented work, a concept for the integration of the corresponding embedded software into design of a smart product is presented and validated. This should enhance the interaction of the mechanical and software engineering of cyber-physical systems and support the parallelization of the development. Thus, on the one hand, the behavior of a system based on the original software can be considered in early phases of development. On the other hand, the development of embedded software can be assisted long before the first physical prototype.The increased integration and parallelization of the development of smarter systems creates synergies that can positively influence not only the time-to-market but also the traditional goals of cost and quality.

Tanja Steinbach, Yübo Wang, Vladimir Kutscher, Reiner Anderl

### Integrated Keyword Mapping Process: Bridging User Research to Style Concept Development

In this paper, we introduce ‘Integrated Keyword Mapping’ that will be helpful to connect user research data to concept visualization. Designers commonly experience a broken chain situation, a logic lacking situation when they jump into idea sketch phase after user research. This appears to happen due to the non-existence of appropriate methods that can be used for translating user research data to visual language. In our design process of a brainwave detecting smart hard hat, we conducted user research through user observations and focus group interviews. When we translated the user research result to visual, we met a similar situation. To successfully link the research data to the design, we invented the method, with which we drew out concept keywords not only from the research data but also from the designer’s interpretation. We found that this provides a logical connection between the user research and the design outcomes.

Sangjin Joo, Dabin Lee, Soyoon Park, Hwang Kim, KwanMyung Kim

### Emotional Interaction Design for Driverless Food Truck Under Campus Scenarios

By understanding the background and significance of the development of driverless food truck, the trend of vehicle modeling and its emotional interaction are analyzed. The use scene and function of the truck were positioned, and the modeling and design elements of the truck in the future were summarized. Use industry Knowledge of design and interaction design to build prototypes of smart driverless food truck. The online and offline methods are used to plan the driving environment and the vehicle driving routes. Design the exterior appearance of the vehicle docking station, and analyze the usage scenarios between the driverless food truck and the consumer to rationally plan the vehicle location, the information required by the user, and the operation mode. This paper combines industrial design with emotional design, service design, and perceptual engineering to design an emotional interactive system for driverless food truck under autonomous driving technology. So as to deeply consider and explore the interdisciplinary practice of industrial design.

Ming Yan, Jianmin Wang, Wenjuan Wang

### An Interdisciplinary Approach to Accessible Museum Exhibitions

As museums continue to satisfy their legal requirements to deliver accessible services for people with sensory, mobility and cognitive impairments, there is a growing parallel concern to provide visitors with exhibitions that expand their social identity and user experience. This literature review explores the possibility of a new approach that could improve accessible services and visitor experience through emerging technologies in the areas of personalization, rapid prototyping, and ability-based design. This proposed approach considers an interdisciplinary co-design method that combines technological and disability expertise with a visitor-centered approach to accessible museum exhibitions. This literature review explains how it could create an interface which respects the visitor’s abilities, previous knowledge, and preferences and at the same time, provide a unique and engaging social experiences.

Carla Ayukawa, Lois Frankel

### An Interdisciplinary Framework for Designing Adaptive Snowsports

This literature review lays the groundwork for the past, present, and future of adaptive snowsports. The paper acknowledges the design challenges of inclusivity and individualism for adaptive snowsports equipment. In addition to surveying literature on adaptive snowsports design, various design approaches and case studies are explored to expand the discussion about different perspectives and techniques for achieving design solutions that meet the needs of many people. By engaging in a literature review, the paper presents an initial interdisciplinary recommendation that could influence designers and researchers in contributing to adaptive snowsports solutions that address these challenges to ultimately meet the needs of many.

Lindsay McCauley, Lois Frankel

Under the policy-driven background, cultural design innovation has broad prospects. Based on the user experience level, this paper divides cultural design innovation into visual perception level cultural design innovation, behavioral operation level cultural design innovation, and spiritual connotation level cultural design innovation, and selects The Palace Museum, LKK Design Company and MUJI as three categories of cases for analysis. The path of cultural design innovation is obtained: discovering the typical appearance characteristics of popular cultural IP, establishing the relationship between cultural practices and behavior levels in real life, and injecting a culture consistent with long-term development into the brand idea. This paper analyzes the path of cultural design innovation through case study, with a view to bringing some guidance to the development of related enterprises.

Huabin Wang, Lei Han

### Innovation’s DNA in Postmodern Society Age

The concept of innovation is still used as a synonym for creativity. Despite the overvaluation of creative ideas to achieve goals, logical systems have become even more essential for the digital society. A brief demonstration of the innovators’ DNA throughout history indicated that people with different skills had multifaceted elements, in a synergy that allowed them to glimpse different perspectives to extract unusual solutions. From Da Vinci to Bezos and Musk, innovators have an intelligence factor, added to the creative imagination assets but mixed with technological knowledge. The tangency between intelligence and creativity is defining to obtain innovation, confirmed from the past to the current context. Therefore, the innovative process requires specific skills, which combine logical factors with creativity. Especially in the postmodern context, the rational and technical base added to Design methodologies and strategic thinking provides greater and better resources to generate innovation.

Ekaterina Barcellos, Galdenoro Botura, Lívia Inglesis

### Exploration and Practice of Industry-Education Integration in Design Schools

With the country attaching great importance to the development and employment prospects of academy, the Chinese State Council has issued a series of policies on the integration of industrial education to promote cooperative academy, broaden the areas and deepen the level of cooperation between academy and enterprises, as a measure to better match the demand of supply majors and industries. Similar to the classical Triple Helix Model (THM), Industry-education Integration (IEI) also emphasizes the leading role of the integration of educational resources, key enterprises and other social organizations in the process of innovation activities. According to the professional features of design education and relevant industry advantages, THM can be diversified updated. This paper considers the practical design education experience in home furnishing, intelligent manufacturing, cultural innovation, platform operation, rural revitalization and other industries, and looks into the future development prospects by summarizing three main modes of IEI.

Wei Ding, Xinyao Huang, Dadi An

### Research and Practice of Whole Process Product Design Innovation Theory System Based on Service Design Thinking

With the coming of the information age, industrial design has entered the 4.0 era. The circulation of resources among designers, enterprises, suppliers and universities has been accelerating. At the same time, design has gradually developed from a single discipline to a multidisciplinary. The purpose of service design thinking is to mobilize the resources of designers, enterprises, multidisciplinary and all parties to co-create, so that the creativity gradually changes from closed innovation to open innovation. Therefore, under the background of the current era, “design” has gradually changed from simple product design to a full process service design, including demand analysis, product design, product landing, commercial operation and so on. Consequently, a scientific and systematic design service system can help designers and design enterprises to carry out efficient and low-risk design innovation, so as to enhance their competitiveness.Based on the practical cases of MOMA company, the whole process closed-loop service design innovation theoretical system of “four chain integration and seven step innovation” was put forwarded. Four chains include product chain, brand chain, interaction chain and service chain.

Wei Ding, Defang Chen, Junnan Ye

### Product Design Education for Circular Economy

Design has continually developed new approaches to find the most appropriate solutions to the growing environmental and social problems. At the same time higher education courses have tried to adapt their curricula accordingly. The most recently proposed model is circular economy. It reinforces the idea of a paradigm shift to a system of closed loops where there is no waste.This article develops a state of the art on the integration of sustainability in product design in higher education and its evolution to embrace circular economy. This analysis includes identifying past experiences, which contents are addressed, what methodologies are used, what type of approach (focused or dispersed) and what are the needs for teaching staff. This paper tries to identify gaps in order to purpose better solution for circular economy integration.

José Vicente

### Analysis of the Components of the Scene System and Its Characteristics

This paper analyses the elements and characteristics of scene design, so that designers can establish the theoretical framework and work-flow of scene design. Systematic analysis was used to analyze the factors, relationships and mechanisms. This paper puts forward that scene consists of objective scene, emotional psychology and scene interaction. We need to be more systematic in defining scene system design and use it to guide our design, adhere to the design concept of people-oriented, let people, things and fields be unified in sensibility and logic, release the value of scene system design.

### Sound Design for Electric Vehicles: Lessons and Requirements Learned from a Chinese Automobile Manufacturer

This paper studied the sound design for Electric Vehicles (EVs). As an emerging product with great potential of application, EVs alongside their sound issues have attracted attention from different stakeholders. In this paper, the lessons and requirements of EVs’ sound-related practices from a Chinese automobile company were identified by using a What-How-Why lens as an interview framework to collect descriptive data from ten EVs’ sound design practitioners. The purpose of the research is to highlight the EVs’ sound design practitioners’ insights and to extend these to address EVs’ sound-related issues in design. The findings are based on a qualitative content analysis which could help EVs’ sound design practice.

Yang Zhao, Hua Dong, Long Liu

### Design of Doll’s Arm Based on Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

In this paper, the application background and current status of shape memory alloy were briefly reviewed. And a 0.08 mm shape memory alloy (SMA) microwires were applied in driving device of a new doll arm design. By using the driving function of SMA, the feasibility in the design process of smart dolls was demonstrated and the system was tested to achieve statistics the parameters of electric actuator. Furthermore, taking into account the artistic and technological value of dolls, it is of high value of the movable and controllable doll arm device based on shape memory alloy micro actuator, and this work also provides ideas for the transformation design of traditional dolls to intelligent dolls.

Danying Liu, Xifan Ding, Mingjiang Jin, Shanang He

### Integration of Consumer Electronics Products Designed in Mexico

In Mexico, Jalisco has developed along four decades an important infrastructure to initially manufacture electronic components, and over time, being able to transition to a design sector in a joint effort between government, electronics industry and universities. As a result, product design should be included to deliver complete consumer electronics solutions while taking in consideration diverse aspects such as functionality, ease of use, brand positioning, aesthetics and emotional aspects. However, unlike transnational corporations this has not occurred to the electronic sector in Mexico. This paper will intent to explain the missing link between consumer electronics companies that are not beneficiating from the insertion of industrial design to generate complete solutions.

Carlos Garnier-Ortiz, Alberto Rossa-Sierra, Fabiola Cortes-Chavez

### Extracting Contour Shape of Passenger Car Form in Front Quarter View Based on Form Similarity Judgement by Young Chinese Consumers

To contribute to consumer-oriented car design practice, how a reduced contour shape is extracted to reveal the underlying vital parts of triple-compartment passenger car form in front quarter view is explored based on young Chinese consumers’ form similarity judgement. By defining 25 character lines for 87 representative form samples and segmenting points on character lines, coordinate value data of these points are recorded and slope values of all 207 segments are calculated. Furthermore, factor analysis is completed and 27 common factors are extracted. The findings show that (1) the passenger car form in front quarter view can be extracted and presented as a reduced but recognizable contour shape with 28.816% loss of information on the form in front quarter view; and (2) the contour shape is mainly consisted of character lines defining design elements in side view such as side windows, beltline/shoulder line, A-pillar and C-pillar, roof and skirt area, and those defining design elements in front view such as headlight, and the upper and lower grille.

Chunrong Liu, Yuchun Shi, Minghua Zhang

### Lend a Hand for 3D Scans: Scanning Methodology and Data Collection for Tool and Glove Design

Methods to conduct large-scale anthropometric studies to capture civilian measurements are inefficient and expensive. Industrial engineering principles were applied to improve the data capture process to build comprehensive datasets. The goal was to transform the raw materials (the participant) into a tangible product (anthropometric data) with minimal waste (time, equipment, and space). Traditional elements of an anthropometric study were evaluated based on how the study was conducted. Developed methods were applied to a study capturing scans of 398 participants over 7 days. Participants continually flowed through the study stations and completed it in 23.09 min on average. The study cost $34.18 per participant, compared to a traditional anthropometric study cost of$46.95 per participant. The results present the value of applying industrial engineering principles to anthropometric study design to improve the quality and accessibility of data used for human factors analyses and product design.

Bethany Juhnke, Colleen Pokorny, Linsey Griffin, Susan Sokolowski

### Qualitative Survey Methodology and Data Collection for Performance Glove Design and Fit

Performance gloves worn for work, sport and thermoregulation are known to have fit challenges because there is a lack of accurate and relevant civilian anthropometric data for product manufacturers. Fit challenges also exist because manufacturers neglect to communicate with users at the point-of-purchase and during the design process about their experiences and needs with glove fit. Poor fitting gloves can interfere with sensory information, accuracy, protection, mobility and blood flow. There is a considerable opportunity to improve glove fit. This qualitative study addressed the issue of communicating with users during the design process, by collecting fit data directly from users about their experiences with performance gloves used for work, sport and thermoregulation. Results from the study uncovered that both men and women have fit challenges across all performance glove market segments and simple user check-points during the design process could help to develop better performing products.

Susan L. Sokolowski, Linsey Griffin, Bethany Juhnke, Colleen Pokorny, Chrissy Bettencourt

### How Sport-Specific Hand Positioning Can Inform Glove and Mitt Design

There are thousands of hand wear products available to athletes in the marketplace, but very few have considered how sport-specific hand positioning informs design. Most are designed with a 2D front and back view. When designers consider sport-specific positioning of the hand, products can be developed in a 360º manner, to dynamically address how the hand moves and interfaces with the environment and other equipment in sport. For this paper, the Performance Hand Wear and Tools Product Innovation Framework was used by graduate students to design a glove and mitt, based on sport-specific hand positioning for female biathletes and winter night runners.

Susan L. Sokolowski, Carly Anderson, Sarah Klecker

### A Visible Functional Grasp to Measure the Complete Hand

Glove and tools are designed to protect our hands, but manufacturers are limited by the available anthropometric hand data, which fails to reflect functional measurement changes of the hand while performing tasks. Advancements in 3D scanning technology have improved the ability to capture data, but minimal research has focused on capturing functional hand dimensions. The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive protocol to capture the dorsal and palmar side of the hand in functional positions across a large population using the Artec Leo. The development of this protocol considered the following elements; scanning technology, hand positions, hand support apparatuses, scanning platforms, and standardization across a population. Two functional hand positions, splayed and grasp, were selected based on clear visibility of the palmar side. The protocol and final scans contributed to a robust anthropometric database to improve the design, fit, and function of products for hands.

Colleen Pokorny, Bethany Juhnke, Linsey Griffin

### Investigation of 3D Functional Grip Shape to Design Products for Dog Walking and Hiking

For product designers, the hand is a challenging part of the body to innovate products for. Anthropometrically, the availability of hand data relevant to civilians are sparse, as most data are from military personnel. In addition, data are typically of static hands which do not include task-related or functional knowledge, like grip shape. Inappropriate data could misinform product shape, design features, fit, performance, and safety. This paper explored how 3D functional hand grip shape could be captured from civilians and inform the design of products for dog walking and hiking.

Susan L. Sokolowski, Chrissy Bettencourt, Jennifer Null

### Human Factors Design of Digital Information Systems for Inspection Body (IB) in Industry 4.0 Era

Industry 4.0 highly considers new industrial products and services platforms where various emerging technologies are combining to implement for digital solutions. Digital transformation plays a significant role in the disruption of the traditional information systems and drives the business to digitalization. The Inspection Body (IB) conducts technical assessments, generally by providing factory/business inspection services on behalf of private customers or their parent organizations to provide them with industrial product certification and/or information on compliance with legislation, standards, specifications, and contractual commitments. Importantly, data accuracy, traceability, and confidentiality controls are critical for IB operations where the digital information systems can significantly enhance the planning, managing, and monitoring of the IB’s Management Information System (MIS). This paper presents both theoretical and practical applications of human factors product design and development to make a useful and easy to use digital information systems for IB. Major methods for human factors design includes the focus of potential users, the empirical measurement of usage, and the iterative design where the simulated, prototype, and real models are created. Limitations and future work for human factors design for digital information systems in other industrial businesses are also discussed.

Manutchanok Jongprasithporn, Nantakrit Yodpijit, Danitar Tontoh, Teppakorn Sittiwanchai

### Pilot Study of Kansei Human Machine Interface for Prevention System of Unintended Acceleration

This pilot study focuses on Unintended Acceleration which is a driver’s experience full and unexpected acceleration with a pedal misapplication. The causes of such accidents have been investigated in a great deal of engineering reports from various viewpoints of mechanical or operational contexts. The innovation of human machine interface is expected to have a potential to contribute for reducing such accidents. The primary purpose of the previous studies is to identify the misapplications which causes the accidents by unintended acceleration and to develop the accident prevention mechanism by hardware and software approaches. The existing researches contributed to develop the suppressing the accident caused by a misapplication. However, the emotional aspect associated with driver’s desire to the active safety has not been noticed enough on the studies. This study started by motivation to consider the possibility of use the active safety system which introduced Kansei Interface. In order to solve the problem, the overview of unintended acceleration will be surveyed at the beginning of this study. Then, the existing prevention systems will be examined in the meaning of effectiveness and limitation. Kansei interface in order to prevent the accidents will be considered based on the survey. To develop the prevention system using Kansei interface as the final objective of our study, we will propose a rapid prototyping method to simulate the pedaling error.

Toshio Tsuchiya, Kanon Watanabe, Mizuki Hirano, Kotaro Kuma, Shintaro Wakamatsu

### Meaning and Approach of New Product Designing Through Kansei Engineering

This paper reopens Kansei Engineering (KE) that Nagamachi has founded and developed since 1970s from the perspective of design management. The frameworks of innovation of meaning and design thinking provide a new description of Nagamachi’s practice that translates unawakened future meanings of consumers’ life into product design. The product designing through KE therefore maximises its performance only when combined with solid design thinking, following the logic of science and utilising technology. In this sense, his hitherto works should actually be called Kansei Design. Furthermore, design thinking that consists of intuitive and analytical thinking also provides an opportunity for considering future application of artificial intelligence (AI) to KE approach. The two types of thinking are bridged by “abductive reasoning” of which development in programming is expected for increasing automated Kansei Design system.

Yuuki Shigemoto

### Real, Augmented, Virtual, and Robotic Animals in Smart and Playable Cities

Animals are part of city life. Many animal species live in the city. On the street, in buildings, in our homes, in vacant lots, parks, cemeteries, and in gardens. In smart cities the life of domestic and working animals will be augmented with digital technology. Urban wildlife will be confronted with digital technology as well. Robotic and virtual animals will also become part of street life. We survey the developments that lead to this future city life in which humans, augmented animals, robotic animals and virtual animals will co-exist.

Anton Nijholt

### On the Role of “Muscle Memory” in Interaction Design

“Muscle memory” refers to the human body’s muscles have memory effects. After the same action is repeated many times, the muscles will form conditioned reflexes. With the development of screen technology, after more and more physical buttons are replaced with screen operations, the structure of the machine no longer follows its functions to design, especially some button designs. This poses new challenges to the accuracy, timeliness, and reduction of mis-operation rates. This article studies different interface designs and proposes several interface design principles that are consistent with muscle memory. Based on this principle, an APP launcher based on “muscle memory” is produced to verify whether the criterion is reasonable. This article links “muscle memory” with interoperability, and aims to create, build, and facilitate convenient relationships between people and products and services. A feasible direction is proposed for exploring better human interaction experience.

Miao Liu, Xingchun Yang

### UX Design for Mobile Application of E-Commerce Site by Using Kansei Interface

This paper focuses on UX design procedures and aims to develop Kansei interface in order to improve usability of mobile applications. This study is intended to examine about contribution of Kansei interface to UX design. Kansei interface is understood as comprising emotional aspects directing to compose it like intuitive and compelling to use. The characteristics of Kansei interface are explained at the beginning of this article. Especially, human machine social interface is focused on as a principal element of Kansei Interface. Then, the designing mobile interface is illustrated as an example of UX design. UX design processes explore a customer journey map by user investigation. The application of Kansei interface is examined for the extracted activities at touch points. The human machine social interface implemented as Kansei interface is investigated by user questionnaires. The influence on the UX of Kansei interface is discussed from the experiment.

Yuiko Mimura, Toshio Tsuchiya, Kaho Moriyama, Kanna Murata, Sana Takasuka

### Research on the Color of Physiotherapy Equipment - Example of the Lower Limb Equipment

The global population is aging, creating a gradual increase in patients with chronic diseases. According to the theory of color therapy, color is able to increase positive feelings and enhance the effectiveness of treatment. This study, based on Kansei Engineering theory, explores the effect of color on use of Physical therapy equipment. The purpose of this study is to reinforce the patient’s positive feelings and thus improve the efficiency of treatment. Firstly, relevant adjectives were found from references. Find five experts were sought out to select main adjectives and colours for feelings relating to lower limb physical therapy equipment images, get 6 sets of vocabulary and 12 colors. Secondly, a questionnaire survey was conducted through semantic differences method to further find the colours which relate closest to positive images of lower limb physical therapy equipment, valid sample of 334 people. Finally, according to the results, the lower limb physical therapy equipment recoloured, followed by another questionnaire survey, valid sample of 418 people. The results of this study show that yellow green (C30-M0-Y60-K0), red (C0-M55-Y30-K0), blue green (C60-M0-Y25-K0) color can enhance user rehabilitation have a positive feeling.

Peng Jyun Liu

### Young Chinese Consumers’ Perception of Passenger Car Form in Side View Analyzed with Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

It explores the perception of the triple-compartment passenger car form in side view of young Chinese consumers/users based on their estimate on the similarity of 130 form samples. Nine form categories are classified by cluster analysis and consumers’ perceptual map is plotted by multidimensional scaling, respectively. The gradual form change related to the distribution of form samples in the perceptual map is further analyzed qualitatively. The result shows that young Chinese consumers perceive and judge in their cognitive process the passenger car form in side view and its variation by both overall and local form features. The former are features including the length of vehicle and overall vehicle’s posture, while the latter are ones such as the ratio of the width of front side door to that of rear side door, the inclination of beltline, and the transitional relationship between C-pillar and rear deck.

Chunrong Liu, Kui Gao, Qichang He

### Examining the Incidence of Intuitiveness and Cognitive-Affective States in the Kansei and Rating of Mobile Apps

Kansei analyses have predominantly been used for modeling users’ affective responses on physical products. We propose a method for expanding Kansei attributes to measure user satisfaction for digital products. By leveraging constructs of intuitive use and cognitive-affective states of learning, along with online product reviews, we build a catalog of interaction Kansei. Finally, we demonstrate how this catalog can be used to determine which attributes are most relevant for measuring user satisfaction of mobile applications.

Sandrine Fischer

### Research on Hospital Self-service Machine Interaction Design Based on Kansei Engineering

In top tertiary hospitals situated in big cities in China, long registration wait times, payment and short treatment times are common problems due to the considerable number of patients. For this reason, self-service terminals are introduced by hospitals to shorten waiting time and improve patients’ medical experience. In order to improve the quality of outpatient service reasonably and effectively, this paper used the qualitative and quantitative methods to study the interface of self-service terminal. The research combined Kansei Engineering theory with Service Design theory to make the perceptual evaluation of self-service terminal interface and improve the service content. Firstly, the perceptual vocabularies were collected from the literature of medical self-service system research, and the interface samples were collected from the self-service terminals used by public hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities. Secondly, through the discussion of the expert group, the words with no obvious characterization were deleted, then the questionnaire method was used to screen out the high-frequency words and representative interfaces. Thirdly, the vocabularies and samples were integrated into a perceptual evaluation scale of the interface of self-service terminals. The research used factor analysis method to process the collected data from the questionnaire survey and summarized the significant perceptual vocabularies. Finally, combining with the field research of the hospitals, this paper discussed and analyzed the interface elements of the self-service system, and summarized an improvement strategy. It is to improve the readability of the interface, optimize the logic of interface interaction and strengthen the interface guidance.

Zhengyu Shi, Huifang Shang, Chuanshun Wang, Zhengyu Wang, Meiyu Zhou

### Kansei Evaluation Based on Quantifying the Identity of Smartphone Shape

Today, shapes of many smartphones are becoming similar to each other due to the fact that the shape has become minimal. The purpose of this research is to clarify the relationship between the identity of smartphones and their shapes. This research was conducted with the keywords of the nationality including GDP, share rate, and experience of using the smartphone. In an experiment, 185 participants of 5 different nationalities (Japan, Korea, China, Thailand, and Singapore) set the order of the 9 life-sized mock-up models (iPhone X and 8 Android smartphones) based on their similarity to the front shape of the iPhone X. As a result, the participants could distinguish the identity of the iPhone X to a certain degree from the information of only the shape. Moreover, the correct answer rate differs depending on the 3 conditions and experience of using the smartphone.

Koki Chiba, Namgyu Kang, Jiuqiang Fu, Dongjin Seo, Khongthat Thongphun, Liu Jiehong, Mohd Khairul Hussin

### Proposal of System Based on Kansei Evaluation of Influence of the Margin Ratio of Plates

When we evaluate a dish, various factors affect the evaluation in a complicated way, it is not just the taste. In this study, we focus on the ‘margin’ of a plate with food. The ‘margin’ is one of the factors of the arrangement, and we aim to elucidate the effect of the margin of plate on people’s emotions and sensibilities. The results were analyzed using factor analysis, one of the multivariate analyses. Furthermore, based on the results of the experiment, we proposed a Kansei system using the technology of projection mapping and a table with a translucent tabletop.

Shunsuke Ono, Namgyu Kang

### Verification of Effectiveness with Sound Using Metaphor for Typing on Keyboard

The sounds effects have significant influences on our physical functions and emotions. Also, ‘Metaphor’ is one of the other ways to give a strong impression. Metaphor is one of the Metaphoric expression methods, which can express the word more simply by recalling a more specific image. Nowadays, Metaphor with sound is used in the fields such as electronic settlement and camera sounds. However, the utility of expressing Metaphor by sound has not been verified. Based on these backgrounds, in this research, we focused on “sound” to express Metaphor and the “time” as research keywords. That is, we use time as a gap and express a Metaphor using sound. For this research, we conducted two experiments by SD method. In the first experiment, the subjects did writing tasks with the two different conditions. In the second experiment, the subjects typed some sentences that we decided.

Noriki Fukatsu, Namgyu Kang

### Proposal of Kansei Communication Tool for SNS Based on Combining Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

In recent years, communication on chat via SNS has increased by the spread of information technology. Therefore, this research aims to verify the effectiveness and possibility of communication by converging Non-verbal and Verbal communication. To support more emotional communication, we propose an emotional communication tool combining drawing that is Nonverbal communication and voice that is Verbal communication. An experiment was conducted to clarify which degree of emotions sent by the messages on chat communication via SNS. And, the system of this research was proposed based on analyzing experimental results. In the future, this system will be essential for the users to communicate happily on SNS. Here is important to use them happily regardless of the ability of drawing and voice.

### Proposal and Kansei Evaluation of a Garbage Can to Change Human Behaviour Based on Fun Theory

In general, people need to remove plastic bottle caps when they throw away plastic bottles. However, virtually half of the people do not remove it because it is troublesome. In previous research, a prototype was designed based on “Fun Theory,” which is a theory to change human action with fun emotion, in order to encourage people to remove the cap. The prototype utilized a voting metaphor. It was observed that 73% of plastic bottles were thrown away without the cap. The prototype could encourage people to remove plastic bottle caps. However, it has not analyzed how people feel when they use the prototype yet. In this paper, a survey was conducted using word-pairs to clarify how people feel when they use the prototype. From the result of the survey, it was clarified that utilizing a voting metaphor as a garbage can for plastic bottle caps improved Kansei quality.

Masayuki Takahashi, Namgyu Kang

### The Importance of Textiles in the User Experience in Interior and Furniture Design

Since Prehistory, the interior of human habitats is a reflection of their existence, therefore, man has adapted space to his needs and physical conditions. The adaptability of furniture and shelter spaces corresponded to sedentary or nomadic life forms.During the Modern Era, from the 15th century Renaissance, and especially with the Baroque in the 17th and 18th centuries, furniture and decoration began to play a relevant role in the design of interiors, both religious and civil architecture. The relationship between architecture and design and its implications is a question that leads us to reflect on the nature of the disciplinary approach to design itself and its application or performance as interior design.Thus, this article aims to emphasize the importance of textiles in the user’s relationship with interior space and furniture. As evolutionary concepts, interiors and furniture have undergone profound changes and adaptations in response to the prevailing aesthetic power of symbolic character and to the comfort created by the needs of its users. In this sense, by reviewing the literature and presenting examples it is our intention to clarify concepts and modes of action.

Rui Carreto, Catarina Carreto

### The Shape of Desire: Knitwear and the Body

If the body is the starting point for an unlimited journey of sharing signals of communication and recognition, it is also a point of arrival for desires and sensations that we live and share in our personal and public sphere.This article aims to address the theme of body communication over time and its sharing with the textile knitted materials that throughout its development have helped to shape the objective and subjective factors that allow building a language of seduction and power.This paper will present an overview of three different moments, throughout human history, where knitting and its characteristics were adopted as an integral part of the exercise for the development of aesthetic renewal and where technique and visual intersect in an exhibition and body projection.

Gianni Montagna, Cristina Carvalho, Carla Morais, Maria Antonietta Sbordone

### Ancient Activities Improved by Design

Each day Design is coming more important, especially when are interventions in order to improve objects or even systems. When design carry out their function, are able to develop new meanings to objects that already exists, enlighten them, improving lifestyles and giving the opportunity to turn products in a new goods.Knowing the actual state of art of the bobbin lace and the glass factory in Portugal, we invite the design to reverse this situation. The bobbin lace at Peniche and the glass factory in Marinha Grande are two case studies that design brought solutions.New methods were generated, and new goods were invented.The bobbin lace that usually were made in cotton line, started to be produced by other materials like carbon fiber and glass fiber. The bobbin lace is no longer a totally traditional product and has accepted innovation. From these experiences emerged new ideas to new products to be developed.Inviting to fulfill the actual design function, we transformed products and we transformed life.

Isabel Bieger, Cristina Carvalho, Gianni Montagna

### Long-Line Composite Floating Modular System for Controlled Growth of Mytilus Galloprovincialis Mussels and the Development of Crassostrea Gigas Oysters

The development of the composite materials for obtaining modular systems for the development of bio filter material is the central objective of the research and it responds to the provisions of the European directives “in force” - COM (2007) 0128, COM (2009) 0156 and COM (2012) 0670. The systemic approach of the problem aimed to the: principles of construction and functioning of the whole; analysis of the technical and functional characteristics of the components, as well as to the interdependencies between them; transfer of certain technical-functional properties (breaking resistance, shock, seawater, extreme temperature variations, etc.) to the whole; submission of the decision (from a managerial point of view) to specific problems of the whole system [1]. All these elements represented the basis for the elaboration of the mathematical model for the modular system for the development of the biofiltering material that enabled the prediction of the structural parameters of the composite materials used as subassemblies of the long-line system for the development of the biofiltering material.

Alexandra Ene, Carmen Mihai

### Design Artisan and Art: Development of a Textile Collection in Contemporary Fashion

Promoting the articulation between design, artisan and textile art to develop concepts in contemporary fashion, here the focus is on developing joint projects between designers, artists and artisans, using different textile techniques for innovative productions. This approach drew on different types of materials and craft techniques, using these between designer, artists and artisans. Preserving the tradition in the technical execution of each textile piece is fundamental, where the articulation between the artist’s design and the artisan developing a textile/fashion collection from knowledge capable of incorporating innovation. The articulation in the development of new products with design, satisfies different tastes where the culture and identity of certain regions can recover tradition and contribute to cultural dissemination. So, is the dynamics between designer, artist and artisan possible in the development of new products for the textile/fashion area?

### Hierarchical Model of “Feeling of Luxury:” Genuine and Artificial Leather Case Study

In this study, we used the physical properties of leather as a case study to quantify the “feeling of luxury” perceived by humans using a hierarchical model. We constructed our model with a physical property layer, an impression layer, and feelings layer. The physical property layer contains physical leather properties obtained from image measurement experiments. The experiments conducted multi-angle measurement because the appearance of leather changes depending on the observation angle. As described above, the remaining two layers include subjective scores obtained by subjective evaluation experiments. In particular, we determined the words used in the impression layer by an impression evaluation experiment in which we extracted the representative impressions perceived from leather. As a result, we were able to quantify the “feeling of luxury” perceived by the participants from leather by a simple estimation equation with two extracted representative impressions.

Shuhei Watanabe, Takahiko Horiuchi

### Innovative Filtering Systems for High Temperature Chemical Processes

The protection of the environment is a major problem of the planet, the legislation in this field being more and more severe and knowing an extension in an increasing number of countries. This required the development of both filtering facilities and filter materials, made today in a very varied range, corresponding to both normal conditions and special filtering conditions (high temperature, chemical aggression, high humidity, etc.).The purpose of separating the components from the heterogeneous gas systems is multiple, being mainly represented by: the purification of the gas, for obtaining the gas phase in the most pure state, in order to avoid the pollution of the working section and for the total environment; powders recovery from the technological process, as an intermediate product - for later usage; separation of the powders involved in fluidization and pneumatic transport operations [1].The researches in this field were focused on the design and accomplishment of a filtering material based on non-woven fabrics that nowadays plays an important role (in Europe over 90%), replacing the fabrics with very good results, due to the technical characteristics represented by: higher air permeability; lower tendency of clogging; high filtration efficiency; longer operating life [2].

Carmen Mihai, Alexandra Ene

### Unique Natural Fibers: Physicochemical Characteristics of Lignin-Cellulosic Fibers from Aechmea Bromeliifolia Leaves

Ligno-cellulosic fibers are abundantly present in a diverse flora. Bromeliaceae is considered one of the most prominent vegetable family in terms of the availability of these fibrous plants, making for excellent textile leaf fibers. The objective of this work is to present a preliminary physicochemical characterization of the Brazilian-native Aechmea Bromeliifolia fiber. The fibers were manually extracted from the species’ leaves to be studied in terms of their physical and chemical structure, and mechanical behavior. The results were compared to known fibers in the textile industry, identifying the fiber’s potential for textile application. Nevertheless, further study is needed for property optimization and the improvement of extraction and treatment methods.

Rayana Santiago de Queiroz, Ana Cristina Broega, António Pedro Garcia Valadares Souto

### Underwear in Personal Wardrobe – A Study About Consumption and Disposal

Clothing typologies and personal taste are determining factors that influence people to purchase and discard them in the same way. Design features, such as colour, shape, and texture, are characteristics that define the quality of the items that the market used to buy and use daily. However, regardless the quality concept, the comfort is a feature that has prevailed for decades and promotes the condition of the articles being perpetual in the wardrobe. Nowadays many people give clothes to family or friends that they do not use anymore or also discarded them in appropriate containers but not always these ever-growing practices still happen with all types of clothing. Underwear, or more precisely Lingerie, is being part of dress often overlooked by users when someone make questions, it is rarely both donated to and reused by others even still be bought and discarded alongside other types. The present study is the result of a literary review on the lingerie consumption in western women and about its practice of discarding it, aiming to envisage more sustainable design practices in the creation of this type of pieces, having account human, social and environmental factors.

Carla Morais, Gianni Montagna, Ana Sousa

### The Senior Target Audience: When the Body Does Not Keep Up with the Youthful Spirit, the Clothing Design Gives a Reply Through Comfort

The new image of older women has demystified the profile of fragile ladies and with simple aesthetics, this woman has some new or the same yearnings, and the unpreparedness of the clothing sector towards these women may lead us to believe that fashion does not know the true image of the new elderly woman, who can be simple as well as modern and articulate, which will depend on the repertoire that she has built. Thus with methodological guidelines that provide a clothing project with experience of the user’s reality, can provide greater inclusive direction of the elderly. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the aspects of comfort in its in the all dimensions, well-being and valuation of clothing for elderly women from 65 to 85 years old. With the user-centred design methodologies and the aid of comfort assessment processes, we help to design apparel thought comfort for this increasingly demanding and purchasing power public target.

Mariana Dias de Almeida, Ana Cristina da Luz Broega, Marizilda dos Santos Menezes

### Active Sportswear for Older Consumers

The aging process determines significant alternations of different natures that lead to decreased physical or mental capacity to varying degrees, compromising their ability to exercise. Physical activity, as well as sports activity, regardless of the intensity with which it is practiced, is a psychophysiological need, which in addition to maintaining better health levels, also presents a high level of socialization. Clothing adapted for the development of sport for seniors is beneficial for the wearer and has important comfort levels helping the wearer to develop in more active aging.This research on clothing is based on a questionnaire answered by approximately 110 people over 60, active consumers in order to understand the particularities of their physical activities focusing on the study of comfort and preferences of types of garments and their characteristics. This article is part of a doctoral work that is being developed in order to better understand how clothing design and the textile materials used for its construction can be more valuable to users of this type of product.

Laura Piccinini, Gianni Montagna, Cristina Carvalho

### 5D Virtual Model for Thermal Comfort and Ergonomics Assessment Applied in Clothing Industries

This paper describes the features and outcomes of a novel thermal 3D/4D scanner developed by IBV. The study is the continuation of the development of a relational model able to predict thermal comfort/discomfort from users’ attributes and environmental conditions. The model is based on the “thermotype” concept, which synthesizes the climatic preferences, body shape and thermal response of an individual. The Digital Human Model generated by mapping thermal information into a 3D body representation has been evaluated with real subjects in a thermal chamber with different garments in order to validate the initial version of the model based in other type of products and to apply these techniques to Clothing industries.

Consuelo Latorre-Sánchez, Mateo Izquierdo, Alejandro Conde, Eduardo Parrilla, Alfredo Ballester, Jose Laparra-Hernández, Juan Carlos Gonzalez, Sandra Alemany

### The Virtualization of the Fashion Product

It was since the introduction of digital technology, at the end of XX century, that the social and cultural panorama begun to change exponentially. The ways used to communicate, to produce and to design shifted drastically, driven by a technology that doubles its processing power each eighteen months and that becomes increasingly monetarily accessible. With the dawn of the XXI century, this technology becomes ubiquitous and start transform behaviours, shaping the society in ways never seen before. With the rise of smartphones, often with as much computing power as a PC (Personal Computer), it became accessible to everyone to explore the internet—the global network of things—, in an easy, affordable and uninterrupted way. This integration of technology in the daily life, generated a duality in existence, splitting the individual into two kinds of simultaneous existence: the actual existence and the virtual existence.Individuals could now explore a new kind of existence—the digital self—which gradually became natural and integrated with sociocultural behaviours. This virtualization of the individual generates shifts in the ways of life, that globally impacts the cultural and economic structure. New needs of expression emerge and with them, new products arise.This digital culture that is solidified during the XXI century, not only virtualizes the individual but also all the images and products surrounding him. New ways of consuming emerge, and the acquisition of goods is increasingly made with the use of screens that portrait a virtualized product. The virtualization of products is a natural evolution of our society that is silently changing the way we create and consume. The study of these subjects is essential to understand the present and the future of design practices. The process of creation gradually evolves, with technology becoming intrinsic in it. The way we create and produce products and information becomes deeply connected with digital technology, and AI (Artificial Intelligence) becomes a major mediator of our daily lives. With the rise of an informational society, flooded by information coming from everyone from everywhere, things became constantly curated and sorted in our image, generating specific views of the world.This paper is part of a PhD research on the influence of the digital tools and virtual environments in human creativity and concept development, in the specific case of fashion design products. The virtual environments induce a drastic change in the way research, concept development and project communication are made, changing forever the practice of design. The full understanding of the creative potential of digital languages is a real necessity to those who want to be prepared to the uncertain future of fashion design. With this paper we intend to comprehend how the fashion product has been virtualized, and what is the impact of this virtualization, in society, in fashion design and in the individual.

Luís Ricardo Santos, Gianni Montagna, Maria João Pereira Neto

### Effect of the Size of the Covered Area of the Chest Surface on Pressure Sensation

Compression underwear improves the body’s shape, but its effects on human health and stress remain controversial. Our goal is to develop underwear that applies a comfortable pressure sensation. The participants were eight women who evaluated the perceptible clothing pressure on the body surface in four planes (4th–8th ribs) while wearing a 2.5 cm wide elastic band. Their pressure perceptions were compared between two conditions: when the elastic band was tightened based on the feeling caused by adjusting the length in each plane singly and in all four planes simultaneously. When the clothing pressure was 3–4 hPa, they reported a perfect pressure sensation. When they were constricted on each plane singly, there was a positive correlation between the pressure sensation and the clothing pressure. When the size of covered area increased, the relation between the pressure sensation and the compressed area size was positively correlated (P < 0.001).

Tamaki Mitsuno, Tomomi Aruga

### Research on the Body Shape of Clothing for Chinese Adult

This study was based on the latest Chinese adult body size data collected by the China National Institute of Standardization from 2013 to 2018. Studies have shown that there are differences in body shape distribution between different regions and different age groups. Compared with the data of the first national body size survey in 1988, the body shape distribution of adults has also changed greatly. This study can provide data support for the revision of the current garment size national standard.

Linghua Ran, Chaoyi Zhao, Hong Luo, Xin Zhang, Taijie Liu

### Smart Sportswear Design for Down Syndrome Patients

The aim of this research was to develop 31 smart sportswear pieces for 15 males and 16 females with Down Syndrome. For the study, the researcher utilized a non-random sample comprising 31 people with Down Syndrome, 31 of their family members, and 31 case managers, to conduct semi-structured interviews to collect data and feedback. The garments were constructed using a hands-on method, involving manual body measurement, the invention patent No. I1621405 design procedure and apparel design to construct the garments. This research produced four results from the 93 interviews conducted. Top four colors of Down users expressed yellow, pink, black and blue color and style ideas regarding their preferred garment design. Two thirds of these unique users preferred pure pink for females and blue for males. Three quarters of the interviewees expressed similar textile, color and garment style preferences. They preferred wearing clothing with a 20% elastic functional textile, a round-neck and a short-sleeved blouse with cropped trousers.

Ying-Chia Huang, Jen-Hau Chen, Guan-Yin Chen, Kai Fang Tung

### Effect of Fatigue of the Protective Clothing Wearer on Body Balance Performance Caused by Shorten or Prolonged Workload with Heat Exposure

This study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue on body balance performance caused by shorten and prolonged workload with heat exposure. Shorten and prolonged experiments were conducted for the present study. Ten healthy men participated in the experiment for exploring of deterioration of balance ability by physiological and psychological fatigue due to heat exposure with wearing protective clothing for construction sites. The main finding of this study indicates that body balance performance was affected by shorten and prolonged workload with heat exposure. The core temperature and body weight loss measured during workload with heat exposure were significantly high. The body sway parameters showed a similar tendency, although the differences were not significant. Accumulation of fatigue from prolonged stress from workload and heat exposure seems to contribute to the decline in body balance performance.

Suyoung Son, Ken Tokizawa

### Textile Historical Sustainability and Innovative Textile Products

Textile surfaces have expressed a great deal of changes related to the meanings they are able to transmit as a communication layer and also as a technological product.We can read this path in an exemplary way with the analysis of the largest textile district in Europe, the one that belongs to the city of Prato in Tuscany. The typical product of this area - regenerated carded - has seen its nature transform from a low quality and value product to a technological and environmental excellence.

Eleonora Trivellin, Giuseppe Lotti, Marco Marseglia, Elisa Matteucci, Margherita Vacca, Irene Fiesoli, Claudia Morea, Alessio Tanzini, Francesco Tanzini, Lu Ji

### From Control to Coordination

As the environments and situations change frequently, extensively and in an unpredictable manner, engineering is quickly shifting from control-based to coordination-focused. In control, we can apply rational approaches in a straightforward manner and the goal is clear from the first. But to cope with the changes today, we need to decide which parts we should use to cope with the situation or the context. We need to best coordinate our resources to overcome the changes to achieve our goal. Although this is a very much challenging job, it provides us with the psychological satisfaction we have never experienced in control-based engineering.

Shuichi Fukuda

### Color in Glossolalia: Green in Western Culture (Part I)

All meanings of the word glossolalia (from the Greek words glossa, meaning tongue or language, and laleō, meaning to speak, talk, chat, or to make a sound) raise a knowing smile because they can be applied to what happens with words that circulate in design discourse. Since color is intrinsic to the creation of any design product and is essential in the recognition, perception and communication process, it determines the semantics of a given object in whatever form concerns the ‘design object’. In establishing the meanings of color, the aspects addressed encompass a broad gamut that includes neurology, vision and illumination and the interactions between light and color in understanding the nature of design at stake and the cultural context. At a more detailed scale, a multidisciplinary approach to color allows other qualities to be addressed, including those produced by variations in surface and materiality, elements of composition, psycho-physiological effects of both color and light, synaesthetic reactions to color, communication variables, color terminology, aesthetics of color, as well as color’s historical and cultural background. In this article, I will discuss some aspects related to GREEN in Western European culture. From paintings to fashion and product design, GREEN suggests, among many other things, creativity, but also a certain kind of consciousness. The word GREEN also circulates in common discourse, sometimes as a noun, sometimes as an adjective, and sometimes in idiomatic expressions. Given the vastness of contexts in which GREEN is used, I will focus on some aspects of its meanings in Western European culture, as it is impossible to remove from the material and immaterial culture the symbolic force that results from being GREEN.

Leonor Ferrão

A theory developed by Myers, Sen, and Alexandrov in 2010 proposes that individuals who possess higher levels of certain personality dimensions will show a more favorable attitude towards different types of advertisement (ad) strategy. This study investigated, via an online survey, relationships between the Big Five personality dimensions and attitudes toward two advertisement strategy clusters: transformational versus informational, and comparative versus non-comparative. Results from a multivariate regression analysis revealed a variety of significant relationships, some of which supported the propositions of the Myers and associates theoretical framework. Individuals scoring high on extraversion favored all types of ad strategy, those scoring high on agreeableness favored both types of informational ads, those scoring high on conscientious favored transformational non-comparative ads, and those scoring high on neuroticism favored informational non-comparative and transformational comparative ads. However, openness was not related to any of the ad strategies. Research should continue to investigate the relationship between the more affective components of the personality dimensions and their relationship with ad strategy. In addition, the creativity and quality of an advertisement could be what attracts individuals with higher levels of openness to experience.

Ezekiel B. Skovron, Kim-Phuong Vu

### Research and Practice on the Design Method of Cultural Output for Small Commodities Based on “Without Thought Design”

Small commodity economy is an important branch of China’s market economy. However, in the design process of small commodities, there is a lack of consideration of cultural attributes and other issues. Without thought design is a design method that pays attention to the user’s psychological feeling, which can help small commodities to enhance their cultural value. This paper summarizes the methods of without thought design by combing the methods of without thought design and combining with the methods of “looking for relevance” in the theory of without thought design. Through two small commodity design cases, it shows how to integrate cultural experience into small commodity design through the without thought design method. Finally, it verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of this method through questionnaire. This study will enhance the cultural brand competitiveness and commercial value of small commodities through design theory and method.

Junnan Ye, Siyao Zhu, Menglan Wang, Jingyang Wang, Xu Liu

### The Creation of Aesthetic Conception on Landscape Space Through Information Technology

The pan visualization of contemporary landscape space is developing together with the era of information media. With the rapid spread of digital information and the wide range of communication, the pan visual expression of visual and image works has become an important form of the main creation of landscape space form. In addition to its own physical function, landscape spatial form is perceived and consumed by the public in the form of visual image. “We have been living in the era of visual elements, and it is appropriate for today’s landscape to express and present visual images as the formal language of landscape.” According to Jean Nouvel [1], a famous contemporary French architect. The contemporary landscape spatial form is dominated by vision, and its pan visual aesthetic experience is different from the traditional space. This is a kind of spatial aesthetic experience which is suitable for multi-dimensional, diversified and full of complexity. The creation of aesthetic conception of human in landscape space has broken through the “gap” between subject and object, and based on the concept of interactive aesthetics, it has moved towards interaction and integration.

Shuwang Zhao

### Motor Control of Hand Force for Visual Indicator Without Hand Displacement

This study assessed the hand force exerted to a fixed controlled object under three conditions with the dominant and non-dominant hand. The position, velocity, and acceleration of a visual indicator were determined by the exerted hand force and the participants were asked to move the indicator to a target position. Our findings indicated that the non-dominant hand had an advantage when an appropriate magnitude and time interval was required while the dominant hand had an advantage in the pseudo-natural condition. These findings could be applied to the designing of devices and interfaces.

Takashi Oyama, Teruaki Ito

### Style and Color Design of Technology Packaging

There are various types of packaging designs with different design styles. However, in terms of overall packaging materials, packaging mostly used cartons, plastics, iron boxes and textiles, of which cartons is the most commonly used material. For consumers, the product’s packaging design will first be noticed in a store in the aim to attract consumers, and a good packaging design can highlight the importance of products. This study is based on two experiments color box design of the computer mouse and best visual effect of the packaging design of computer mouse. From the results of the color box design experiment, we concluded that yellow and red packages are the most commonly used, followed by black, while green is the least used. From the results of the best visual effects packaging design experiment, the visual effect on transparent window design of 60%:60% (114 mm × 90 mm) is considered to be ideally suited for the computer mouse, whereas the visual effect on transparent window packaging design of 75%:75% (127 mm × 75 mm) is considered to be very unsuitable.

Lung-Wen Kuo, Chih-Chun Lai, Ming-Chi Hsieh

### A Methodology for Designing Meaningful Interactions in Public Space

As digital computing and embedded technologies are increasingly pervasive and accessible in public spaces, interactions with technology-mediated physical environments become the focus of a growing amount of research in human-computer interaction (HCI). This study develops a new methodology towards designing meaningful interactions in public spaces. Based on the theories of embodied cognition, we conducted case analyses, experience tests on an interactive prototype, and design ideations. The findings show that the methodology is useful for the design of meaningful interaction through linking physical interactions with embodied metaphorical expressions. Related design principles and research limitations are summarized.

Liang Tan

### Case Study: How Design Students Tailor Their Crowdfunding Presentation to Different Audiences

Popular crowdfunding websites such as Kickstarter and IndieGogo have transformed the practice of Industrial Design and have had a significant impact on Industrial Design education as well. Students and professionals use these online platforms to communicate their ideas and to crowdfund their own projects. The goals are to launch new product campaigns and to test new ideas.Since most investors, project donors or backers want to understand the mission of a new project or campaign, Industrial Design students have to make sure that their crowdfunding video has a good level of engagement and is conveyed in a manner that is easy to understand by all audiences. How they choose to engage their target audience matters. Investors, donors and backers may have both similar and different expectations.This case study will present the different strategies used by Industrial Design students to engage their target audiences using video as their primary communication format.

Jose Rivera-Chang

### Research on the Application of Traditional Cultural Elements in the Design of Bank Card Surface

Objective: design the bank card surface with the characteristics of traditional culture and explore the application methods and design principles of traditional cultural elements in the design of bank card surface. Method: collect bank cards of traditional culture that have been issued in the domestic market to explore the application status of traditional cultural elements in the design of bank card surface. The methods and principles of integrating traditional cultural elements into bank card surface design are analyzed and summarized. Taking the bank card surface design of the Drawing on five ethics series as an example, the traditional cultural elements are integrated into the bank card surface design to explore the application of traditional cultural elements in the bank card surface design. Conclusion: The application of traditional cultural elements to the bank card surface design, combined with research and practice. It provides ideas and methods for the integration of traditional cultural elements into the bank card surface design, which can promote the spread of traditional Chinese culture while improving the card surface delicacy.

Yun-chen Xi, Xin-xiong Liu

### The Construction of Story-Telling Illustration in Tea Packaging Design

With the improvement of the economic level and the prosperity of the commodity market, consumers’ demand for commodities is not only at the material level. The packaging design of the story illustration has strong readability. On the basis of satisfying the visual needs of consumers, it can also show the cultural background behind the tea products through illustration. Through the research on the feasibility and implementation method of story graphics in packaging design, it is confirmed that story graphics is a direct and efficient packaging graphics language, which has certain significance for the improvement of product quality and the shaping of brand image and can provide new ideas and methods for the development of packaging design.

Ren Long, Lu Geng, Chenyue Sun

### Analysis of Factors Affecting Luxury of Images of Cooked Dishes

This study aims to identify the essential features of photos that make food look “luxury”. The authors consider as Kansei evaluation “Looks luxury” as a hierarchical structure constructed from the impression layer and the physical layer, and modeled it using the impression evaluation and physical features of the image. First, the impression evaluation and a principal component analysis was performed. As a result, four principal components were extracted as the impression layer: glamorous, friendliness, moist feeling and moderate portion. The physical layer used six image features: hue, saturation, brightness, number of pixels, presence of background, and presence of background blur. Next, a “looks luxury” hierarchical structure model was constructed using multiple regression analysis. This made it possible to structure and explain the factors that affect the luxury of the images of cooked dishes.

Yuri Hamada, Yumi Takei, Hiroko Shoji

### Differences of Image Words for Clothes Depending on Fashion Brands

This study aims to investigate how the nuances of image words in the fashion field differ depending on the fashion brand. First, the authors extracted fashion brands that represent feminine, mode, and street types, and collected fashion images on the brand site and explanations for each image. Next, we extracted the image words contained in the collected explanations and investigated their frequency. As a result, it was found that the three image words “simple”, “casual”, and “cute” appear frequently among the three brands. Next, in order to investigate whether the nuances and usage of image words differ depending on the brand, we investigated words that co-occur in frequent image words. In addition, we compared co-occurring words by brand. As a result, the authors clarified that the concept represented by the image word differs depending on each fashion brand.

Yuri Hamada, Takahiro Tanaka, Hiroko Shoji

### Preliminary Study on Color Therapy Effect Evaluation by the Emotion Estimation Method with Biological Signals

While the number of people with mild depression and emotional disorders is increasing, it is an issue that there is little support for them. These mild illness people, it is not very easy to understand the emotional status of themselves and tends to lose control of emotion. There are several therapies approach to control psychological status. However, there are little objectively observed approaches to evaluate them. In recent years, an objective method has been proposed to recognize the psychological changes of people by analyzing the biological signals with sensors. We assume this approach will be effective in detecting the emotional status objectively. Based on the idea, we preliminary propose a tool that can objectively detect the emotional status using the biological signals such as EEG and heart rate sensors with the emotion estimation method and present a therapy color which aims to control their emotion toward the target emotional state. Then evaluate the effect of emotion by the method. In this paper, we describe the assumption and proposed method and developed tool, and preliminary experiment by using them. Then, we discussed the effectiveness of our approach.

Yohei Kawakami, Makoto Komazawa, Chen Feng, Midori Sugaya

### Comparing Subjective and Objective Evaluations of the Ratio of Visible Green

Ratio of visible green is known as one of the important indicators of comfort of the city. The ratio of the green area in the image, generally calculated by counting green pixels in the image of a digital camera. We named the ratio as “objective ratio of the visible green” in contrast to the ratio named “subjective ratio of the visible green” which is answered by the person who evaluated the ratio of green amount by looking at the image. Our interests are the difference between the two and the individual differences of subjective ratio of visible green. We conducted an experiment to present multiple images with different ratio of visible green for 30 people. The subjective ratio of visible green tends to be evaluated greater than the objective one. In addition, using multiple regression analysis, we showed that characteristics of the image of a digital camera and individual characteristics affect the differences.

Momoko Kawakami, Masayoshi Tanishita, Michiko Ohokura

### Color Analysis of Popular Lipstick Brands

Lipstick is one of the significant makeup tools for females of all ages. The current trend of lipsticks among Japanese undergraduate female is found to revolve around global contemporary luxury brands and also around more affordable brands with Kawaii-images. The goal of this study is to classify the characteristics of lipstick brands using color features in order to clarify differences in lipstick colors and brands. We collected a total of 294 lip colors from the trending brands and extracted RGB and HSV colors as features and developed the classification models on the color spaces using decision tree. The classification results successfully showed the brand characteristics with their color features of lipsticks.

Peeraya Sripian, Keiko Miyatake, Kejkaew Thanasuan, Michiko Ohkura

### Comparison of Object-Based Three-Dimensional Sound and Ambient Sound for Straight Walking

At present, visually impaired people have difficulty using mobility support facilities due to their dependence on the surrounding environment, such as sound and snowfall. In addition, people who later became visually impaired may find it difficult to use these facilities. The current study aimed to develop an easy-to-use walking guidance system that uses three-dimensional (3D) sounds, regardless of the surrounding environment, and examined the characteristics of the guidance sounds produced by the 3D sounds. We implemented this system using a head-mounted display capable of generating three-dimensional sound. Participants were asked to walk in a visually restricted environment to either a real guidance sound or a 3D guidance sound with three types of ambient sounds, and their walking trajectory was evaluated. As a result, we found that the 3D guidance sound showed the opposite tendency to deflect from the ambient sound. However, the guidance accuracy of the 3D guidance sound was similar to that of the real guidance sound.

Keiichi Muramatsu, Shigekimi Tsukada, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Watanuki

### Chaotic Analysis of Finger Plethysmogram During Aroma Exposure for Evaluating Emotions and Examination of Optimal Analysis Method

Fragrance influences the psychophysiological state of a person as the volume of fingertip plethysmogram changes during one’s aspiration of aroma. Recent studies have used aroma in various settings, such as for medical care, relaxation, and productivity-enhancing environments. However, no study has elucidated the kind of behavior shown on the fingertip plethysmograph near the stimulation and discrimination threshold for the sense of smell when the odor intensity of aroma changes. Although our research suggests that emotions can be evaluated using the Lyapunov exponent of chaos analysis, no study has clarified the appropriate method for chaos analysis. Therefore, in this study, we performed a chaotic analysis of fingertip plethysmograms for evaluating emotional changes near the stimulation and discrimination thresholds during aroma inhalation. Results were evaluated using a correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent. The optimal analysis method was examined thereafter.

Tomofumi Sakata, Keiichi Watanuki, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Muramatsu

### Exploring User Experience of Music Social Mode - Take NetEase Cloud Music as an Example

NetEase Cloud Music, one of the most popular music streaming services in China, innovated music social networking mode by launching the “One Song, One Encounter” campaign. However, it failed to deliver ideal user experience due to deficiency in key factors. This research identified and verified eight key factors that influence user experience, e.g. interaction mode, secondary social networking etc., and created the User Experience Model of Influence Factors. By the principle of in-depth integration of GUI with media content, multi-functional linkage to creative immersive scenarios, an optimization scheme was proposed to address the key factors and problems—“creating scenarios by emotional linkage of online elements, extending music social scenarios to offline channels, making it customary by the regular timing”. The scheme effectively improved the targeted experience, and it’s expected to provide reference for immersive UX design in music social mode.

Han Wang, RongRong Fu

### Evaluation of the Attention Effect of the Fraser-Wilcox Illusion in a Visual Discrimination Task

This study aimed to propose a display that incorporates the Fraser-Wilcox illusion with a higher attention effect. Fraser-Wilcox illusion is a type of visual illusion in which a part of a still image appears to be moving. We compared the attention effects of shapes that induce the Fraser-Wilcox illusion and those that do not. As an evaluation method of attention recall effect, the visual discrimination task, which was an experimental technique to measure the characteristics of visual attention, was used. The correlation between the strength of visual illusion and the target reaction time was examined. As a result, a strong negative correlation was observed. The larger the strength of visual illusion, the faster the detection of the target. These results suggest that the Fraser-Wilcox illusion has an alerting effect on visual illusion.

Kota Tokonabe, Keiichi Watanuki, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Muramatsu

### Visualization of Features in Multivariate Gait Data: Use of a Deep Learning for the Visualization of Body Parts and Their Timing During Gait Training

In this study, we aimed to examine the usefulness of gait classification and feature visualization based on multivariate data for the development of a gait feedback training system capable of considering the physical differences among the trainees. The multivariate data considered in this study were the joint angles and the ground reaction forces. In addition, all multivariate gait data were labeled as gait “rarely associated with stumbling” or “frequently associated with stumbling”. A convolutional neural network was used to learn the gait features. Furthermore, the feature parts of the multivariate gait data used for classification were visualized on a heat map created using Grad-CAM. As the results indicate, a heatmap is able to show the feature parts of a gait frequently associated with stumbling, through which the trainee can adjust their gait.

Yusuke Osawa, Keiichi Watanuki, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Muramatsu

### A Comparative Study on the Communication Effect of Stage Performance Promotion Platforms Based on User Experience

With young people are away from traditional stage theaters, resulting in the loss of media for large stage performances. However, due to the innovation of digital media technology and the prevalence of consumerism, the new generation of users rely more on digital platforms to obtain entertainment information. Therefore, how to promote stage performances with the help of digital promotion platforms has become the key to media and even to enterprise research. At present, most stage performances in China rely on third-party platforms for promotion. However, they have problems including miscellaneous performance business, messy platform construction, etc., and thus hindering the further development of the platform. Therefore, this paper takes user experience as the entrance, uses experimental methods of cognitive neurology, and to establish a set of optimized communication strategies in line with user experience for the platforms.

Jingyi Ji, Rongrong Fu, Jianxin Cheng

### The Influence of Video Barrage on the Emotion of Young Users

This article will explore the impact of the barrage in entertainment videos on the emotions of young Chinese video users to explore how to improve the viewing experience of video users through the setting of the barrage. According to China’s most famous barrage website—Bilibili, and the popularity of barrage has become a unique way to record changes in the times. This article will select entertainment videos with a large number of barrage in station B, and study the impact of barrage in entertainment videos on the emotions of young Chinese video users. Research was conducted through questionnaires and personas. The results show that browsing with a barrage is more conducive to improving users ‘positive emotions than without a barrage; when barrage can be sent, participating in barrage interactions can not only reduce users’ negative emotions, but also improve users to watch videos Positive emotions.

Shanang He, Fumie Muroi